1 Peter 4:1-19

1 Peter 4:1-19
Narrative Lectionary


Since, therefore, ChristI sufferedII in the flesh,III 

Notes on verse 1a

I “Christ” = Christos. From chrio (consecrate by anointing with oil; often done for prophets, priests, or kings). Literally, the anointed one, Christ. The Greek word for Messiah.
II “suffered” = pascho. Akin to penthos (mourning, sorrow). This is to be acted on for good or ill. It is often used for negative treatment. Properly, it means feeling strong emotions – especially suffering. It can also be the ability to feel suffering.
III “flesh” = sarx. May be from saroo (to sweep, cleanse by sweeping); from sairo (to brush off). This is flesh, the body, human nature, materiality, kindred. Flesh is not always evil in scripture (as when it refers to Jesus taking on a human body). However, it is generally used in a negative way for actions made selfishly and not through faith. This can mean animal flesh, i.e. meat, or refer to body in contrast to soul/spirit. Flesh can be a way of talking about how things or people are related or talking about human frailty (physical or moral).

armIV yourselves also with the same intentionV (for whoever has suffered in the flesh has finishedVI with sin),VII 

Notes on verse 1b

IV “arm” = hoplizo. 1x in NT. From hoplon (a tool or implement; armor or weapons in a literal or figurative sense).; perhaps from hepo (to be busy). This is to equip, arm, or make ready.
V “intention” = ennoia. 2x in NT. From en (in, on, at, by, with) + nous (mind, understanding, reasoning faculty, intellect, capacity to reflect); {from noos (mind); probably from the base as ginosko (to know, recognize, realize, perceive, learn; gaining knowledge through personal experience)}. This is something a person thinks about, consideration, intention, purpose, a settled opinion or attitude, or moral understanding.
VI “finished” = pauo. 15x in NT. To stop, refrain, pause, restrain, quit, or come to an end.
VII “sin” = hamartia. From hamartano (to miss the mark, do wrong, make a mistake, sin); {from a (not) + meros (a part or share)}. Literally, this means not having one’s share or portion – like not receiving inheritance or what was allotted to you. This word means missing the mark so it is used for guilt, fault, and acts of sin.

so as to liveVIII for the restIX of your timeX in the flesh

Notes on verse 2a

VIII “live” = bioo. 1x in NT. From bios (life, livelihood, wealth, one’s manner of life). This is to live, spend the time of one’s life.
IX “rest” = epiloipos. 1x in NT. From epi (on, upon, at, what is fitting) + loipos (the rest, remained, remnant, other, residue); {from leipo (to leave behind, be lacking)}. This is left over, what remains, the rest.
X “time” = chronos.  Time in the chronological sense, quantitative time or a duration of time.

no longer by humanXI desiresXII but by the willXIII of God.XIV 

Notes on verse 2b

XI “human” = anthropos. Probably from aner (man, male, husband) + ops (eye, face); {from optanomai (to appear, be seen); perhaps from horao (become, seem, appear)}. This is human, humankind. Used for all genders.
XII “desires” = epithumia.  From epithmueo (long for, set one’s heart on, yearn, desire); {from epi (on, upon, at, what is fitting) + thumos (passion, wrath; actions emerging from passion or impulse) {from thuo (to rush along, breathe violently, offer sacrifice)}}. This is desire, a longing built on passionate emotion or urges. This can be a positive or a negative passion (lust or eagerness).
XIII “will” = thelema. From thelo (to desire, wise, will, intend). This is the act of will, choice, purpose, or decree.
XIV “God” = Theos. From Proto-Indo-European origins, meaning do, put, place. This is God or a god in general.

You have already spentXV enoughXVI time in doingXVII what the gentilesXVIII likeXIX to do,

Notes on verse 3a

XV “spent” = parerchomai. From para (from beside, by) + erchomai (to come, go). This is pass by, neglect, disregard. Figuratively, it can mean to perish or to become void.
XVI “enough” = arketos. 3x in NT– same word as “today’s trouble is enough for today” from Matthew 6:34. From arkeo (to assist, be satisfied or sufficient; properly, to ward off, by extension being satisfactory). This is enough or satisfactory.
XVII “doing” = katergazomai. From kata (down, against, throughout, among, daily) + ergazomai (to work, labor); {from ergon (work, task, action, employment)}. This is working something until it is completed, working fully, accomplishing, producing, achieving, performing.
XVIII “gentiles” = ethnos. Probably from etho (a custom or culture). This is people who are united by having similar customs or culture. Generally, it is used to refer to Gentiles. This is a tribe, race, nation, or Gentiles in general. This is where the term “ethnicity” comes from.
XIX “like” = boulema. 3x in NT. From boulomai (to wish, desire, intend; to plan with great determination). This is a purpose, plan, will, counsel, or intention.

livingXX in debauchery,XXI passions,XXII drunkenness,XXIII

Notes on verse 3b

XX “living” = poreuomai. From poros (ford, passageway). This is to go, travel, journey, or die. It refers to transporting things from one place to another and focuses on the personal significance of the destination.
XXI “debauchery” = aselgeia. 10x in NT. From aselges (brutal) OR from a (not) + selges (temperate). This is wantonness, shocking behavior, wanton violence, acting in an unrestrained and capricious way.
XXII “passions” = epithumia. Same as “desires” in v2. See note XII above.
XXIII “drunkenness” = oinophlugia. 1x in NT. From oinos (wine in a literal or figurative sense) + the same as phularos (foolish talk, babbling; properly, what bubbles over like a boiling pot; a tatteler); {from phluo (to babble or boil over)}. This is wine overflowing so drunkenness or debauchery.

revels,XXIV carousing,XXV and lawlessXXVI idolatry.XXVII 

Notes on verse 3c

XXIV “revels” = komos. 3x in NT. From kome (a village as contrasted with a city that has a wall); perhaps from keimai (to lie, recline, be placed, lie outstretched, be appointed). This was originally a festival in a village that involved drinking, carousing, and letting loose.
XXV “carousing” = potos. 1x in NT. From pino (to drink literally or figuratively). This is a drinking party or banquet.
XXVI “lawless” = athemitos. 2x in NT. From a (not) + themitos (righteous) or themis (custom, acceptable behavior, statute); {from tithemi (to place, lay, set, establish)}. This is illegal, criminal, behavior contrary to custom.
XXVII “idolatry” = eidololatria. 4x in NT. From eidolon (image, idol, worship or an idol); {from eidos (form, shape, sight, appearance); from eido (to be aware, see, know, remember, appreciate)} + latreia (service, divine worship, ministering to God); {from latreuo (giving good, technical service because qualified or equipped to do so; to serve, minister, worship, or give homage); from latris (a hired servant; someone who is qualified to perform a technical task)}. This is worship of an image or idol in a literal or figurative sense. This is where the word “idolatry” comes from.

They are surprisedXXVIII that you no longer joinXXIX them in the same excessesXXX of dissipation,XXXI and so they blaspheme.XXXII 

Notes on verse 4

XXVIII “surprised” = xenizo. 10x in NT. From xenos (foreign or foreigner, an alien or guest; also something new, novel, or strange). This is to receive as a guest or act as a host – to give or receive lodging. It could also be surprise, bewilder, or entertain. Also, it can be to think something it strange.
XXIX “join” = suntrecho. 3x in NT. From sun (with, together with) + trecho (to run, make progress, rush; running like an athlete in a race; figuratively, to work quickly towards a goal in a focused way). This is to run, hurry together. Figuratively, it can be to gather quickly or rush headlong.
XXX “excesses” = anachusis. 1x in NT. From anacheo (to pour out); {from ana (up, back, among, anew) + cheo (to pour)}. This is overflow, outpouring, excess, license.
XXXI “dissipation” = asotia. 3x in NT. From a (not, without) + sozo (to save, heal, rescue); {from sos (safe, well, rescued)}. This is something that can’t be saved, excess, wastefulness, excess of sin or vice. It is acting to excess and includes the aftermath of such actions.
XXXII “blaspheme” = blasphemeo. From blasphemos (blasphemer, reviler, reviling; speaking slander or evil); {from perhaps blapto (to harm or to hinder) + pheme (saying, news, rumor, fame) {from phemi (to say, declare, speak comparatively through contrasts, bring to light); from phao (to shine)}}. This is to slander, malign, hurl abuse, speak against, blaspheme, or defame. It is speaking evil or abusive language – not acknowledging what is good or worth reverence/respect.

But they will have to giveXXXIII an accountingXXXIV to him who standsXXXV readyXXXVI

Notes on verse 5a

XXXIII “give” = apodidomi. From apo (from, away from) + didomi (give, offer, place, bestow, deliver; give in a literal or figurative sense). This is to give back, return, give away. It is to restore as when one makes payment – to rend what is due, to sell.
XXXIV “accounting” = logos. From lego (to speak, tell, mention). This is word, statement, speech, analogy. It is a word that carries an idea or expresses a thought, a saying. It could refer to a person with a message or reasoning laid out in words. By implication, this could be a topic, line of reasoning, or a motive. It can be used for a divine utterance or as Word – Christ.
XXXV “stands” = echo. This is to have, hold, possess.
XXXVI “ready” = hetoimos. 3x in NT. From hetoimos (make ready, be ready because of being prepared, standing by, adjusted; ready to meet some opportunity or challenge); from heteos (fitting, fitness). This is ready, prepared.

to judgeXXXVII the livingXXXVIII and the dead.XXXIX 

Notes on verse 5b

XXXVII “judge” = krino. To judge, decide, think good, condemn, determine, pass judgment, stand trial, sue. This is judging whether it is done in court or in a private setting. Properly, it refers to mentally separating or distinguishing an issue – to come to a choice or decision, to judge positively or negatively in seeking what is right or wrong, who is innocent or guilty. It can imply trying, condemning, punishing, or avenging.
XXXVIII “living” = zao. This is to live literally or figuratively. It is used for life including the vitality of humans, plants, and animals – it is life physical and spiritual and life everlasting.
XXXIX “dead” = nekros. Perhaps from nekus (corpse). This is dead or lifeless, mortal, corpse. It can also be used figuratively for powerless or ineffective. It is where the word “necrotic” comes from.

For this is the reason the gospel was proclaimedXL even to the dead, so that, though they had been judgedXLI in the flesh as everyoneXLII is judged, they might live in the spiritXLIII as God does.

Notes on verse 6

XL “gospel was proclaimed” = euaggelizo. From eu (well, good, rightly) + aggelos (angel, messenger; a messenger from God bringing news – whether a prophet or an angel) {from aggellos (to bring tidings); probably from ago (to bring, lead, carry, guide)}. This is evangelize – literally to preach the good news. It can be those who hear the news, the news, or a way to say gospel.
XLI {untranslated} = men. This is truly, indeed, even, in fact. Often, it is not translated, but used to emphasize affirmation.
XLII “everyone” = anthropos. Same as “human” in v2. See note XI above.
XLIII “spirit” = pneuma. From pneo (to blow, breathe, breathe hard). This is wind, breath, or ghost. A breeze or a blast or air, a breath. Figuratively used for a spirit, the human soul or part of us that is rational. It is also used supernaturally for angels, demons, God, and the Holy Spirit. This is where pneumonia comes from.

The endXLIV of allXLV things is near;XLVI 

Notes on verse 7a

XLIV “end” = telos. From tel– (to reach a goal or aim); This is an end, aim, purpose, completion, goal, consummation, or tax. It is completing a stage of something and everything that results from that completion. It can be literal or figurative.
XLV “all” = pas. This is all or every.
XLVI “is near” = eggizo. From eggus (nearby or near in time). This is extremely close by – approaching, at hand, immediately imminent.

therefore be seriousXLVII and disciplineXLVIII yourselves for the sake of your prayers.XLIX 

Notes on verse 7b

XLVII “be serious” = sophroneo. Related to “dissipation” in v4. 6x in NT. From sophron (temperate, self-controlled, sound because in balance); {from the same as sozo (see note XXXI above)} + phren (diaphragm, heart, intellect, understanding; figurative for personal opinion or inner mindset; thought regulating action; sympathy, feelings, cognition); {perhaps from phrao (to rein in or curb)}}. This is to be sane, self-controlled, temperate. It is one who is balanced or moderate.
XLVIII “discipline” = nepho. 6x in NT. To be sober in a literal sense. Also to be calm or vigilant, not subject to illusion or the influence of selfish greed or other sins. This is one who uses clear judgment and has their wits about them.
XLIX “prayers” = proseuche. From proseuchomai (to pray or pray for, to worship or supplicate; more literally exchanging one’s own wishes for God’s); {from pros (advantageous for, at, toward) + euchomai (to wish, make a request, pray)}. This is prayer, worship, or a place where one prays.

Above all, maintainL constantLI loveLII for one another, for love coversLIII a multitudeLIV of sins. 

Notes on verse 8

L “maintain” = echo. Same as “stands” in v5. See note XXXV above.
LI “constant” = ektenes. 1x in NT. From ekteino (to stretch out, reach, put hands on); {from ek (from, from out of) + teino (to stretch)}. This is fully stretched out i.e. taut. Figuratively, this is constant, fervent, intent, zealous.
LII “love” = agape. From agapao (to love, take pleasure in, esteem; to prefer); from agan (much, very). This is love, goodwill, benevolence. It is God’s divine love or human love that mirrors God’s love.
LIII “covers” = kalupto. 8x in NT. Related to kalube (hut, cabin). This is to cover, hide, veil, or conceal. Figuratively, it can mean to keep hidden or secret.
LIV “multitude” = plethos. From pletho (to fill, accomplish, supply; to fill to maximum capacity). This is fullness, multitude, great number.

Be hospitableLV to one another without complaining.LVI 10 Like goodLVII stewardsLVIII

Notes on verses 9-10a

LV “hospitable” = philoxenos. Related to “surprised” in v4. 3x in NT. From philos (dear, beloved, a friend, an associate; friendship with personal affection, a trusted confidante; love from personal experience with another person) + xenos (see note XXVIII above). This is loving strangers or guests. It is used to mean hospitable.
LVI “complaining” = goggusmos. 4x in NT. From gogguzo (to murmur or grumble; an onomatopoeia to sound similar to the cooing of doves; figuratively, it is simmering displeasure that is muffled – a dull, constant murmuring). This is a muttering or complaining.
LVII “good” = kalos. This is good, noble, beautiful, correct, or worthy. This is external signs of goodness like beauty, demonstrations of honorable character, showing moral virtues. A different word, agathos, speaks of intrinsic good.
LVIII “stewards” = oikonomos. 10x in NT. From oiokos (house – the building, the household, the family, descendants; the temple) + nemo (to manage) OR from oikos (see above) + the base of nomos (what is assigned – usage, law, custom, principle; used for the law in general or of God’s law; sometimes used to refer to the first five books of the Bible or the entire Old Testament; also used to refer to theology or the practice and tradition of interpreting and implementing the law of God); {from nemo (to parcel out, assign)}. This is a steward, manager, or guardian. It refers to someone whose job it is to oversee a house. It can also be a treasurer or other fiscal agent. Figuratively, this can mean someone who preaches the good news.

of the manifoldLIX graceLX of God, serveLXI one another

Notes on verse 10b

LIX “manifold” = poikilos. 10x in NT. This is varied, diverse, having different colors or varied character.
LX “grace” = charis. Related to “gift” in v10. See note LXII below.
LXI “serve” = diakoneo. From diakonos (servant, minister, waiter, or attendant; a person who performs a service, including religious service); {perhaps from dia (through, across to the other side, thoroughly) + konis (dust) OR from dioko (to chase after, put to flight; by implication, to persecute or to purse like a hunter after its prey; this can be earnestly pursue or zealously persecute); {related to dio (put to flight)}}. This is to wait at table, to serve generally, to minister or administer, to be in the office of deacon. To wait on someone as a slave, friend, or host.

with whatever giftLXII eachLXIII of you has received.LXIV 

Notes on verse 10c

LXII “gift” = charisma. 17x in NT. From charizomai (to show favor, kindness, or grace, to pardon, forgive); from charis (grace, kindness, favor, gratitude, thanks; being inclined to or favorable towards – leaning towards someone to share some good or benefit; literal, figurative, or spiritual; grace as abstract concept, manner, or action); from chairo (to rejoice, be glad; used to say hello; properly, delighting in the grace of God or experiencing God’s favor); from char– (to extend favor, lean towards, be inclined to be favorable towards). This is grace, undeserved favor, a free gift, or a spiritual gift. It is the working of grace, some spiritual gift or religious qualification. It could be some kind of miraculous endowment.
LXIII “each” = hekastos. Perhaps from hekas (separate). This is each one, any, every. It is every individual as a distinct entity as opposed to those counted as a group in small sets.
LXIV “received” = lambano. It does not refer to passive receiving of something, but active acceptance or taking of something whether it is offered or simply nearby. It focuses on individual decision and action.

11 Whoever speaks must do so as one speaking the very wordsLXV of God; whoever serves must do so with the strengthLXVI that God supplies,LXVII

Notes on verse 11a

LXV “words” = logion. Related to “accounting” in v5. 4x in NT. From logios (learned, fluent, an orator); from logos (see note XXXIV above). This is an oracle or something spoken by God. It can also refer to the Old Testament.
LXVI “strength” = ischus. Related to “stands” in v5. 10x in NT. Perhaps from is (force) + echo (see note XXXV above). This is strength, might, power, force, or ability. It is power that engages immediate resistance.
LXVII “supplies” = choregeo. Related to “gospel” in v6. 2x in NT. From choros (a dance or chorus) + ago (see note XL above). This is to be the leader of a performing group, to help pay the expenses of a chorus. So it is to supply or furnish.

so that God may be glorifiedLXVIII in all things through JesusLXIX Christ. To him belongLXX the gloryLXXI

Notes on verse 11b

LXVIII “be glorified” = doxazo. From doxa (glory, opinion, praise, honor, renown; particularly used as a quality of God or manifestation of God – splendor); from dokeo (to have an opinion, seem, appear, suppose; a personal judgment; to think); from dokos (opinion). This is to render or hold something as glorious, to glorify, honor, magnify, or celebrate. This is ascribing weight to something by recognizing its true value or essence.
LXIX “Jesus” = Iesous. From Hebrew Yehoshua (Joshua, the Lord is salvation); {from YHVH (proper name of the God of Israel; the self-existent and eternal one); {from havah (to become) or from hayah (to come to pass, become, be)} + yasha (to deliver, defend, help, preserve, rescue; properly, to be open, wide or free, which implies being safe. So, in a causative sense, this is to free someone)}. This is Jesus or Joshua in Greek – the Lord saves or the Lord is salvation.
LXX “belong” = eimi. This is to be, exist.
LXXI “glory” = doxa. Related to “be glorified” in v11. See note LXVIII above.

and the powerLXXII forever and ever.LXXIII Amen.LXXIV

Notes on verse 11c

LXXII “power” = kratos. 12x in NT. This is strength, power, or dominion. It is vigor in a literal or figurative sense or power that is exercised.
LXXIII “forever and ever” = eis + ho + aion + ho + aion. Literally, “to the ages of the ages.” Aion is from the same as aei (ever, always, unceasingly, perpetually; on every occasion). This is an age, cycle of time, course, continued duration. It is also used to describe the eternal or forever. This is the word used to discuss the present age or the messianic age.
LXXIV “amen” = amen. From Hebrew amen (verily, truly, amen, truth, so be it, faithfulness); from aman (to believe, endure, fulfill, confirm, support, be faithful, put one’s trust in, be steadfast. Figuratively, this is to be firm, steadfast, or faithful, trusting, believing, being permanent, morally solid). This word is literally firmness, but figuratively fidelity, faithfulness, honesty, responsibility, trust, truth, steadfastness. Properly, it is to be sure, certain, or firm. This is a word of emphasis indicating that something crucial follows.

12 Beloved,LXXV do not be surprised at the fieryLXXVI ordealLXXVII

Notes on verse 12a

LXXV “beloved” = agapetos. Related to “love” in v8. From agape (see note LII above). This is Beloved or very dear one. It is a title for the Messiah, but also for Christians. Properly, this is one who personally experiences God’s love.
LXXVI “fiery” = purosis. 3x in NT. From puroo (to burn, kindle, purify by fire, to glow; to burn literally or figuratively); from pur (fire, fiery; figurative for strife or trials). This is burning, fiery, refining, smelting, figurative for a test or trial.
LXXVII “ordeal” = peirasmos. From peirazo (to test, try, tempt, or make proof of, scrutinize, or assay something; could also be examine, entice, prove, or discipline); from peira (trial, experiment, attempt, experience, assaying); from the base of peran (over, beyond, across); akin to pera (on the far side); from a derivative or peiro (to pierce). This is a test as in an experiment or assaying. It is also trial, temptation, and discipline. Further, it could be used to mean calamity, affliction, or adversity more generally.

that is taking placeLXXVIII among you to test you, as though something strangeLXXIX were happeningLXXX to you. 

Notes on verse 12b

LXXVIII “taking place” = ginomai. This is to come into being, to happen, become, be born. It can be to emerge from one state or condition to another or is coming into being with the sense of movement or growth.
LXXIX “something strange” = xenos. Related to “surprised” in v4 & “hospitable” in v9. 14x in NT. See note XXVIII above.
LXXX “happening” = sumbaino. 8x in NT. From sun (with, together with) + from basis (step, hence foot; a pace); from baino (to walk, to go). This is to walk together, happen, occur, meet. It could also be things that work together as a unit.

13 But rejoiceLXXXI insofar as you are sharingLXXXII Christ’s sufferings,LXXXIII

Notes on verse 13a

LXXXI “rejoice” = chairo. Related to “gift” and “grace” in v10. See note LXII above.
LXXXII “sharing” = koinoneo. 8x in NT. From koinonos (partner, companion, partaker, sharer); From koinos (common, shared, unclean, ritually profane); probably from sun (with, together with). This is to contribute, participate, or have a share in. It can also mean to distribute.
LXXXIII “sufferings” = pathema. Related to “suffered” in v1. 16x in NT. From pathos (passion, lust, suffering, something that happens to you, strong feelings); from pascho (see note II above). This is something that happens to you such as suffering, affliction, passion, or emotion. It can also be one’s capacity for deep feelings or enduring. Further, it can be hardship or pain.

so that you may also be gladLXXXIV and shout for joyLXXXV when his glory is revealed.LXXXVI 

Notes on verse 13b

LXXXIV “be glad” = chairo. Same as “rejoice” in v13. See note LXXXI above.
LXXXV “shout for joy” = agalliao. Related to “love” in v8 & “beloved” in v12. 11x in NT. From agallomai (to exalt, make glorious) {from agan (see note LII above) + hallomai (to leap or leap up; when referring to water, springing up or bubbling up; to jump or figuratively to gush)}. This is properly joy that prompts you to jump up. It is a full body experience of joy: exulting, rejoicing, or even boasting from joy.
LXXXVI “revealed” = apokalupsis. Related to “covers” in v8. 18x in NT. From apokalupto (properly to uncover; revealing something that was hidden or obstructed; particularly refers to revealing the essence of something; to make plain or manifest); {from apo (from, away from) + kalupto (see note LIII above)}. This is uncovering, unveiling, appearing, manifestation, or revelation. This is where the word “apocalypse” comes from.

14 If you are reviledLXXXVII for the nameLXXXVIII of Christ, you are blessed,LXXXIX because the spirit of glory, which is the Spirit of God, is restingXC on you.XCI 

Notes on verse 14

LXXXVII “reviled” = oneidizo. Related to “intention” in v1. 9x in NT. From oneidos (a personal disgrace that leads to harm to one’s reputation, a taunt or reproach); perhaps from the base of onoma (name, authority, cause, character, fame, reputation); perhaps from ginosko (see note V above). This is to disgrace, insult, mock, blame, or curse someone so as to create shame. This is when a person or thing is considered guilty and deserving punishment. So, it can be denounce, revile, defame, or chide.
LXXXVIII “name” = onoma. Related to “intention” in v1 & “reviled” in v14. Se note LXXXVII above.
LXXXIX “blessed” = makarios. From makar (happy); from mak– (to become long or large). This is blessed, happy, fortunate. It is when God’s grace/abundance is extended.
XC “resting” = anapauo. Related to “finished” in v1. 12x in NT– including Matthew 11:28 “come to me, all you that are weary and are carrying heavy burdens, and I will give you rest.” From ana (up, again, back, among, between, anew) + pauo (see note VI above). This is a break from work, which implies being refreshed. It denotes that rest that one gets once a necessary task is finished.
XCI Some manuscripts add, “indeed on their part he is blasphemed, but on your part he is glorified” = kata + men + autos + blasphemeo + kata + de + su + doxazo.  Men is the same as {untranslated} in v6. See note XLI above. Blasphemeo is the same as “blaspheme” in v4. See note XXXII above. Doxazo is the same as “be glorified” in v11. See note LXVIII above.

15 But let none of you suffer as a murderer,XCII a thief,XCIII a criminal,XCIV or even as a mischief maker.XCV 

Notes on verse 15

XCII “murderer” = phoneus. 7x in NT. From phonos (killing, murder, or slaughter; one of the crimes that Barabbas and Saul are accused of); from pheno (to slay). This is a murderer – a killing that is not justified and is done on purpose. It general refers to a criminal act.
XCIII “thief” = kleptes. 16x in NT. From klepto (to steal secretively). This is a thief that steals using stealth rather than violence. It is a thief in a literal or figurative sense.
XCIV “criminal” = kakopoios. 3x in NT – all in 1 Peter. From kakopoieo (doing evil, sinning, harming); {from kakos (bad, evil, harm, ill; evil that is part of someone’s core character – intrinsic, rotted, worthless, depraved, causing harm; deep inner malice that comes from a rotten character; can be contrasted with the Greek poneros, which is that which bears pain – a focus on the miseries and pains that come with evil; also contrasting the Greek sapros, which deals with falling away from a previously embodied virtue) + poieo (to make, do, construct, cause)}. This is one who does evil, causes trouble or harm. So, it is a criminal.
XCV “mischief maker” = allotriepiskopos. 1x in NT. From allotrios (something or someone that belongs to others; by extension, another, stranger, foreign, or foreigner); {from allos (other, different, another; this is one more of the same kind or a similar type)} + episkopos (an overseer, supervisor, guardian, or ruler; a civic title and also one used in the church – a bishop); {from epi (on, upon, at, what is fitting) + skopos (a mark or goal like the marker at the end of a race; figuratively, other goals or destinations; also, a watch or sentry); {from skeptomai (to peer out, consider, gaze carefully)}}. This is someone who involves themselves in other peoples’ business – a meddler.

16 Yet if any of you suffers as a Christian,XCVI do not consider it a disgrace,XCVII but glorify God because you bear this name. 17 For the timeXCVIII has comeXCIX for judgmentC

Notes on verses 16-17a

XCVI “Christian” = Christianos. Related to “Christ” in v1. 3x in NT. From Christos (see note I above). This is Christian.
XCVII “consider it a disgrace” = aischuno. 5x in NT. From aischos (shame, disgrace, disfigurement). This is to dishonor, put to shame, shrink, disfigure.
XCVIII “time” = kairos. This is season, opportunity, occasion. The word chronos is used for chronological time. Kairos is used for spiritually significant time – the right time or appointed time.
XCIX “come” = archomai. From archo (to rule, begin, have first rank or have political power). This is to begin or rule.
C “judgment” = krima. Related to “judge” in v5. From krino (see note XXXVII above). This is judgment, sentence, verdict. Sometimes, this can have a negative sense – condemnation. It is the decision and the full force of its effect negative and positive.

to begin with the householdCI of God; if it beginsCII with us, what will be the end for those who do not obeyCIII the gospelCIV of God? 

Notes on verse 17b

CI “household” = oikos. Related to “stewards” in v10. See note LVIII above.
CII “begins” = proton. From protos (what is first, which could be the most important, the first in order, the main one, the chief); from pro (before, first, in front of, earlier). This is firstly, before, in the beginning, formerly.
CIII “not obey” = apeitheo. 14x in NT. From apeithes (unbelieving, disobedient, spiritually rebellious); {from a (not, without) + peitho (to have confidence, urge, be persuaded, agree, assure, believe, have confidence, trust)}. This is to disobey or rebel. It refers to those who refuse to be convinced of something – willful disbelief.
CIV “gospel” = euaggelion. Related to “gospel was proclaimed” in v6 & “supplies” in v11. From eu (see note XL above) + aggelos (see note XL above). This is literally “the good news,” used for the gospel. This is also where “evangelism” comes from.

18 And

“If it is hardCV for the righteousCVI to be saved,CVII

Notes on verse 18a

CV “hard” = molis. 6x in NT. From mogos (laborious toil) OR from molos (toil) OR from mogis (scarcely, barely; something that only happens with difficulty; emphasizes that the action is prolonged and therefore difficult). This is something that hardly happens and/or requires a lot of effort.
CVI “righteous” = dikaios. From dike (the principle of justice; that which is right in a way that is very clear; a decision or the execution of that decision; originally, this word was for custom or usage; evolved to include the process of law, judicial hearing, execution of sentence, penalty, and even vengeance; more commonly, it refers to what is right); may be from deiknumi (to show, point out, exhibit; figurative for teach, demonstrate, make known). This is correct, righteous, just, or a righteous person. It implies innocent or conforming to God’s standard of justice.
CVII “be saved” = sozo. Related to “dissipation” in v4 & “be serious” in v7. See note XXXI above.

    what will becomeCVIII of the ungodlyCIX and the sinner?”CX

Notes on verse 18b

CVIII “become” = phaino. This is to bring light, cause to appear, shine, become visible or clear. This is show in a literal or figurative sense.
CIX “ungodly” = asebes. 9x in NT. From a (not) + sebo (to worship, revere, adore, be devout; properly this is personally placing a high value on someone or something, showing respect). Properly, this is being irreverent, not acting with appropriate respect or declining to show honor to the sacred. So, it could be ungodly, impious, wicked, or irreverent.
CX “sinner” = hamartolos. Related to “sin” in v1. From hamartano (see note VII above). This is sinning, sinful, sinner. It referred to missing the mark or falling short. The term was also used in archery for missing the target.

19 Therefore, let those suffering in accordance with God’s will entrustCXI their livesCXII to a faithfulCXIII Creator,CXIV while continuing to do good.CXV

Notes on verse 19

CXI “entrust” = paratithemi. Related to “lawless” in v3. 19x in NT. From para (by, beside, in the presence of) + tithemi (see note XXVI above). This is properly, to set beside or place before. So, it can mean to set or serve a meal, to deposit something with someone, to set forth an argument. It can also mean to entrust, commend, or tell a parable (as setting forth information).
CXII “lives” = psuche. From psucho (to breathe, blow). This is breath, the breath of life, the self, individual, soul. This is the word for that which makes a person unique – their identity, will, personality, affections. This isn’t the soul as the immortal part of us, but as our individuality. It is also not life as a general concept, but specific to people. This is where the words psyche and psychology come from.
CXIII “faithful” = pistos. Related to “not obey” in v17. From peitho (see note CIII above). This is faithful, trustworthy, reliable, sure, or true. It is a fullness of faith. This is the same root as the word “faith” in Greek.
CXIV “Creator” = Ktistes. 1x in NT. From ktizo (to build, create, form, shape; God’s acts of creation); probably akin to ktaomai (to get, purchase, possess). This is a creator or founder of a town. It is used for God as the creator.
CXV “do good” = en + agathopoiia. Literally, “in well-doing.” Agathopoiia is related to “criminal” in v15. 1x in NT. From agathopoios (a do-gooder or virtuous person; someone who does intrinsically good things); {from agathos (good, a benefit, or a good thing; good by its very nature, inherently good) + poieo (see note XCIV above)}. This is doing what is intrinsically good, right, or virtuous.

Image credit: “Pieta” by Jacek Andrzej Rossakiewicz, 1990.

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