1 Peter 1:22-2:3

1 Peter 1:22-2:3
A Women’s Lectionary Christmas Day


1:22 Now that you have purifiedA your soulsB by your obedienceC

Notes on verse 1:22a

A “purified” = hagnizo. 7x in NT. From hagnos (holy, sacred, pure ethically, ritually, or ceremonially; prepared for worship, chaste, unadulterated, pure to the core; undefiled by sin; figurative for innocent, modest, perfect). This is to purify, or sanctify. It is to clean in a ritual, literal, or ethical sense.
B “souls” = psuche. From psucho (to breathe, blow). This is breath, the breath of life, the self, individual, soul. This is the word for that which makes a person unique – their identity, will, personality, affections. This isn’t the soul as the immortal part of us, but as our individuality. It is also not life as a general concept, but specific to people. This is where the words psyche and psychology come from.
C “obedience” = hupakoe. 15x in NT. From hupoakouo (to listen, to attend to, or obey; acting subordinate to one who speaks – heeding a command or authority); {from hupo (by, under, about, subordinate to) + akouo (listen, hear, understand through hearing)}. This is obedience, submissiveness – listening attentively and acting in response.

to the truthD so that you have genuineE mutual love,F

Notes on verse 1:22b

D “truth” = aletheia. From alethes (true, unconcealed; true because it is in concert with fact and reality – attested; literally, what cannot be hidden; truth stands up to test and scrutiny and is undeniable, authentic). {from a (not, without) + lanthano (unnoticed, concealed)}. Truth is literally that which is not or cannot be concealed. This word covers more than the sense of true versus false. It spoke of truth as that which corresponds to reality – reality as opposed to illusion. Thus, it includes, sincerity, straightforwardness, and reality itself.
E “genuine” = anupokritos. 6x in NT. From a (not, without) + hupokrinomai (to answer, pretend, respond as an actor on stage; figuratively, to lie) {from hupo (by, under, about) + krino (to judge, decide, think good, condemn, determine, pass judgment, stand trial, sue; judging whether in court or in a private setting; properly, mentally separating or distinguishing an issue – to come to a choice or decision, to judge positively or negatively in seeking what is right or wrong, who is innocent or guilty; can imply trying, condemning, punishing, or avenging.)} Properly, this is unhypocritical – not phony. It speaks to actions that are sincere and genuine without guile.
F “mutual love” = philadelphia. 6x in NT. From philadelphos (Perhaps from kopto (to cut, strike, cut off; beating the chest to lament and so to mourn). This is literally blunted or dull. Figuratively, it can be deaf or mute or a person who is deaf or mute.love shared by members of a family, fraternal); {from philos (dear, beloved, a friend, an associate; friendship with personal affection, a trusted confidante; love from personal experience with another person) + adelphos (brother in a literal or figurative sense); {{from a (with, sharing) + delphus (womb)}}. This is literally brotherly love – figuratively love of members of the Christian community.

loveG one another deeplyH fromI the heart.J 

Notes on verse 1:22c

G “love” = agape. From agapao (to love, take pleasure in, esteem; to prefer). This is love, goodwill, benevolence. It is God’s divine love or human love that mirrors God’s love.
H “deeply” = ektenos. 2x in NT. From ektenes (stretched fervent zealous); from ekteino (to stretch out, reach, lay hands on; casting an anchor); {from ek (from, from out of) + teino (to stretch, extend, strain)}. This is stretchted to the greatest extent, so it is fervently or earnestly.
I {untranslated} = katharos. This is clean, clear, pure, unstained; clean in a literal, ritual, or spiritual sense; so, also guiltless, innocent or upright; something that is pure because it has been separated from the negative substance or aspect; spiritually clean because of God’s act of purifying.
J “heart” = kardia. Literally the heart, but figuratively mind, character, inner self, will, intention, thoughts, feelings. Also, the center of something. The word heart is only used figuratively in the Old and New Testaments. This is where “cardiac” comes from.

23 You have been born anew,K not of perishableL but of imperishableM seed,N

Notes on verse 1:23a

K “born anew” = anagennao. 2x in NT. From ana (upwards, up, again, back, among, between, to, anew, back) + gennao (to beget, bring forth, give birth to, produce offspring, conceive; properly of the father, but by extension of the mother; fig to regenerate); {from genna (descent, birth) OR a variation of genos (family, offspring, race, nation, kind, kin abstract or concreate, lit or fig, individual or collective; generation, stock, offspring); from ginomai (to come into being, to happen, to become, be born, come about; to emerge – transition from one point, realm, or condition into another)}. This is to beget into a new life, beget again. Properly to be born again or born from above. In both uses in the NT, spiritual regeneration is meant. This word is no used in classical or Septuagintal Greek.
L “perishable” = phthartos. 6x in NT. From phtheiro (to destroy, corrupt, ruin, deteriorate, wither; also used of moral corruption); from phthio (perish, waste away). This is perishable or corruptible – what disintegrates
M “imperishable” = aphthartos. Related to “perishable” in v1:23. 8x in NT. From a (not, without) + phtheiro (see note L above). This is imperishable, undecaying, immortal, incorruptible.
N “seed” = spora. 1x in NT. From speiro (to sow a seed, spread, scatter; to sow lit or fig); perhaps from spao (to draw as a sword, to pull, draw out). This is seed, a sowing – which implies a seed or parentage.

through the livingO and enduringP wordQ of God.R 

Notes on verse 1:23b

O “living” = zao. This is to live literally or figuratively. It is used for life including the vitality of humans, plants, and animals – it is life physical and spiritual and life everlasting.
P “enduring” = meno. This is to stay, remain, wait, await, continue, abide, endure. It can mean to literally stay in a place or to remain in a condition or to continue with hope and expectation.
Q “word” = logos. From lego (to speak, tell, mention). This is word, statement, speech, analogy. It is a word that carries an idea or expresses a thought, a saying. It could refer to a person with a message or reasoning laid out in words. By implication, this could be a topic, line of reasoning, or a motive. It can be used for a divine utterance or as Word – Christ.
R “God” = Theos. From Proto-Indo-European origins, meaning do, put, place. This is God or a god in general.

24 For

“AllS fleshT is like grassU
    and all its gloryV like the flowerW of grass.

Notes on verse 1:24a

S “all” = pas. This is all or every.
T “flesh” = sarx. May be from saroo (to sweep, cleanse by sweeping); from sairo (to brush off). This is flesh, the body, human nature, materiality, kindred. Flesh is not always evil in scripture (as when it refers to Jesus taking on a human body). However, it is generally used in a negative way for actions made selfishly and not through faith. This can mean animal flesh, i.e. meat, or refer to body in contrast to soul/spirit. Flesh can be a way of talking about how things or people are related or talking about human frailty (physical or moral).
U “grass” = chortos. 15x in NT. This is food, grass, hay, wheat. It can also be a place of feeding, garden, court, or pasture.
V “glory” = doxa. From dokeo (to have an opinion, seem, appear, suppose; a personal judgment; to think); from dokos (opinion). This is literally something that evokes a good opinion – something that connects to our understanding of intrinsic worth. The ultimate expression of this is, of course, God and God’s manifestation. So, this is opinion, honor, and dignity, but also praise, glory, renown, and worship.
W “flower” = anthos. 4x in NT– 2x of rich disappearing like flower in a field and 2x of flesh withering like a flower in the field. This is flower, bloom, flowering.

The grass withers,X
    and the flower falls,Y
25 but the wordZ of the LordAA endures forever.”BB

That word is the good news that was announcedCC to you.

Notes on verses 1:24b-25

X “withers” = xeraino. 15x in NT. From xeros (dry, arid, withered; can also refer to dry land or imply something that is shrunken). This is to dry up, wither, ripen, pine.
Y “falls” = ekpipto. 10x in NT. From ek (from, from out of) + pipto (to fall in a literal or figurative sense). This is to fall off, fade away, fail, leave a straight path on the sea, flower withering, be fruitless, be inefficient.
Z “word” = rhema. From rheo (to speak, command, make, say, speak of); from ereo (to all, say, speak of, tell; denotes ongoing speech). This is word, which implies a matter or thing spoken, a command, report, promise, thing, or business. Often used for narration, commands, or disputes.
AA “Lord” = Kurios. From kuros (authority, supremacy). This is a respectful address meaning master or sir. It refers to one who has control or power greater than one’s own. So, it was also applied to God and Jesus as Master or Lord.
BB “forever” = eis + ho + aion. Literally, “to the age.” Aion is from the same as aei (ever, always, unceasingly, perpetually; on every occasion). This is an age, cycle of time, course, continued duration. It is also used to describe the eternal or forever. This is the word used to discuss the present age or the messianic age.
CC “good news that was announced” = euaggelizo. From eu (well, good, rightly) + aggelos (angel, messenger; a messenger from God bringing news – whether a prophet or an angel) {from aggellos (to bring tidings); probably from ago (to bring, lead, carry, guide)}. This is evangelize – literally to preach the good news. It can be those who hear the news, the news, or a way to say gospel.

2:1 RidDD yourselves, therefore, of all malice,EE and all guile,FF

Notes on verse 2:1a

DD “rid” = apotithemi. 9x in NT. From apo (from, away from) + tithemi (to put, place, set, fix, establish in a literal or figurative sense; properly, this is placing something in a passive or horizontal position). This is to put aside, put away, renounce.
EE “malice” = kakia. 11x in NT. From kakos (bad, evil, harm, ill; this is evil that is part of someone’s core character – intrinsic, rotted, worthless, depraved, causing harm; it is deep inner malice that comes from a rotten character). This is wickedness, evil, trouble, misfortune, inner malice, badness. It is inherent evil, depravity, causing harm.
FF “guile” = dolos. 11x in NT. From dello (probably to decoy). This is literally bait, but used figuratively for treachery, stealth, guile, or deceit.

insincerity,GG envy,HH and all slander.II 

Notes on verse 2:1b

GG “insincerity” = hupokrisis. Related to “genuine” in v1:22. 6x in NT. From hupokrinomai (see note E above). This is answer, play-acting, or hypocrisy. It is one who acts beneath a mask, i.e. lies or is a hypocrite.
HH “envy” = phthonos. Related to “perishable” and “imperishable” in v1:23. 9x in NT. Perhaps from phtheiro (see note L above). This is jealousy, spite, or ill-will. It can also be feeling glad when misfortune befalls another (akin to Schadenfreude).
II “slander” = katalalia. 2x in NT. From katalalos (talking against, slanderer, slanderous, defamer); {from kata (down, against, throughout, among) + laleo (to talk, say, preach); {from lalos (talkative)}}. This is literally speaking evil. So, it could be slander, evil talk, or backbiting.

Like newbornJJ infants,KK longLL for the pure,MM spiritualNN milk,

Notes on verse 2:2a

JJ “newborn” = artigennetos. Related to “born anew” in v1:23. 1x in NT. From arti (now, at this moment); {from airo (raise, take up, lift, remove)} + gennao (see note K above). This is literally newly born. Can also be used figuratively for a new convert.
KK “infants” = brephos. 8x in NT. This is used of a fetus (as when the child leapt in Elizabeth’s womb on seeing Mary in Luke 1:41) or a newborn (as the child found in the manger in Luke 2:12). It is a young child or an infant in a literal or figurative sense.
LL “long” = epipotheo. 9x in NT. From epi (on, upon, at, what is fitting) + potheo (to yearn). This is to long for, greatly desire, or strain towards. It can also imply doting or a desire to possess something or someone, whether legitimately or wrongfully.
MM “pure” = adolos. Related to “guile” in v2:1. 1x in NT. From a (not, without) + dolos (see note FF above). This is not caught in a trap, without trickery or guile, no deceitful. Figuratively, guileless, genuine, unadulterated, or pure.
NN “spiritual” = logikos. Related to “word” in v1:23. 2x in NT. From logos (see note Q above). This is reasonable or rational. It can refer to a word or mean thoughtful. Figuratively, this is logical or spiritual as contrasted with literal. Logic, here, seen as divine reason.

so that by it you may growOO into salvationPP— if indeed you have tastedQQ that the Lord is good.RR

Notes on verses 2:2b-3

OO “grow” = auxano. From auksano (to grow or enlarge, whether literal or figurative). This is growing whether in size or mature or greatness or some other metric.
PP “salvation” = soteria. From soter (a savior, deliverer); from sozo (to save, heal, preserve, or rescue; taking someone from danger to safety; delivering or protecting literally or figuratively); from sos (safe, rescued, well). This is deliverance, salvation, preservation, welfare, prosperity, safety.
QQ “tasted” = geuomai. 15x in NT. This is to taste, which implies eating. It can be used figuratively to mean experience, whether positively or negatively.
RR “good” = chrestos. 7x in NT. From chraomai (to use, make use of, give what is needed, act in a specific way, request). This is useful, good, well-fitted, benevolent, kind, gracious. It was also a name given to slaves in the ancient world.

Image credit: “Flowing Water” by Bram Cymet, 2008.

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