1 Peter 1:3-23

1 Peter 1:3-23
Narrative Lectionary


BlessedI be the GodII and FatherIII

Notes on verse 3a

I “blessed” = eulogetos. 8x in NT. From eulogeo (speaking well of – speaking so that the other is benefited; praise, bless, thank, or call for a blessing); {from eu (good, well, well done, rightly) + logos (word, statement, speech, analogy; a word that carries an idea or expresses a thought, a saying; a person with a message or reasoning laid out in words; by implication, a topic, line of reasoning, or a motive; can be used for a divine utterance or as Word – Christ); {from lego (to speak, tell, mention)}}. This is blessed, spoken well of, to be praiseworthy, or adorable. This is the root that “eulogy” comes from.
II “God” = Theos. From Proto-Indo-European origins, meaning do, put, place. This is God or a god in general.
III “Father” = Pater. This is father in a literal or figurative sense. Could be elder, senior, ancestor, originator, or patriarch.

of our LordIV JesusV Christ!VI

Notes on verse 3b

IV “Lord” = Kurios. From kuros (authority, supremacy). This is a respectful address meaning master or sir. It refers to one who has control or power greater than one’s own. So, it was also applied to God and Jesus as Master or Lord.
V “Jesus” = Iesous. From Hebrew Yehoshua (Joshua, the Lord is salvation); {from YHVH (proper name of the God of Israel; the self-existent and eternal one); {from havah (to become) or from hayah (to come to pass, become, be)} + yasha (to deliver, defend, help, preserve, rescue; properly, to be open, wide or free, which implies being safe. So, in a causative sense, this is to free someone)}. This is Jesus or Joshua in Greek – the Lord saves or the Lord is salvation.
VI “Christ” = Christos. From chrio (consecrate by anointing with oil; often done for prophets, priests, or kings). Literally, the anointed one, Christ. The Greek word for Messiah.

By his greatVII mercyVIII he has given us a new birthIX

Notes on verse 3c

VII “great” = polus. This is much, often, plenteous – a large number or a great extent.
VIII “mercy” = eleos. This is mercy, pity, tender mercy, or compassion, whether from humans or from God. This is mercy, generally understood in action by word or deed. When we sing or say “kyrie eleison” (Lord, have mercy), it is related to this word.
IX “given…a new birth” = anagennao. 2x in NT. From ana (up, again, back, among, anew) + gennao (to beget, give birth to, or bring forth; properly, procreation by the father, but used of the mother by extension; figuratively, to regenerate); from genna (descent, birth); from genos (family, offspring, kin – in a literal or figurative sense); from ginomai (to come into being, to happen, become, be born; to emerge from one state or condition to another; this is coming into being with the sense of movement or growth). This is to be born anew or from above. It is Christian regeneration.

into a livingX hopeXI through the resurrectionXII of Jesus Christ from the deadXIII 

Notes on verse 3d

X “living” = zao. This is to live literally or figuratively. It is used for life including the vitality of humans, plants, and animals – it is life physical and spiritual and life everlasting.
XI “hope” = elpis. From elpo (to anticipate, welcome, expect; usually to anticipate positively). This is expectation, hope, trust, confidence faith. The expectation can be abstract or concrete.
XII “resurrection” = anastasis. From anistemi (to raise up, rise, appear; to stand up literally or figuratively. Can also mean to resurrect); from ana (upwards, up, again, back, anew) + histemi (to make to stand, place, set up, establish, appoint, stand by, stand still, stand ready, stand firm, be steadfast). This is literally standing up or standing again. It is used figuratively for recovering a spiritual truth. It can be raising up, rising, or resurrection.
XIII “dead” = nekros. Perhaps from nekus (corpse). This is dead or lifeless, mortal, corpse. It can also be used figuratively for powerless or ineffective. It is where the word “necrotic” comes from.

and into an inheritanceXIV that is imperishable,XV undefiled,XVI

Notes on verse 4a

XIV “inheritance” = kleronomia. 14x in NT. From kleronomos (heir); {from kleros (lot, portion, heritage; that share assigned to you; also a lot used to determine something by fate, chance, or divine will); {perhaps from klero (casting a lot) or from klao (to break in pieces as one breaks bread)} + the same as nomos (what is assigned – usage, law, custom, principle; used for the law in general or of God’s law; sometimes used to refer to the first five books of the Bible or the entire Old Testament; also used to refer to theology or the practice and tradition of interpreting and implementing the law of God); {from nemo (to parcel out, assign)}}. This is inheritance, heritage, or possession.
XV “imperishable” = aphthartos. 8x in NT. From a (not, without) + phtheiro (to destroy, corrupt, ruin, deteriorate, wither; also used of moral corruption); from phthio (perish, waste away). This is imperishable, undecaying, immortal, incorruptible.
XVI “undefiled” = amiantos. 4x in NT. From a (not, without) + miaino (to stain, corrupt, pollute; literally, to stain or dye; figuratively, to defile as sin taints one; to contaminate ritually or morally). This is undefiled, unstained, unsoiled. Figuratively, this means pure.

and unfading,XVII keptXVIII in heavenXIX for you, 

Notes on verse 4b

XVII “unfading” = amarantos. 1x in NT. From a (not, without) + maraino (to waste away, wither, fade, pass away). This is unfading or enduring, perpetual.
XVIII “kept” = tereo. From teros (a guard or a watch that guards keep); perhaps related to theoreo (gazing, beholding, experiencing, discerning; looking at something to analyze it and concentrate on what it means; the root of the word “theatre” in that people concentrate on the action of the play to understand its meaning); from theaomai (to behold, look upon, see, contemplate, visit); from thaomai (to gaze at a spectacle; to look at or contemplate as a spectator; to interpret something in efforts to grasp its significance); from theoros (a spectator or envoy). This is to guard, observe, keep, maintain, or preserve. It can also be used f iguratively for spiritual watchfulness. It is guarding something from being lost or harmed – keeping an eye on it. Contrast the Greek phulasso, which is to guard something so that it doesn’t escape. Also contrast koustodia, which generally denotes a fortress or military presence. This word can mean fulfilling commands, keeping in custody, or maintaining. It can also figuratively mean to remain unmarried.
XIX “heaven” = ouranos. May be related to oros (mountain, hill) with the notion of height. This is the air, the sky, the atmosphere, and heaven. It is the sky that is visible and the spiritual heaven where God dwells. Heaven implies happiness, power, and eternity.

who are being protectedXX by the powerXXI of God through faithXXII for a salvationXXIII

Notes on verse 5a

XX “protected” = phroureo. 4x in NT. From phrouros (a guard) OR from pro (before, in front of, earlier than) + horao (to see, perceive, attend to, look upon, experience; to stare at, which implies clear discernment; by extension, attending to what was seen and learned; to see, often with a metaphorical sense, which can include inward spiritual seeing). This is to guard, keep, or protect. It is to guard or keep watch as by a military sentinel. Figuratively, it is using active defensive or offensive tactics to guard.
XXI “power” = dunamis. From dunamai (to be able, have power or ability). This is might, strength, physical power, efficacy, energy, and miraculous power. It is force literally or figuratively – the power of a miracle or the miracle itself.
XXII “faith” = pistis. From peitho (to have confidence, urge, be persuaded, agree, assure, believe, have confidence, trust). This is less about knowing, believing, and repeating a list of doctrines then it is about trusting God. Faith means listening to God and seeking to live a holy life even (and especially) when we don’t understand how everything works or fits together. Faith is about being faithful (trusting and doing) rather than being all knowing.
XXIII “salvation” = soteria. From soter (a savior, deliverer); from sozo (to save, heal, preserve, or rescue; taking someone from danger to safety; delivering or protecting literally or figuratively); from sos (safe, rescued, well). This is deliverance, salvation, preservation, welfare, prosperity, safety.

readyXXIV to be revealedXXV in the lastXXVI time.XXVII 

Notes on verse 5b

XXIV “ready” = hetoimos. 17x in NT. From heteos (fitting, fitness). This is make ready, be ready because of being prepared, standing by, adjusted; ready to meet some opportunity or challenge.
XXV “revealed” = apokalupto. From apo (from, away from) + kalupto (to cover, hide, conceal; figuratively, to keep hidden or secret) {related to kalube (hut, cabin)}. This is properly to uncover so it means revealing something that was hidden or obstructed. It particularly refers to revealing the essence of something. This is to make plain or manifest. This is the root verb that “apocalypse” comes from.
XXVI “last” = eschatos. Related to eschaton (end, last); perhaps from echo (to have, possess, hold). This is last, end, extreme, final. It is often used to discuss the end times, prophecies of the future, and the afterlife. The branch of theology focusing on all these topics is called “eschatology.”
XXVII “time” = kairos. This is season, opportunity, occasion. The word chronos is used for chronological time. Kairos is used for spiritually significant time – the right time or appointed time.

In this you rejoice,XXVIII even if now for a little whileXXIX you have hadXXX

Notes on verse 6a

XXVIII “rejoice” = agalliao. 11x in NT. From agallomai (to exalt, make glorious) {from agan (much, very) + hallomai (to leap or leap up; when referring to water, springing up or bubbling up; to jump or figuratively to gush)}. This is properly joy that prompts you to jump up. It is a full body experience of joy: exulting, rejoicing, or even boasting from joy.
XXIX “for a little while” = oligos. This is few or small – it can be a short time or extent, low light, amount, or worth.
XXX “had” = dei. From deo (to tie, bind, compel; declare unlawful). This is what is necessary or proper. It is what is needed or what one should do – a duty or something inevitable. This refers to something absolutely necessary.

toXXXI sufferXXXII variousXXXIII trials,XXXIV 

Notes on verse 6b

XXXI {untranslated} = eimi. This is to be or exist.
XXXII “suffer” = lupeo. From lupe (pain, whether physical or mental; grief, sorrow, distress, a heavy heart). This is to be sad, grieve, distress, hurt, feel pain. It can be used for deep pain or severe sorrow as well as the pain that accompanies childbirth.
XXXIII “various” = poikilos. 10x in NT. This is varied, diverse, having different colors or varied character.
XXXIV “trials” = peirasmos. From peirazo (to test, try, tempt, or make proof of, scrutinize, or assay something; could also be examine, entice, prove, or discipline); from peira (trial, experiment, attempt, experience, assaying); from the base of peran (over, beyond, across); akin to pera (on the far side); from a derivative or peiro (to pierce). This is a test as in an experiment or assaying. It is also trial, temptation, and discipline. Further, it could be used to mean calamity, affliction, or adversity more generally.

so that the genuinenessXXXV of your faith—being more preciousXXXVI than goldXXXVII that,

Notes on verse 7a

XXXV “genuineness” = dokimion. 2x in NT. From dokimos (what passes the test, approved, acceptable, genuine, verified); from dechomai (to warmly receive, be ready for what is offered, take, accept, or welcome; to receive in a literal or figurative sense) or dokeo (to have an opinion, seem, appear, suppose; a personal judgment; to think); {from dokos (opinion)}. This is testing, genuineness, proof, or trustworthiness.
XXXVI “more precious” = polutimos. Related to “great” in v3. 3x in NT– including the pearl of great price in Matthew 13:46. From polus (see note VII above) + time (worth or something’s perceived value; literally, price, but figuratively, the honor or value one sees in someone or something else; also esteem or dignity; also precious or valuables); {From tino (to pay, be punished, pay a penalty or fine because of a crime); from tio (to pay respect, value)}. This is very precious, valuable, or costly.
XXXVII “gold” = chrusion. 12x in NT. From chrusos (gold or something made of gold; symbolic of purchasing power); perhaps from chraomai (to use, make use of, give what is needed, act in a specific way, request). This is gold or something made of gold. Emphasizes that which gold can obtain.

though perishable,XXXVIII is testedXXXIX by fireXL—may be foundXLI

Notes on verse 7b

XXXVIII “perishable” = apollumi. From apo (from, away from) + ollumi (to destroy or ruin; the loss that comes from a major ruination). This is to destroy, cut off, to perish – perhaps violently. It can also mean to cancel or remove.
XXXIX “tested” = dokimazo. Related to “genuineness” in v7. From dokimos (see note XXXV above). This is to test, examine, prove. It is to approve after subjecting to a test to determine if it is real or acceptable. It is to test in a literal or figurative sense.
XL “fire” = pur. This is fire, lightning, heat from the sun. Figuratively, it can refer to strife or trials.
XLI “found” = heurisko. This is to find, learn, or obtain. It is to discover something, which generally implies a period of searching for it. This is to find in a literal or figurative sense. This is where the word “heuristic” comes from.

to result in praiseXLII and gloryXLIII and honorXLIV when Jesus Christ is revealed.XLV 

Notes on verse 7c

XLII “praise” = epainos. 11x in NT. From epi (on, upon, to, what is fitting) + ainos (praise, saying, story, proverb). This is fitting praise, fame, approval. It is recognizing something or someone that is deserving of praise.
XLIII “glory” = doxa. Related to “genuineness” and “tested” in v7. From dokeo (see note XXXV above).This is literally something that evokes a good opinion – something that connects to our understanding of intrinsic worth. The ultimate expression of this is, of course, God and God’s manifestation. So, this is opinion, honor, and dignity, but also praise, glory, renown, and worship.
XLIV “honor” = time. Related to “more precious” in v7. See note XXXVI above.
XLV “revealed” = apokalupsis. Related to “revealed” in v5. 18x in NT. From apokalupto (see note XXV above). This is uncovering, unveiling, appearing, manifestation, or revelation. This is where the word “apocalypse” comes from.

Although you have not seenXLVI him, you loveXLVII him, and even though you do not see him now, you believeXLVIII in him

Notes on verse 8a

XLVI “seen” = horao. Related to “protected” in v5. See note XX above.
XLVII “love” = agapao. Related to “rejoice” in v6. Perhaps from agan (see note XXVIII above). This is love, longing for, taking pleasure in. It is divine love or human love that echoes divine love.
XLVIII “believe” = pisteuo. Related to “faith” in v5. From pistis (see note XXII above). This is to believe, entrust, have faith it, affirm, have confidence in. This is less to do with a series of beliefs or doctrines that one believes and more to do with faithfulness, loyalty, and fidelity. It is trusting and then acting based on that trust.

and rejoice with an indescribableXLIX and gloriousL joy,LI 

Notes on verse 8b

XLIX “indescribable” = aneklaletos. 1x in NT. From a (not, without) + eklaleo (to tell, disclose, speak out); {from ek (from, from out of) + laleo (to talk, say, utter, preach); {from lalos (talkative)}}. This is unspeakable or inexpressible. This is something that is impossible to express fully in words.
L “glorious” = doxazo. Related to “genuineness” and “tested” and “glory” in v7. From doxa (see note XLIII above). This is to render or hold something as glorious, to glorify, honor, magnify, or celebrate. This is ascribing weight to something by recognizing its true value or essence.
LI “joy” = chara. From chairo (to rejoice, be glad or cheerful; a greeting); from char– (to extend favor, lean towards, be inclined to be favorable towards). This is joy, delight, gladness. Can be understood as the feeling you get when you are aware of grace.

for you are receivingLII the outcomeLIII of your faith, the salvation of your souls.LIV

Notes on verse 9

LII “receiving” = komizo. 10x in NT. From komeo (to tend or take care of). This is to carry, bring, recover, or recompense. It is receiving something that was lost or promised. Also, to provide for – as carrying someone out of harm’s way.
LIII “outcome” = telos. From tel– (to reach a goal or aim); This is an end, aim, purpose, completion, goal, consummation, or tax. It is completing a stage of something and everything that results from that completion. It can be literal or figurative.
LIV “souls” = psuche. From psucho (to breathe, blow). This is breath, the breath of life, the self, individual, soul. This is the word for that which makes a person unique – their identity, will, personality, affections. This isn’t the soul as the immortal part of us, but as our individuality. It is also not life as a general concept, but specific to people. This is where the words psyche and psychology come from.

10 Concerning this salvation, the prophetsLV who prophesiedLVI of the graceLVII intended for you made careful searchLVIII and inquiry,LIX 

Notes on verse 10

LV “prophets” = prophetes. From pro (before, in front of, earlier than) + phemi (to declare, say, use contrasts in speaking to shed light on one point of view); {from phao (to shine) or phaino (to bring light, cause to appear, shine, become visible or clear)}. This is a prophet or poet – one who speaks with inspiration from God.
LVI “prophesied” = propheteuo. Related to “prophets” in v10. From prophetes (see note LV above). This is to prophesy, foretell, or tell forth.
LVII “grace” = charis. Related to “joy” in v8. From chairo (see note LI above). This is grace, kindness, favor, gratitude, thanks. It is the sense of being inclined to or favorable towards – leaning towards someone to share some good or benefit. This can be literal, figurative, or spiritual. It is grace as abstract concept, manner, or action.
LVIII “careful search” = ekzeteo. 7x in NT. From ek (from, from out of) + zeteo (to seek, search for, desire. searching for something by inquiring or investigation; to seek in a literal or figurative sense; to worship God). This is to seek out, inquire, investigate, crave. It can also mean to worship.
LIX “inquiry” = exeraunao. 1x in NT. From ek (from, from out of) + eraunao (to search or examine); {perhaps from ereo (to say, tell, speak, mean, command); perhaps from rheo (to say, speak of, command)}. This is to seek diligently, explore.

11 inquiringLX about the time and circumstances that the SpiritLXI of Christ within them indicatedLXII when it testified in advanceLXIII to the sufferingsLXIV intended for Christ and the subsequent glory. 

Notes on verse 11

LX “inquiring” = ereunao. Related to “inquiry” in v10. 6x in NT. See note LIX above.
LXI “Spirit” = Pneuma. From pneo (to blow, breathe, breathe hard). This is wind, breath, or ghost. A breeze or a blast or air, a breath. Figuratively used for a spirit, the human soul or part of us that is rational. It is also used supernaturally for angels, demons, God, and the Holy Spirit. This is where pneumonia comes from.
LXII “indicated” = deloo. 7x in NT. From delos (clear, evident, unmistakable, self-evident). This is making something evident, revealing declaring, showing. Often, making clear through words.
LXIII “testified in advance” = promarturomai. 1x in NT. From pro (before, ahead, earlier than, above) + marturomai (to witness, testify, call as a witness, affirm, charge, protest); {from martus (a witness whether having heard or seen something; witness literally, judicially, or figuratively; by analogy, a martyr)}. This is to say or witness ahead of time, to predict.
LXIV “sufferings” = pathema. 16x in NT. From pathos (passion, lust, suffering, something that happens to you, strong feelings); from pascho (to be acted on for good or ill; often used for negative treatment; properly, feeling strong emotions – especially suffering; can also be the ability to feel suffering). This is something that happens to you such as suffering, affliction, passion, or emotion. It can also be one’s capacity for deep feelings or enduring. Further, it can be hardship or pain.

12 It was revealed to them that they were servingLXV not themselves but you, in regard to the things that have now been announcedLXVI to you through those who brought you good newsLXVII by the HolyLXVIII Spirit

Notes on verse 12a

LXV “serving” = diakoneo. From diakonos (servant, minister, waiter, or attendant; a person who performs a service, including religious service); {perhaps from dia (through, across to the other side, thoroughly) + konis (dust) OR from dioko (to chase after, put to flight; by implication, to persecute or to purse like a hunter after its prey; this can be earnestly pursue or zealously persecute); {related to dio (put to flight)}}. This is to wait at table, to serve generally, to minister or administer, to be in the office of deacon. To wait on someone as a slave, friend, or host.
LXVI “announced” = anaggello. 14x in NT. From ana (up, again, back, among, by, anew) + aggello (to announce, report) {from aggelos (angel, messenger – supernatural or human envoy of God); probably from ago (lead, bring, drive, carry, guide, go)}. This is returning with word, reporting, declaring, announcing. It is to tell something all the way, which is to say to tell it clearly.
LXVII “brought…good news” = euaggelizo. Related to “blessed” in v3 & “announced” in v12. From eu (see note I above) + aggelos (see note LXVI above). This is evangelize – literally to preach the good news. It can be those who hear the news, the news, or a way to say gospel.
LXVIII “Holy” = Hagios. From hagnos (holy, sacred, pure ethically, ritually, or ceremonially; prepared for worship, chaste, unadulterated, pure to the core; undefiled by sin; figurative for innocent, modest, perfect). God is totally different from humanity and thus set apart. That which is consecrated to worship God (elements of worship) or to serve God (as the saints) are holy because they are now set apart for God’s purposes. Holy because important to God. This is sacred physically, pure. It can be morally blameless or ceremonially consecrated.

sentLXIX from heaven, things into which angelsLXX longLXXI to look!LXXII

Notes on verse 12b

LXIX “sent” = apostello. Related to “resurrection” in v3. From apo (from, away from) + stello (to send, set, arrange, prepare, gather up); {probably from histemi (see note XII above)}. This is to send forth, send away, dismiss, send as a messenger. It implies one that is sent for a particular mission or purpose rather than a quick errand. This is where “apostle” comes from.
LXX “angels” = aggelos. Related to “announced” and “brought…good news” in v12. See note LXVI above.
LXXI “long” = epithumeo. 16x in NT. From epi (on, upon, fitting) + thumos (passion, wrath; actions emerging from passion or impulse) {from thuo (to rush along, breathe violently, offer sacrifice)}. This is desire, lust, longing for, setting one’s heart on. It is a longing whether good or bad. In either case, passion and yearning is set on the object of desire.
LXXII “look” = parakupto. 5x in NT. From para (by, beside) + kupto (to stoop, bend forward, bow one’s head); perhaps from kuma (wave, billow, curve, bend); from kuo (to swell as one pregnant). This is to bend beside or stoop. To bend over to peer into.

13 Therefore prepareLXXIII your mindsLXXIV for action;LXXV, LXXVI 

Notes on verse 13a

LXXIII “prepare” = anazonnmi. 1x in NT. From ana (up, again, back, among, anew) + zonnumi (to gird, prepare for an active task; to gird up your loins so that you are able to move fast); {perhaps from zone (belt, waistband, purse); probably related to zugos (yoke, set of scales; what unites people in shared work; servitude or obligation); from zeugnumi (to yoke)}. This is to gird up or prepare. It is the way one secured a robe or tunic with a belt so that faster movement was possible.
LXXIV “minds” = dianoia. 12x in NT. From dia (through, because of, across, thoroughly) + noieo (to perceive, think, understand); {from nous (mind, understanding, reasoning faculty, intellect, capacity to reflect); from ginosko (to know, recognize, realize, perceive, learn; gaining knowledge through personal experience)}. This is thought, intellect, or insight. It is thorough, critical thinking to reason through issues to reach a conclusion that is both logically sound and personal.
LXXV “action” = osphus. 8x in NT. This is waist, hips, or loins.
LXXVI Literally, “having girded up the loins of your mind.”

disciplineLXXVII yourselves; set allLXXVIII your hopeLXXIX on the grace that Jesus Christ will bringLXXX you when he is revealed. 

Notes on verse 13b

LXXVII “discipline” = nepho. 6x in NT. To be sober in a literal sense. Also to be calm or vigilant, not subject to illusion or the influence of selfish greed or other sins. This is one who uses clear judgment and has their wits about them.
LXXVIII “all” = teleios. Related to “outcome” in v9. 1x in NT. From teleios (going through the steps to complete a stage or phase and then moving on to the next one; reaching an end and so being complete or “perfect”; also full grown or mature); from telos (see note LIII above). This is completely or perfectly – to the end.
LXXIX “set…hope” = elpizo. Related to “hope” in v3. From elpis (see note XI above). This is to expect, trust, hope for, or to wait in an active way.
LXXX “bring” = phero. This is to bear, bring, lead, or make known publicly. It is to carry in a literal or figurative sense.

14 Like obedientLXXXI children,LXXXII do not be conformedLXXXIII

Notes on verse 14a

LXXXI “obedient” = hupakoe. 15x in NT. From hupoakouo (to listen, to attend to, or obey; acting subordinate to one who speaks – heeding a command or authority); {from hupo (by, under, about, subordinate to) + akouo (listen, hear, understand through hearing)}. This is obedience, submissiveness – listening attentively and acting in response.
LXXXII “children” = teknon. From tikto (to beget, bring forth, produce). This is a child, descendant, or inhabitant.
LXXXIII “be conformed” = suschematizo. Related to “last” in v5. 2x in NT. From sun (with, together with) + schematizo (to give something a specific shape or form) OR form sun (with, together with) + schema (figure, appearance, form – outer shape; figuratively, can be external condition); {from echo (see note XXVI above)}. This is sharing a similar appearance or expression – something that corresponds to the same model or patter. It is to conform to or fashion in accordance with.

to the desiresLXXXIV that you formerlyLXXXV had in ignorance.LXXXVI 

Notes on verse 14b

LXXXIV “desires” = epithumia. Related to “long” in v12. From epithumeo (see note LXXI above). This is desire, a longing built on passionate emotion or urges. This can be a positive or a negative passion (lust or eagerness).
LXXXV “formerly” = proteron. 11x in NT. From proteros (before, first, previously); from pro (before, ahead, earlier than, above). This is formerly, before.
LXXXVI “ignorance” = agnoia. Related to “minds” in v13. 4x in NT. From agnoeo (unaware not to know; sometimes willful ignorance, but other times simple not knowing); {from a (not) + noieo (see note LXXIV above)}. This is ignorance – sometimes willfully ignorant.

15 Instead, as he who calledLXXXVII you is holy, beLXXXVIII holy yourselves in allLXXXIX your conduct,XC 16 for it is written,XCI “You shall be holy, for I am holy.”

Notes on verses 15-16

LXXXVII “called” = kaleo. Related to keleuo (to command, order, direct); from kelomai (to urge on). This is to call by name, invite, to name, bid, summon, call aloud.
LXXXVIII “be” = ginomai. Related to “given…a new birth” in v3. See note IX above.
LXXXIX “all” = pas. This is all or every.
XC “conduct” = anastrophe. 13x in NT. From anastrepho (to turn back, return, or overturn; can also imply busying oneself and so to remain, dwell, behave, or live somewhere); {from ana (up, again, back, among, anew) + strepho (to turn, change, turn back, be converted; to turn around completely to take the opposite path or a completely different one); {from trope (turning, shifting, a revolution; figuratively, a variation); from trepo (to turn)}. This is behavior, conduct, life, or manner of life. It is behavior drawn from core beliefs.
XCI “written” = grapho. This is to write or describe. It is where the word “graphic” comes from.

17 If you invokeXCII as Father the one who judgesXCIII impartiallyXCIV according to each person’s work,XCV

Notes on verse 17a

XCII “invoke” = epikaleo. Related to “called” in v15. From epi (on, upon, among, what is fitting) + kaleo (see note LXXXVII above). This is to call on, appeal to, worship, invoke for help.
XCIII “judges” = krino. To judge, decide, think good, condemn, determine, pass judgment, stand trial, sue. This is judging whether it is done in court or in a private setting. Properly, it refers to mentally separating or distinguishing an issue – to come to a choice or decision, to judge positively or negatively in seeking what is right or wrong, who is innocent or guilty. It can imply trying, condemning, punishing, or avenging.
XCIV “impartially” = aprosopolemptos. Related to “protected” in v5 & “seen” in v8. 1x in NT. From a (not, without) + prosopon (face, surface, or front; can imply presence more generally); {from pros (at, towards, with) + ops (eye, face); {from optanomai (to appear, be seen); perhaps from horao (see note XX above)}} + lambano (active acceptance/taking of what is available or what has been offered; emphasizes the choice and action of the individual). This is impartially, without preference or favor to particular persons.
XCV “work” = ergon. From ergo (to work, accomplish, do). This is work, task, deed, labor, effort.

liveXCVI in fearXCVII during the timeXCVIII of your exile.XCIX 

Notes on verse 17b

XCVI “live” = anastrepho. Related to “conduct” in v15. 9x in NT. See note XC above.
XCVII “fear” = phobos. From phebomai (to flee, withdraw, be put to flight). This is panic flight, fear, fear being caused, terror, alarm, that which causes fear, reverence, respect.
XCVIII “time” = chronos. Time in the chronological sense, quantitative time or a duration of time.
XCIX “exile” = paroikia. 4x in NT. From paroikos (dwelling near, a temporary resident, sojourner, alien; a foreigner who does not have the same rights as a citizen); {from para (by, beside, in the presence of) + oikos (house – the building, the household, the family, descendants; the temple)}. This is sojourning, living in a foreign country.

18 You knowC that you were ransomedCI from the futileCII conduct

Notes on verse 18a

C “know” = eido. This is to know, consider perceive, appreciate, behold, or remember. It means seeing with one’s eyes, but also figuratively, it means perceiving – seeing that becomes understanding. So, by implication, this means knowing or being aware.
CI “ransomed” = lutroo. 3x in NT. From luo (to loose, release, untie; figuratively, to break, destroy, or annul; releasing what had been withheld). This is to redeem, liberate, release because ransom was paid in full. Figuratively, it is returning something or someone to their rightful owner.
CII “futile” = mataios. 6x in NT. From the same as maten (in vain, aimlessly, pointless, fruitless); from mate (a folly) or from massaomai (to chew, gnaw); {from masso (to kneed, squeeze). This is vain, useless, worthless, unproductive, or purposeless. It can also figuratively mean fleeting or refer to idols.

inherited from your ancestors,CIII not with perishable thingsCIV like silverCV or gold 

Notes on verse 18b

CIII “inherited from…ancestors” = patroparadotos. Related to “Father” in v3. 1x in NT. From pater (see note III above) + paradidomi (literally to hand over – hence to deliver, abandon, or betray; implies a personal involvement.); {from para (from beside, by) + didomi (give, offer, place, bestow, deliver; give in a literal or figurative sense)}. This inherited – literally something handed over by ancestors. It can also refer to traditions or traditional ways.
CIV “perishable things” = phthartos. Related to “imperishable” in v4. 6x in NT. From phtheiro (see note XV above). This is perishable or corruptible – what disintegrates.
CV “silver” = argurion. From arguros (silver, whether the metal itself or things made from silver); from argos (shining). This is silver, which implies money – shekel, drachma, etc.

19 but with the preciousCVI bloodCVII of Christ, like that of a lambCVIII without defectCIX or blemish.CX 

Notes on verse 19

CVI “precious” = timios. Related to “more precious” and “honor” in v7. 13x in NT. From time (see note XXXVI above). This is valued, precious, respected, or dear. It is something that holds value.
CVII “blood” = haima. This is blood in a literal sense as bloodshed. Figuratively, it can also be used to refer to wine or to kinship (being related).
CVIII “lamb” = amnos. 4x in NT. This is lamb, used figuratively for innocence or in reference to its sacrificial use. Usually, it refers to a lamb that is one year old.
CIX “without defect” = amomos. 9x in NT. From a (not) + momos (literally a spot; figuratively blame, disgrace, flaw, censure); {perhaps from memphomai (to blame, be disgraceful; be rejected due to doing bad things); from mempteos (rejected because one has been condemned)}. This is literally without blemish. Figuratively it can mean blameless or without fault i.e. without sin. This word might also be related to a plant from India called amomum, which was used in ointment. It may be akin to black cardamom. See https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/%E1%BC%84%CE%BC%CF%89%CE%BC%CE%BF%CE%BD#Ancient_Greek
CX “blemish” = aspilos. 4x in NT. From a (not, without) + spiloo (this is to stain or defile; figuratively, it can refer to spiritually defile or pollute, a defect or disgrace). This is spotless, undefiled, or pure. Figuratively, it is morally pure.

20 He was destinedCXI, CXII before the foundationCXIII of the worldCXIV

Notes on verse 20a

CXI “destined” = proginosko. Related to “minds” in v13 & “ignorance” in v14. 5x in NT. From pro (before, first, in front of, earlier) + ginosko (see note LXXIV above). This is to know ahead of time, foresee, or ordain.
CXII {untranslated} = men. This is truly, indeed, even, in fact. Often, it is not translated, but used to emphasize affirmation.
CXIII “foundation” = katabole. 11x in NT. From kataballo (to cast down, lay prostate, set a foundation); {from kata (down, against, throughout, among) + ballo (to throw, cast, place, put, drop)}. This is a foundation or a plan for one – setting the foundation according to the plans. Figuratively, it can be the beginning of something, sowing, or conception.
CXIV “world” = kosmos. Related to “receiving” in v9. Perhaps from the base of komizo (see note LII above). This is order, the world, the universe, including its inhabitants. Literally, this is something that is ordered so it can refer to all creation. It can also refer to decoration in the sense that something is better ordered and, thus, made more beautiful. This is where “cosmos” and “cosmetics” come from.

but was revealedCXV at the endCXVI of the agesCXVII for your sake. 

Notes on verse 20b

CXV “revealed” = phaneroo. Related to “prophets” and “prophesied” in v10. From phaneros (visible, apparent, clear, shining); from phos (light, a source of light, fire, or radiance; light with specific reference to what it reveals; luminousness whether natural or artificial, abstract or concrete, literal or figurative); from phao (see note LV above) or from the same as phaino (see note LV above). This is to make visible or clear, to make known. Properly, it is to illumine and so to make apparent or bring into open view.
CXVI “end” = eschatos. Same as “last” in v5. See note XXVI above.
CXVII “ages” = chronos. Same as “time” in v17. See note XCVIII above.

21 Through him you have come to trustCXVIII in God, who raisedCXIX him from the dead and gaveCXX him glory, so that your trust and hope are in God. 22 Now that you have purifiedCXXI your souls by your obedience to the truthCXXII 

Notes on verses 21-22a

CXVIII “trust” = pistos. Related to “faith” in v5 & “believe” in v8. From peitho (see note XXII above). This is faithful, trustworthy, reliable, sure, or true. It is a fullness of faith. This is the same root as the word “faith” in Greek.
CXIX “raised” = egeiro. This is to awake, raise up or lift up. It can be to get up from sitting or lying down, to get up from sleeping, to rise from a disease or from death. Figuratively, it can be rising from inactivity or from ruins.
CXX “gave” = didomi. Related to “inherited from…ancestors” in v18. See note CIII above.
CXXI “purified” = hagnizo. Related to “holy” in v12. 7x in NT. From hagnos (see note LXVIII above). This is to purify or sanctify. It is to clean in a ritual, literal, or ethical sense.
CXXII “truth” = aletheia. From alethes (true, unconcealed; true because it is in concert with fact and reality – attested; literally, what cannot be hidden; truth stands up to test and scrutiny and is undeniable, authentic). {from a (not, without) + lanthano (unnoticed, concealed)}. Truth is literally that which is not or cannot be concealed. This word covers more than the sense of true versus false. It spoke of truth as that which corresponds to reality – reality as opposed to illusion. Thus, it includes, sincerity, straightforwardness, and reality itself.

so that you have genuineCXXIII mutual affection,CXXIV love one another deeplyCXXV from theCXXVI heart.CXXVII 

Notes on verse 22b

CXXIII “genuine” = anupokritos. Related to “judges” in v17. 6x in NT. From a (not, without) + hupokrinomai (to answer, pretend, respond as an actor on stage; figuratively, to lie) {from hupo (by, under, about) + krino (see note XCIII above)} Properly, this is unhypocritical – not phony. It speaks to actions that are sincere and genuine without guile.
CXXIV “mutual affection” = philadelphia. 6x in NT. From philadelphos (Perhaps from kopto (to cut, strike, cut off; beating the chest to lament and so to mourn). This is literally blunted or dull. Figuratively, it can be deaf or mute or a person who is deaf or mute.love shared by members of a family, fraternal); {from philos (dear, beloved, a friend, an associate; friendship with personal affection, a trusted confidante; love from personal experience with another person) + adelphos (brother in a literal or figurative sense); {{from a (with, sharing) + delphus (womb)}}. This is literally brotherly love – figuratively love of members of the Christian community.
CXXV “deeply” = ektenos. 2x in NT. From ektenes (stretched fervent zealous); from ekteino (to stretch out, reach, lay hands on; casting an anchor); {from ek (from, from out of) + teino (to stretch, extend, strain)}. This is stretchted to the greatest extent, so it is fervently or earnestly.
CXXVI {untranslated} = katharos. This is clean, clear, pure, unstained; clean in a literal, ritual, or spiritual sense; so, also guiltless, innocent or upright; something that is pure because it has been separated from the negative substance or aspect; spiritually clean because of God’s act of purifying.
CXXVII “heart” = kardia. Literally the heart, but figuratively mind, character, inner self, will, intention, thoughts, feelings. Also, the center of something. The word heart is only used figuratively in the Old and New Testaments. This is where “cardiac” comes from.

23 You have been born anew,CXXVIII not of perishable but of imperishable seed,CXXIX through the living and enduringCXXX wordCXXXI of God. 

Notes on verse 23

CXXVIII “born anew” = anagennao. Same as “given…a new birth” in v3. See note IX above.
CXXIX “seed” = spora. 1x in NT. From speiro (to sow a seed, spread, scatter; to sow lit or fig); perhaps from spao (to draw as a sword, to pull, draw out). This is seed, a sowing – which implies a seed or parentage.
CXXX “enduring” = meno. This is to stay, remain, wait, await, continue, abide, endure. It can mean to literally stay in a place or to remain in a condition or to continue with hope and expectation.
CXXXI “word” = logos. Related to “blessed” in v3. See note I above.

Image credit: “Resurrection” by Eric Gill, 1917.

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