1 Corinthians 1:10-18
10 Now I appealA to you, brothersB and sisters, by the nameC of our LordD JesusE Christ,F that all of you be in agreementG and that there be no divisionsH among you, but that you be unitedI in the same mindJ and the same purpose.K
A “appeal” = parakaleo. From para (from beside, by, in the presence of) + kaleo (to call, summon, name, call aloud). This is to call to, summon, encourage, exhort, console, invoke, entreat. This is to call someone near personally. It came from the legal setting as an advocate. It is used for the Holy Spirit (the paraclete i.e. the comforter).
B “brothers” = adelphos. From a (with; denotes fellowship) + delphus (womb). This is brother literal or figurative. Properly, this is one who shares a womb with you. Can also be used for a fellow Christian.
C “name” = onoma. May be from ginosko (know, recognize, learn from firsthand experience). This is a name, authority, cause, character, fame, reputation. The name was thought to include something of the essence of the person so it was not thought to be separate from the person.
D “Lord” = kurios. From kuros (authority, supremacy). This is a respectful address meaning master or sir. It refers to one who has control or power greater than one’s own. So, it was also applied to God and Jesus as Master or Lord.
E “Jesus” = iesous. From Hebrew Yehoshua (Joshua, the Lord is salvation); from YHVH (proper name of the God of Israel; the self-existent and eternal one); from havah (to become) or from hayah (to come to pass, become, be) + yasha (to deliver, defend, help, preserve, rescue; properly, to be open, wide or free, which implies being safe. So, in a causative sense, this is to free someone. This is Jesus or Joshua in Greek – the Lord saves or the Lord is salvation.
F “Christ” = christos. From chrio (consecrate by anointing with oil; often done for prophets, priests, or kings). Literally, the anointed one, Christ. The Greek word for Messiah.
G “be in agreement” = ho + autos + lego + pas. Literally “the same thing you all speak.”
H “divisions” = schisma. 8x in NT. From schizo (to split, divide, tear, sever – literal or figurative). This is tear, split, division, or schism. It is to tear like one tears a garment, used figuratively for dissensions and schisms.
I “united” = katartizo. 13x in NT. From kata (down, against, according to, throughout, among) + artizo (to prepare, ready) [from artios (ready, fresh, complete, prepared to function in an efficient way right away); from arti (this moment, now); from a derivative of airo (to raise, lift up, take away, remove; can be used to mean expiate sin)]. This is to prepare, complete, equip, mend, join together, make something complete, restore. It can be to make something ready to use whether for the first time or as an act of repairing. It can also mean perfect or adjust.
J “mind” = nous. From noos (mind) OR from the base of ginosko (see note C above). This is mind, understanding, reason, intellect, comprehension. This refers to thinking reflectively – it can refer to God’s mind or human minds in terms of thoughts, emotions, or desires.
K “purpose” = gnome. 9x in NT. Perhaps related to “mind” in v10. From ginosko (see note C above). This is purpose, pinion, decision, judgment, intention, consent. It is a personal opinion in a subjective sense. In an objective sense it could refer to resolve or counsel.
11 For it has been reportedL to me by Chloe’sM people that there are quarrelsN among you, my brothers and sisters. 12 What I mean is that each of you says, “IO belong to Paul,”P or “I belong to Apollos,”Q or “I belong to Cephas,”R or “I belong to Christ.” 13 Has Christ been divided?S Was Paul crucifiedT for you? Or were you baptizedU in the name of Paul?
L “reported” = deloo. 7x in NT. From delos (clear, evident, unmistakable, self-evident). This is making something evident, revealing declaring, showing. Often, making clear through words.
M “Chloe’s” = chloe. 1x in NT. From chloe (young green shoot). Chloe means verdant or tender, young plant life. It was also a name used for the Greek goddess Demeter.
N “quarrels” = eris. 9x in NT. This is strife, debate, contention, or quarreling. It implies someone who is ready to quarrel, one who likes wrangling.
O [untranslated] = men. Untranslated particle to show emphasis – truly, indeed, in fact, even.
P “Paul” = paulos. From Latin Paulus (small, little). This is Paul or Paulus, meaning little.
Q “Apollos” = Apollos. 10x in NT. Probably from Apollonios (belonging to Apollo); from Apollon (the name of a Greek god – Apollo; he was god of light, music, medicine, prophecy, masculine beauty and other things); [may be from a Pre-Greek word (to drive away) OR from apollumi (to destroy) OR apolouon (washing) OR apoluon (delivering) OR haploun (simple) OR aeiballon (always shooting) OR a (not) + polus (parts). This is Apollos. See https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/Apollo
R “Cephas” = kephas. From Aramaic kepha (stone, rock). This is rock or Cephas, a name for the apostle Peter.
S “divided” = merizo. 14x in NT. From meros (a part or share; something divided in a literal or figurative sense); from meiromai (to get your portion, to receive something allotted). This is to divide or distribute sections or portions; can mean specially to divide to give out what is needed or it can refer to inheritance. Used of any kind of distribution whether positive, as sharing, or negative, as disunity or differences.
T “crucified” = stauroo. From stuaros (a stake or cross; the horizontal beam that the convicted carried to the cross in order to be crucified); related to histemi (to make to stand, to stand, set up, appoint, stand still; figuratively, to be steadfast or stand ready). This is to crucify, affix to a cross, fence with stakes. It can be used figuratively to mean destroy or mortify – as overcoming passions or pride.
U “baptized” = baptizo. To dip, dye – covering something entirely with liquid. This is to submerge, baptize or wash.
14 I thankV GodW that I baptized none of you except CrispusX and Gaius,Y 15 so that no one can say that you were baptized in my name. 16 (I did baptize also the householdZ of Stephanas;AA beyond that, I do not know whether I baptized anyone else.)
V “thank” = eucharisteo. From eu (well, good, well done) + charis (grace, kindness, favor, gratitude, thanks. It is the sense of being inclined to or favorable towards – leaning towards someone to share some good or benefit. This can be literal, figurative, or spiritual. It is grace as abstract concept, manner, or action). This is being thankful or grateful, giving thanks. Properly, it means understanding that God’s grace is good and responding to that understanding. We are thankful that God’s grace is good and so we respond with joy. It can also be used for saying grace before eating. This is the root verb that Eucharist comes from, another name for the Lord’s Supper.
W “God” = theos. From Proto-Indo-European origins, meaning do, put, place. This is God or a god in general.
X “Crispus” = krispos. 2x in NT. From Latin Crispus (Crispus); from crispus (curly, tremulous); from Proto-Indo-European *(s)ker- (to turn, bend). This is Crispus, meaning curly. See https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/Crispus
Y “Gaius” = Gaios. 5x in NT. Probably from Latin Gavius (Gavius); from the same as gaudere (to rejoice); from Proto-Indo-European geh-w- (to rejoice). This is Gaius or Caius. See https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/Gaius#Latin
Z “household” = oikos. This is home, family, household, lineage, nation, or Temple.
AA “Stephanas” = Stephanas. 3x in NT. Perhaps from stephanos (crown, Stephen, Stephanus); from stephanoo (to crown, decorate, win the prize, be crowned as the winner); from stephanos (a surrounding thing like a crown or garland; can also be honor or glory so crowned in a literal or figurative sense); from stepho (to twine, encircle, or wreathe). This is Stephanas, meaning crowned.
17 For Christ did not sendBB me to baptize but to proclaim the gospel,CC and not with eloquentDD wisdom,EE so that the crossFF of Christ might not be emptied of its power.GG 18 For the messageHH about the cross is foolishnessII to those who are perishing,JJ but to us who are being savedKK it is the powerLL of God.
BB “send” = apostello. From apo (from, away from) + stello (to send, set, arrange, prepare, gather up) [probably from histemi (to make to stand, stand, place, set up, establish, appoint, stand firm, be steadfast]. This is to send forth, send away, dismiss, send as a messenger. It implies one that is sent for a particular mission or purpose rather than a quick errand. This is where “apostle” comes from.
CC “proclaim the gospel” = euaggelizo. From eu (well, good, rightly) + aggelos (angel, messenger; a messenger from God bringing news – whether a prophet or an angel) [from aggellos (to bring tidings); probably from ago (to bring, lead, carry, guide).] This is to announce good news, preach glad tidings. It can be used of the people hearing the news or the good news itself. Used especially of preaching the gospel.
DD “eloquent” = logos. From lego (to speak, tell, mention). This is word, statement, speech, analogy. It is a word that carries an idea or expresses a thought, a saying. It could refer to a person with a message or reasoning laid out in words. By implication, this could be a topic, line of reasoning, or a motive. It can be used for a divine utterance or as Word – Christ.
EE “wisdom” = sophia. From sophos (wise, clever, skilled, learned); related to saphes (clear). This is wisdom, intelligence, insight, or skill. It is wisdom used in a practical sense – applied to a skill.
FF “cross” = stauros. Related to “crucified” in v13. From the same as histemi (see note T above). This is a cross – the horizontal beam that the convicted carried to the cross in order to be crucified. It can be used figuratively for death, self-denial, or atonement through Christ.
GG “emptied of…power” = kenoo. 5x in NT. From kenos (empty, void; empty in a literal or figurative sense; worthless, vain, foolish, futile, hollow, profitless, unreal). This is to empty, to make unreal, or drain of value. Could be figuratively to falsify, perceive as having no value, esteem as ineffectual or poorly reputed, to be in vain.
HH “message” = logos. Same as “eloquent” in v17.
II “foolishness” = moria. 5x in NT. From moros (dull, stupid, foolish, flat; literally, not having an edge; used figuratively for someone whose understanding is dull, is sluggish, acts in a brainless way, or does not fully have a grip on reality). This is foolishness, absurdity, or dullness. This is where the word “moron” comes from.
JJ “perishing” = apollumi. From apo (from, away from) + ollumi (to destroy, ruin). This is to fully destroy, kill, be perishing, lose, or entirely cut off. It can be used for perishing violently or being permanently destroyed as well as for being removed.
KK “saved” = sozo. From sos (safe, rescued, well). This is to save, heal, preserve, or rescue. Properly, this is taking someone from danger to safety. It can be delivering or protecting literally or figuratively.
LL “power” = dunamis. From dunamai (to be able, have power or ability). This is might, strength, physical power, efficacy, energy, and miraculous power. It is force literally or figuratively – the power of a miracle or the miracle itself.
Image Credit: “Wrath” by Hieronymous Bosch, late 15th century.