1 Peter 1:17-23

1 Peter 1:17-23
Third Sunday of Easter A


17 If you invokeA as FatherB the one who judgesC

Notes on verse 17a

A “invoke” = epikaleo. From epi (on, upon, among, what is fitting) + kaleo (to call by name, invite, to name, bid, summon, call aloud); {related to keleuo (to command, order, direct); from kelomai (to urge on)}. This is to call on, appeal to, worship, invoke for help.
B “Father” = Pater. This is father in a literal or figurative sense. Could be elder, senior, ancestor, originator, or patriarch.
C “judges” = krino. To judge, decide, think good, condemn, determine, pass judgment, stand trial, sue. This is judging whether it is done in court or in a private setting. Properly, it refers to mentally separating or distinguishing an issue – to come to a choice or decision, to judge positively or negatively in seeking what is right or wrong, who is innocent or guilty. It can imply trying, condemning, punishing, or avenging.

impartiallyD according to each person’sE work,F

Notes on verse 17b

D “impartially” = aprosopolemptos. 1x in NT. From a (not, without) + prosopon (face, surface, or front; can imply presence more generally); {from pros (at, towards, with) + ops (eye, face); {from optanomai (to appear, be seen); perhaps from horao (become, seem, appear)}} + lambano (active acceptance/taking of what is available or what has been offered; emphasizes the choice and action of the individual). This is impartially, without preference or favor to particular persons.
E “each person’s” = hekastos. Perhaps from hekas (separate). This is each one, any, every. It is every individual as a distinct entity as opposed to those counted as a group in small sets.
F “work” = ergon. From ergo (to work, accomplish, do). This is work, task, deed, labor, effort.

liveG in fearH during the timeI of your exile.J 

Notes on verse 17c

G “live” = anastrepho. 9x in NT. From ana (up, again, back, among, anew) + strepho (to turn, change, turn back, be converted; to turn around completely to take the opposite path or a completely different one); {from trope (turning, shifting, a revolution; figuratively, a variation); from trepo (to turn)}. This is to turn back, return, or over turn. It can also imply busying oneself and so to remain, dwell, behave, or live somewhere.
H “fear” = phobos. From phebomai (to flee, withdraw, be put to flight). This is panic flight, fear, fear being caused, terror, alarm, that which causes fear, reverence, respect.
I “time” = chronos. Time in the chronological sense, quantitative time or a duration of time.
J “exile” = paroikia. 4x in NT. From paroikos (dwelling near, a temporary resident, sojourner, alien; a foreigner who does not have the same rights as a citizen); {from para (by, beside, in the presence of) + oikos (house – the building, the household, the family, descendants; the temple)}. This is sojourning, living in a foreign country.

18 You knowK that you were ransomedL from the futileM conductN

Notes on verse 18a

K “know” = eido. This is to know, consider perceive, appreciate, behold, or remember. It means seeing with one’s eyes, but also figuratively, it means perceiving – seeing that becomes understanding. So, by implication, this means knowing or being aware.
L “ransomed” = lutroo. 3x in NT. From lutron (ransom, the money used to free slaves; also a sacrifice of expiation; figurative for atonement); from luo (to loose, release, untie; figuratively, to break, destroy, or annul; releasing what had been withheld). This is to redeem, liberate, release because ransom was paid in full. Figuratively, it is returning something or someone to their rightful owner.
M “futile” = mataios. 6x in NT. From the same as maten (in vain, aimlessly, pointless, fruitless); from mate (a folly) or from massaomai (to chew, gnaw); {from masso (to kneed, squeeze). This is vain, useless, worthless, unproductive, or purposeless. It can also figuratively mean fleeting or refer to idols.
N “conduct” = anastrophe. Related to “live” in v17. 13x in NT. From anastrepho (see note G above). This is behavior, conduct, life, or manner of life. It is behavior drawn from core beliefs.

inherited from your ancestors,O not with perishable thingsP like silverQ or goldR 

Notes on verse 18b

O “inherited from…ancestors” = patroparadotos. Related to “Father” in v17. 1x in NT. From pater (see note B above) + paradidomi (literally to hand over – hence to deliver, abandon, or betray; implies a personal involvement.); {from para (from beside, by) + didomi (give, offer, place, bestow, deliver; give in a literal or figurative sense)}. This inherited – literally something handed over by ancestors. It can also refer to traditions or traditional ways.
P “perishable things” = phthartos. 6x in NT. From phtheiro (to destroy, corrupt, ruin, deteriorate, wither; also used of moral corruption); from phthio (perish, waste away). This is perishable or corruptible – what disintegrates
Q “silver” = argurion. From arguros (silver, whether the metal itself or things made from silver); from argos (shining). This is silver, which implies money – shekel, drachma, etc.
R “gold” = chrusion. 12x in NT. From chrusos (gold or something made of gold; symbolic of purchasing power); perhaps from chraomai (to use, make use of, give what is needed, act in a specific way, request). This is gold or something made of gold. Emphasizes that which gold can obtain.

19 but with the preciousS bloodT of Christ,U

Notes on verse 19a

S “precious” = timios. 13x in NT. From time (worth or something’s perceived value; literally, price, but figuratively, the honor or value one sees in someone or something else; also esteem or dignity; also precious or valuables); {From tino (to pay, be punished, pay a penalty or fine because of a crime); from tio (to pay respect, value)}. This is valued, precious, respected, or dear. It is something that holds value.
T “blood” = haima. This is blood in a literal sense as bloodshed. Figuratively, it can also be used to refer to wine or to kinship (being related).
U “Christ” = Christos. From chrio (consecrate by anointing with oil; often done for prophets, priests, or kings). Literally, the anointed one, Christ. The Greek word for Messiah.

like that of a lambV without defectW or blemish.X 

Notes on verse 19b

V “lamb” = amnos. 4x in NT. This is lamb, used figuratively for innocence or in reference to its sacrificial use. Usually, it refers to a lamb that is one year old.
W “without defect” = amomos. 9x in NT. From a (not, without) + momos (literally a spot; figuratively blame, disgrace, flaw, censure); {perhaps from memphomai (to blame, be disgraceful; be rejected due to doing bad things); from mempteos (rejected because one has been condemned)}. This is blameless or faultless. It can literally refer to not having a spot or it could be not tarnished by the effect of sin.
X “blemish” = aspilos. 4x in NT. From a (not, without) + spiloo (this is to stain or defile; figuratively, it can refer to spiritually defile or pollute, a defect or disgrace). This is spotless, undefiled, or pure. Figuratively, it is morally pure.

20 He was destinedY, Z before the foundationAA of the worldBB

Notes on verse 20a

Y “destined” = proginosko. 5x in NT. From pro (before, first, in front of, earlier) + ginosko (to know, recognize, realize, perceive, learn; gaining knowledge through personal experience). This is to know ahead of time, foresee, or ordain.
Z {untranslated} = men. This is truly, indeed, even, in fact. Often, it is not translated, but used to emphasize affirmation.
AA “foundation” = katabole.11x in NT. From kataballo (to cast down, lay prostate, set a foundation); {from kata (down, against, throughout, among) + ballo (to throw, cast, place, put, drop)}. This is a foundation or a plan for one – setting the foundation according to the plans. Figuratively, it can be the beginning of something, sowing, or conception.
BB “world” = kosmos. Perhaps from the base of komizo (to carry, convey, recover); from komeo (to take care of). This is order, the world, the universe, including its inhabitants. Literally, this is something that is ordered so it can refer to all creation. It can also refer to decoration in the sense that something is better ordered and, thus, made more beautiful. This is where “cosmos” and “cosmetics” come from.

but was revealedCC at the endDD of the agesEE for your sake. 

Notes on verse 20b

CC “revealed” = phaneroo. From phaneros (visible, apparent, clear, shining); from phos (light, a source of light, fire, or radiance; light with specific reference to what it reveals; luminousness whether natural or artificial, abstract or concrete, literal or figurative); from phao (to shine or make visible, especially with rays of light); from the same as phaino (to bring light, cause to appear, shine, become visible or clear). This is to make visible or clear, to make known. Properly, it is to illumine and so to make apparent or bring into open view.
DD “end” = eschatos. Related to eschaton (end, last); perhaps from echo (to have, possess, hold). This is last, end, extreme, final. It is often used to discuss the end times, prophecies of the future, and the afterlife. The branch of theology focusing on all these topics is called “eschatology.”
EE “ages” = chronos. Same as “time” in v17. See note I above.

21 Through him you have come to trustFF in God,GG who raisedHH him from the deadII

Notes on verse 21a

FF “trust” = pistos. From peitho (to have confidence, urge, be persuaded, agree, assure, believe, have confidence, trust). This is faithful, trustworthy, reliable, sure, or true. It is a fullness of faith. This is the same root as the word “faith” in Greek.
GG “God” = Theos. From Proto-Indo-European origins, meaning do, put, place. This is God or a god in general.
HH “raised” = egeiro. This is to awake, raise up or lift up. It can be to get up from sitting or lying down, to get up from sleeping, to rise from a disease or from death. Figuratively, it can be rising from inactivity or from ruins.
II “dead” = nekros. Perhaps from nekus (corpse). This is dead or lifeless, mortal, corpse. It can also be used figuratively for powerless or ineffective. It is where the word “necrotic” comes from.

and gaveJJ him glory,KK so that your trustLL and hopeMM are in God.

Notes on verse 21b

JJ “gave” = didomi. Related to “inherited from…ancestors” in v18. See note O above.
KK “glory” = doxa. From dokeo (to have an opinion, seem, appear, suppose; a personal judgment; to think); from dokos (opinion). This is literally something that evokes a good opinion – something that connects to our understanding of intrinsic worth. The ultimate expression of this is, of course, God and God’s manifestation. So, this is opinion, honor, and dignity, but also praise, glory, renown, and worship.
LL “trust” = pistis. Related to “trust” in v21. From peitho (see note FF above). This is less about knowing, believing, and repeating a list of doctrines then it is about trusting God. Faith means listening to God and seeking to live a holy life even (and especially) when we don’t understand how everything works or fits together. Faith is about being faithful (trusting and doing) rather than being all knowing.
MM “hope” = elpis. From elpo (to anticipate, welcome, expect; usually to anticipate positively). This is expectation, hope, trust, confidence faith. The expectation can be abstract or concrete.

22 Now that you have purifiedNN your soulsOO by your obediencePP to the truthQQ 

Notes on verse 22a

NN “purified” = hagnizo. 7x in NT. From hagnos (holy, sacred, pure ethically, ritually, or ceremonially; prepared for worship, chaste, unadulterated, pure to the core; undefiled by sin; figurative for innocent, modest, perfect). This is to purify, or sanctify. It is to clean in a ritual, literal, or ethical sense.
OO “souls” = psuche. From psucho (to breathe, blow). This is breath, the breath of life, the self, individual, soul. This is the word for that which makes a person unique – their identity, will, personality, affections. This isn’t the soul as the immortal part of us, but as our individuality. It is also not life as a general concept, but specific to people. This is where the words psyche and psychology come from.
PP “obedience” = hupakoe. 15x in NT. From hupoakouo (to listen, to attend to, or obey; acting subordinate to one who speaks – heeding a command or authority); {from hupo (by, under, about, subordinate to) + akouo (listen, hear, understand through hearing)}. This is obedience, submissiveness – listening attentively and acting in response.
QQ “truth” = aletheia. From alethes (true, unconcealed; true because it is in concert with fact and reality – attested; literally, what cannot be hidden; truth stands up to test and scrutiny and is undeniable, authentic). {from a (not, without) + lanthano (unnoticed, concealed)}. Truth is literally that which is not or cannot be concealed. This word covers more than the sense of true versus false. It spoke of truth as that which corresponds to reality – reality as opposed to illusion. Thus, it includes, sincerity, straightforwardness, and reality itself.

so that you have genuineRR mutual affection,SS loveTT one another

Notes on verse 22b

RR “genuine” = anupokritos. Related to “judges” in v17. 6x in NT. From a (not, without) + hupokrinomai (to answer, pretend, respond as an actor on stage; figuratively, to lie) {from hupo (by, under, about) + krino (see note C above)} Properly, this is unhypocritical – not phony. It speaks to actions that are sincere and genuine without guile.
SS “mutual affection” = philadelphia. 6x in NT. From a (not, without) + hupokrinomai (to answer, pretend, respond as an actor on stage; figuratively, to lie) {from hupo (by, under, about) + krino (see note C above)} Properly, this is unhypocritical – not phony. It speaks to actions that are sincere and genuine without guile.
TT “love” = agape. From agapao (to love, take pleasure in, esteem; to prefer). This is love, goodwill, benevolence. It is God’s divine love or human love that mirrors God’s love.

deeplyUU from theVV heart.WW 

Notes on verse 22c

UU “deeply” = ektenos. 2x in NT. From ektenes (stretched fervent zealous); from ekteino (to stretch out, reach, lay hands on; casting an anchor); {from ek (from, from out of) + teino (to stretch, extend, strain)}. This is stretchted to the greatest extent, so it is fervently or earnestly.
VV {untranslated} = katharos. This is clean, clear, pure, unstained; clean in a literal, ritual, or spiritual sense; so, also guiltless, innocent or upright; something that is pure because it has been separated from the negative substance or aspect; spiritually clean because of God’s act of purifying.
WW “heart” = kardia. Literally the heart, but figuratively mind, character, inner self, will, intention, thoughts, feelings. Also, the center of something. The word heart is only used figuratively in the Old and New Testaments. This is where “cardiac” comes from.

23 You have been born anew,XX not of perishable but of imperishableYY seed,ZZ

Notes on verse 23a

XX “born anew” = anagennao. 2x in NT. From ana (up, again, back, among, anew) + gennao (to beget, give birth to, or bring forth; properly, procreation by the father, but used of the mother by extension; figuratively, to regenerate); from genna (descent, birth); from genos (family, offspring, kin – in a literal or figurative sense); from ginomai (to come into being, to happen, become, be born; to emerge from one state or condition to another; this is coming into being with the sense of movement or growth). This is to be born anew or from above. It is Christian regeneration.
YY “imperishable” = aphthartos. Related to “perishable” in v18. 8x in NT. From a (not, without) + phtheiro (see note P above). This is imperishable, undecaying, immortal, incorruptible.
ZZ “seed” = spora. 1x in NT. From speiro (to sow a seed, lit or fig); perhaps from spao (to draw as a sword). This is seed, a sowing – which implies a seed or parentage.

through the livingAAA and enduringBBB wordCCC of God. 

Notes on verse 23b

AAA “living” = zao. This is to live literally or figuratively. It is used for life including the vitality of humans, plants, and animals – it is life physical and spiritual and life everlasting.
BBB “enduring” = meno. This is to stay, remain, wait, await, continue, abide, endure. It can mean to literally stay in a place or to remain in a condition or to continue with hope and expectation.
CCC “word” = logos. From lego (to speak, tell, mention). This is word, statement, speech, analogy. It is a word that carries an idea or expresses a thought, a saying. It could refer to a person with a message or reasoning laid out in words. By implication, this could be a topic, line of reasoning, or a motive. It can be used for a divine utterance or as Word – Christ.

Image credit: “looking up from underneath” by John, 2012.

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