1 Samuel 17:1a, 4-11, 19-23, 32-49

1 Samuel 17:1a, 4-11, 19-23, 32-49
Ordinary B30


Now the PhilistinesI gatheredII their armiesIII for battle;IV

Notes on verse 1a

I “Philistines” = Pelishti. From Pelesheth (Philistia); from palash (to mourn, wallow, maybe roll in). This is Philistines. Their name may mean “griever” or “burrower” or “weakener.” See https://www.abarim-publications.com/Meaning/Philistine.html.
II “gathered” = asaph. This is to gather, assemble, or bring. It can also mean to take away, destroy, or remove.
III “armies” = machaneh. From chanah (to decline, bending down, or living in tents; can be camping to create a home or camping as a part of battle). This is an encampment, whether of people traveling together or soldiers. So, it can be a camp band, or company as well as an army of soldiers. Also can be used of other groups like animals, angels or stars.
IV “battle” = milchamah. From lacham (to eat or feed on; figuratively, to battle as a kind of consumption/destruction). This is battle, war, fighting, or one who fights (i.e. a warrior).

they were gathered at Socoh,V which belongs to Judah,VI and encampedVII between Socoh and Azekah,VIII in Ephes-dammim.IX

Notes on verse 1b

V “Socoh” = Sokoh. 8x in OT. From the same as sok (lair, thicket, den, or hiding place; a den or pavilion as made of intertwined boughs); from suk (to make a hedge, entwine; to enclose in order to hold back or protect). This is Socoh or Soco, a place whose name means “hedge”, “thicket,” “thorn,” or “fence.” Seehttps://www.abarim-publications.com/Meaning/Socoh.html  
VI “Judah” = Yehudah. Probably from yadah (to throw one’s hands into the air in a gesture of praise); from yad (hand). This is Judah, meaning “praised.”
VII “encamped” = chanah. Related to “armies” in v1. See note III above.
VIII “Azekah” = Azeqah. 7x in OT. From azaq (to dig around, to put a fence around). This is Azekah, a place whose name means “tilled.”
IX “Ephes-dammim” = Ephes Dammim. 1x in OT. From ephes (a ceasing, nothing, no one, worthless, end of the earth); {from aphes (to finish, fail, stop, come to nothing, disappear)} + dam (blood, bloodshed, bloodguilt, lifeblood, and death; used for people and animals; often blood from a wound or the blood of the innocent; figuratively, violence or wine; closely tied to life and death); {from damam (to cease, be or become mute, silent, still, cut off, hold peace, be astonished, or die)}. This is Ephes-dammim, a place whose name means “the two extremities” or “boundary of blood drops.”

4 And there came outX from the campXI of the Philistines aXII championXIII namedXIV Goliath,XV

Notes on verse 4a

X “came out” = yatsa. This is to go or come out, bring forth, appear. It is to go out in a literal or figurative sense.
XI “camp” = machaneh. Same as “armies” in v1. See note III above.
XII {untranslated} = ish. Perhaps from enosh (human, humankind, mortal); from anash (to be weak, sick, or frail). This is man, husband, another, or humankind.
XIII “champion” = benayim. 2x in OT. From bayin (between, an interval or space); from bin (to discern, consider, attend to; distinguishing things in one’s mind or, more generally, to understand). This is champion or, more specifically, the space that exists between one army and another (the place where a champion would go).
XIV “named” = shem. May be from sum (to put, place, set). This is name, fame, renown. A name was thought to indicate something essential about a person – something about their individuality. So, this word can also mean honor, authority, or character.
XV “Goliath” = Golyath. 6x in OT. From galah (to remove, bring, carry, lead, appear; to strip someone or something bare in a negative sense; captives were typically stripped before being sent into exile; figuratively, in a positive sense, to reveal, disclose, discover). This is Goliath, a name meaning “exposer,” “conspicuous,” or “exile.” See https://www.abarim-publications.com/Meaning/Goliath.html

of Gath,XVI whose heightXVII was sixXVIII cubitsXIX and a span.XX 

Notes on verse 4b

XVI “Gath” = Gath. From the same as gath (wine press); {perhaps from nagan (to strike a stringed instrument, to pluck or play it)}. This is Gath, a Philistine city whose name means “wine press.” It shares a root with “Gethsemane.”
XVII “height” = gobah. 17x in OT. From gabah (to be tall, high, exalted, proud, haughty). This is height, whether literal like elevation and a raised platform or figurative in pride, dignity, grandeur, or excellency. It can also have a negative sense of arrogance or haughtiness.
XVIII “six” = shesh. This is six. Figuratively, it can be a surplus since it is one more than the number of fingers on the hand.
XIX “cubits” = ammah. From the same as em (mother). This is a cubit, post, threshold, pivot. It is mother as the basic measure (the length of the forearm). It is also mother as the which bonds an entryway i.e. the base of the door.
XX “span” = zeret. 7x in OT. Perhaps from zarah (to scatter or toss around; to disperse, cast away, scrutinize). This is the distance that you get when you spread your fingers, which is to say, a span.

He had a helmetXXI of bronzeXXII on his head,XXIII

Notes on verse 5a

XXI “helmet” = koba. 6x in OT. It comes from a root that may refer to heigh or being curved. So, this is a helmet.
XXII “bronze” = nechosheth. Perhaps from nechushah (copper, bronze, brass – something made from this metal like a coin or fetter; something that is considered base in contrast to gold or silver.; from nachush (made of bronze or brass, coppery; figuratively, hard); from nachash (to divine, interpret omens, learn from experience, observe; to hiss). This is bronze, copper, steel, brass or something made from copper. So, it could be a coin or chains. It can also figuratively mean something considered lesser in contrast to gold or silver.
XXIII “head” = rosh. This may come a word that means to shake. It is the head, captain, or chief. It can also be excellent or the forefront. It can be first in position or in statue or in time (i.e. the beginning).

and he was armedXXIV with a coatXXV of mail;XXVI the weightXXVII of the coat was five thousand shekelsXXVIII of bronze.

Notes on verse 5b

XXIV “armed” = labash. This is to wrap around, which implies clothing oneself or someone else. This is wrapping around in a literal or figurative way.
XXV “coat” = shiryon. 9x in OT. Perhaps from sharah (to let free, direct). This is armor, a breastplate, or harness.
XXVI “mail” = qasqeseth. 8x in OT. This is scale, like fish scales. It was also used to refer to jointed mail armor as a comparison to fish scales.
XXVII “weight” = mishqal. From shaqal (to weigh, spend, trade). This is to weigh, or a unit of weight. It shares a root with the word “shekel.”
XXVIII “shekels” = shaqal. Related to “weight” in v5. See note XXVII above.


6 He had greavesXXIX of bronze on his legsXXX and a javelinXXXI of bronze slung between his shoulders.XXXII 

Notes on verse 6

XXIX “greaves” = mitschah. 1x in OT. From the same as metsach (forehead, brow; its root refers to being easily seen; figuratively, impudent). This is greaves, a piece of armor worn over the shins.
XXX “legs” = regel. This is foot, endurance, or journey. It is a foot as the means of walking and so it implies a step or a greater journey. It can be used euphemistically for private parts.
XXXI “javelin” = kidon. 9x in OT. Perhaps from the same as kiyd (bad luck, decay, calamity). This is something that you use to strike a target. So, it can be a dart, spear, lance, or shield.
XXXII “shoulders” = katheph. Root may mean to clothe. This is shoulder, side, corner.

7 The shaftXXXIII of his spearXXXIV was like a weaver’sXXXV beam,XXXVI

Notes on verse 7a

XXXIII “shaft” = chets. From chatsats (to divide, chop, pierce, distribute, shoot an arrow, an archer). This is an arrow or archer, shaft, staff. Properly, it is someone or something that pierces, such as an arrow. It can imply a wound. Used figuratively of God’s thunder bolt.
XXXIV “spear” = chanith. Related to “armies” and “encamped” in v1. From chanah (see note III above). This is a spear or lance as a weapon that is thrust in the same way one pitches a tent.
XXXV “weaver’s” = arag. 13x in OT. This is to weave or plait. It can also refer to someone who weaves.
XXXVI “beam” = manor. 4x in OT. This is a yoke that is used to plow or the beam used in a weaver’s loom. Each time, this word is used in the Old Testament as a comparison to the shaft of a spear.

and his spear’s headXXXVII weighed six hundred shekels of iron;XXXVIII and his shield-bearerXXXIX wentXL beforeXLI him. 

Notes on verse 7b

XXXVII “head” = lehabah. 19x in OT. From lahab (flame, flashing, bright; figuratively, a blade or the point of a spear). This is a flame, blazing, head of a spear.
XXXVIII “iron” = barzel. From the same as Birzoth (a name meaning holes). Root may mean to pierce. This is iron as something used as a cutting implement. It can also specifically mean ax head.
XXXIX “shield-bearer” = nasa + tsinnah. Nasa is to lift in a broad sense, literally and figuratively. So it could be to carry, take, or arise. It could also be bring forth, advance, accept. Tsinnah is from tsen (root may mean to be prickly; thorn, barb, cactus hedge). This is a hook or barb. It can also be a buckler, shield, target. Figuratively, it can refer to piercing cold.
XL “went” = halak. This is go, come, walk. It is walk literally and figuratively and includes people and animals. It can be used figuratively for one’s moral life – how we walk according to God’s way or against it. It can also refer to the walk of life as in the course one’s life takes, the choices we make, etc.
XLI “before” = paneh. From panah (to turn, face, appear). This is face in a literal or figurative sense. It could be face, presence, anger, respect. It can also be used of God to indicate divine favor or presence.

He stoodXLII and shoutedXLIII to the ranksXLIV of Israel,XLV

Notes on verse 8a

XLII “stood” = amad. This is to stand up in a literal or figurative sense. So it can be establish, continue, endure, take a stand, act, be a servant, stand still, remain, stand against an enemy.
XLIII “shouted” = qara. This is to call or call out – to call someone by name. Also used more broadly for calling forth.
XLIV “ranks” = maarakah. 19x in OT. From arak (to arrange by setting in a row; to set a battle, estimate, put in order, or compare). This is a row or rank. More broadly, it can refer to a formation such as used in a military setting or any other ordered arrangement.
XLV “Israel” = Yisrael. From sarah (to persist, exert oneself, contend, persevere, wrestle, prevail) + el (God or god). This is Israel, meaning God strives or one who strives with God; new name for Jacob and for his offspring. This refers to the people and to the land.

“Why have you come out to draw upXLVI for battle? Am I not a Philistine, and are you not servantsXLVII of Saul?XLVIII ChooseXLIX a manL for yourselves, and let him come downLI to me. 

Notes on verse 8b

XLVI “draw up” = arak. Related to “ranks” in v8. See note XLIV above.
XLVII “servants” = ebed. From abad (to work, serve, compel; any kind of work; used causatively, can mean to enslave or keep in bondage). This is a servant, slave, or bondservant.
XLVIII “Saul” = Shaul. From shaal (to ask, inquire, beg, borrow, desire, request; can also mean demand). This is Saul or Shaul, meaning “asked of the Lord.”
XLIX “choose” = barah. 6x in OT. This is to eat, choose, make clear.
L “man” = ish. Same as {untranslated} in v4. See note XII above.
LI “come down” = yarad. This is to go down, descend; going down in a literal or figurative sense. It can be going to the shore or a boundary, bringing down an enemy.

If he is ableLII to fightLIII with me and killLIV me, then we will beLV your servants; but if I prevailLVI against him and kill him, then you shall be our servants and serveLVII us.” 

Notes on verse 9

LII “is able” = yakol. This is to be able, endure, overcome, prevail.
LIII “fight” = lacham. Related to “battle” in v1. See note IV above.
LIV “kill” = nakah. This is to hit whether lightly or severely. It can be used in a literal or figurative sense. So, this could be beat, punish, give wounds, kill, or slaughter.
LV “be” = hayah. This is to be or become, to happen.
LVI “prevail” = yakol. Same as “is able” in v9. See note LII above.
LVII “serve” = abad. Related to “servants” in v8. See note XLVII above.

10 And the Philistine said, “Today I defyLVIII the ranks of Israel! GiveLIX me a man, that we may fight together.”LX 

Notes on verse 10

LVIII “defy” = charaph. This is to expose and so figuratively to reproach, defame, carp at, defy. It can also mean spend the winter or betroth.
LIX “give” = natan. This is to give, put, set, offer. It is to give literally or figuratively.
LX “together” = yachad. From yachad (to join, be united). This is a unit, both, altogether, unitedness, alike.

11 When Saul and all Israel heardLXI these wordsLXII of the Philistine, they were dismayedLXIII and greatly afraid.LXIV

Notes on verse 11

LXI “heard” = shama. This is to hear, call, consent, or consider. It implies listening intelligently, giving attention, and, because of these two factors, obedience and action are often implied.
LXII “words” = dabar. From dabar (to speak, declare, discuss). This is speech, a word, a matter, an affair, charge, command, message, promise, purpose, report, request. It is a word, which implies things that are spoken of in a wide sense.
LXIII “dismayed” = chathath. This is properly to prostrate. So it could be shatter, break, or break down in a literal, violent sense. It could also figuratively refer to being dismayed, discouraged, or frightened. It can also mean to stand in awe.
LXIV “afraid” = yare. This is to fear, be afraid, dreadful. It can also refer to fearful reverence – to fear in a moral sense is to say to revere, respect.

19 Now Saul, and they, and all the menLXV of Israel, were in the valleyLXVI of Elah,LXVII fighting with the Philistines. 

Notes on verse 19

LXV “men” = enosh. Related to {untranslated} in v4. See note XII above.
LXVI “valley” = emeq. From amoq (to be deep in a literal or figurative sense; profound). This is Vale or valley – frequently part of place names.
LXVII “Elah” = Elah. 16x in OT. From elah (oak or terebinth; or some other kind of tree that is strong); from ayil (terebinth, oak); from the same as ulam (porch, hall); from the same as ul (mighty, strength, body, belly; root may mean to twist and that implies strength and power). This is Elah, a personal and place name that means “terebinth” or “oak.”

20 DavidLXVIII rose earlyLXIX in the morning,LXX leftLXXI the sheepLXXII with a keeper,LXXIII

Notes on verse 20a

LXVIII “David” = David. From the same as dod (beloved, love, uncle); the root may mean to boil, which is used figuratively to describe love. So, this implies someone you love such as a friend, a lover, or a close family member like an uncle. David’s name likely means something like “beloved one.”
LXIX “rose early” = shakam. This is leaning one’s shoulder into a burden or load, whether a person or an animal. Thus, it meant starting or rising early.
LXX “morning” = boqer. From baqar (to seek, plow, break forth, admire, care for). This refers to the break of day. So it is dawn, early, morning, or morrow.
LXXI “left” = natash. Properly, this is to beat or pound as when something is beaten in order to expand or disperse. It can be leave, abandon, allow, neglect, spread, fall, or thrust out.
LXXII “sheep” = tson. This is a flock of sheep and goats.
LXXIII “keeper” = shamar. This is to keep, watch, or preserve. It means to guard something or to protect it as a thorny hedge protects something.

tookLXXIV the provisions, and went as JesseLXXV had commandedLXXVI him.

Notes on verse 20b

LXXIV “took” = nasa. Related to “shield-bearer” in v7. See note XXXIX above.
LXXV “Jesse” = Yishay. Perhaps related to {untranslated} in v4. Perhaps from ish (see note XII) OR from the same as yesh (being, existence, substance). This is Jesse, a name which means “my husband” or “the Lord exists.” See https://www.abarim-publications.com/Meaning/Jesse.html
LXXVI “commanded” = tsavah. This is to charge, command, order, appoint, or enjoin. This is the root that the Hebrew word for “commandment” comes from (mitsvah).

He cameLXXVII to the encampmentLXXVIII as the armyLXXIX was going forth to the battle line,LXXX shouting the war cry.LXXXI 

Notes on verse 20c

LXXVII “came” = bo. This is to enter, come in, advance, fulfill, bring offerings, enter to worship, attack. It can also have a sexual connotation.
LXXVIII “encampment” = magal. 16x in OT. From the same as agol (round). Older root may mean to revolve. This is a path or course. It is a track in a literal or figurative sense. Could also refer to a rampart because it is circular.
LXXIX “army” = chayil. From chul (to be firm, strong, prosperous; to endure). This is strength, wealth, ability, activity. It can refer to soldier or a company of soldiers as well as goods. It is a force of people, means, or goods. It can speak of valor, virtue, or strength.
LXXX “battle line” = maarakah. Same as “ranks” in v8. See note XLIV above.
LXXXI “shouting the war cry” = rua + milchamah. Literally “shouting for the battle.” Rua is to break or destroy something so figuratively, an ear splitting sound such as a call of alarm or a joyful sound. Milchamah is the same as “battle” in v1. See note IV above.

21 Israel and the Philistines drew up for battle,LXXXII army against army.LXXXIII 22 David left the thingsLXXXIV in chargeLXXXV of the keeper of the baggage,LXXXVI

Notes on verses 21-22a

LXXXII “drew up for battle” = arak. Same as “draw up” in v8. See note XLVI above.
LXXXIII “army against army” = maarakah + qara + maarakah. Maarakah is the same as “ranks” in v8. See note XLIV above. Qara is to meet, befall, happen upon. It can be to encounter by chance or for aggression.
LXXXIV “things” = keli. From kalah (to end, be finished, complete, prepare, consume, spent, or completely destroyed). This is something that was prepared – any implement, utensil, article, vessel, weapon, or instrument. Also includes jewels, weapons, bags, carriages, and furniture.
LXXXV “charge” = yad. This is hand, ability, power. Hand in a literal sense, but also what one can do or the means by which one does it.
LXXXVI “baggage” = keli. Same as “things” in v22. See note LXXXIV above.

ranLXXXVII to the ranks, and went and greetedLXXXVIII his brothers.LXXXIX 

Notes on verse 22b

LXXXVII “ran” = ruts. This is to run or rush, divide quickly, bring swiftly. It can also refer to a footman or guard.
LXXXVIII “greeted” = shaalshalom. Shaal is related to “Saul” in v8. See note XLVIII above. Shalom is from shalam (to be complete or sound; to have safety mentally, physically, or extending to one’s estate; so, if these things are safe and complete, the implication is that one would be friendly; and, if being friendly, one would make amends and that friendship would be reciprocated). This is completeness, soundness, welfare, favor, friend, good health. It is to be safe and figuratively well, happy, at peace, friendly. Abstractly, it includes the ideas of welfare and prosperity (not in excessive wealth, but in having enough).
LXXXIX “brothers” = ach. This is brother, kindred, another, other, like. It is literally brother, but it can also be someone who is similar, resembling, or related to.

23 As he talkedXC with them,XCI theXCII champion, the Philistine of Gath, Goliath by name, came upXCIII out of the ranksXCIV of the Philistines, and spokeXCV the same words as before. And David heard him.

Notes on verse 23

XC “talked” = dabar. Related to “words” in v11. See note LXII above.
XCI {untranslated} = hinneh. From hen (lo! Behold! If, though; an expression of surprise). This is to draw attention, show suddenness or surprise, or to emphasize the importance of the coming statement. See! Lo! Behold!
XCII {untranslated} = ish. Same as {untranslated} in v4. See note XII above.
XCIII “came up” = alah. This is to go up, approach, ascend, be high, be a priority; to arise in a literal or figurative sense.
XCIV “ranks” = maarah. Related to “ranks” in v8 & “drew up for battle” in v21. 1x in OT. From maarakah (see note XLIV above). This is an army or a place within the army that is open.
XCV “spoke” = dabar. Same as “talked” in v23. See note XC above.

32 David said to Saul, “Let no one’sXCVI heartXCVII failXCVIII because of him; your servant will go and fight with this Philistine.” 

Notes on verse 32

XCVI “one’s” = adam. Perhaps from adam (to be red, make ruddy); related to adamah (ground, dirt, earth). This is man, humankind, also Adam’s name. It refers to a human individual or humanity.
XCVII “heart” = leb. May be related to labab (to encourage; properly, to be encased as with fat; used in a good sense, this means to transport someone with love; used in a bad sense, it can mean to dull one’s senses). This is the heart, courage, one’s inner self, the mind, or the will. Heart is only used in a figurative sense in the Old and New Testaments.
XCVIII “let…fail” = naphal. This is to fall, whether by accident, to fall prostrate, or to fall in violent death. Figuratively, it can refer to personal ruin or calamity, a city falling, an attack or a falling away. It can also be a deep sleep or wasting away.

33 Saul said to David, “You are not able to go against this Philistine to fight with him; for you are just a boy,XCIX and he has been a warriorC from his youth.”CI 

Notes on verse 33

XCIX “boy” = naar. May be from na’ar (to shake, toss up and down, tumble around). This is a child or a servant. It is a child in their active years so they could be aged anywhere from infancy to adolescence.
C “warrior” = ish + milchamah. Literally “man of war.” Ish is the same as {untranslated} in v4. See note XII above. Milchamah is the same as “battle” in v1. See note IV above.
CI “youth” = naur. Related to “boy” in v33. From the same as naar (see note XCIX above). This is youth or childhood.

34 But David said to Saul, “Your servant used to keepCII sheep for his father;CIII and whenever a lionCIV or a bearCV came, and took a lambCVI from the flock,CVII 

Notes on verse 34

CII “keep” = ra’ah + hayah. Literally “was a keeper.” Ra’ah is to tend a flock, pasture, or graze. It can mean to rule or to associate with someone. Figuratively, it can be ruler or teacher. Hayah is the same as “be” in v9. See note LV above.
CIII “father” = ab. This is father, chief, or ancestor. It is father in a literal or figurative sense.
CIV “lion” = ari. From arah (to gather or pluck). This is a young lion.
CV “bear” = dob. 12x in OT. From dabab (to glide, flow gently, speak, move slowly). This is a bear, perhaps as a slow moving creature.
CVI “lamb” = seh. Perhaps from sha’ah (to make a loud noise or crash, devastate, rush). This is a lamb, sheep, or goat – a part of a flock.
CVII “flock” = eder. From adar (fail, missing) OR from adar (to dig, help, keep rank; properly, to muster troops as for battle; to miss or lack since you can see who is missing following muster; to arrange like a vineyard and so to hoe). This is arrangement – of animals, a flock or herd.

35 I went after it and struckCVIII it down, rescuingCIX the lamb from its mouth;CX

Notes on verse 35a

CVIII “struck” = nakah. Same as “kill” in v9. See note LIV above.
CIX “rescuing” = natsal. This is to snatch someone or something away in a good sense – as rescue, defend, or deliver – or in a bad sense – as strip or plunder.
CX “mouth” = peh. This is mouth in a literal or figurative sense. So, more literally, it can be beak or jaws. More figuratively, it refers to speech, commands, or promises.

and if it turnedCXI against me, I would catchCXII it by the jaw,CXIII strike it down, and killCXIV it. 

Notes on verse 35b

CXI “turned” = qum. To arise, stand, accomplish, establish, abide. This is rising as in rising against, getting up after being sick or asleep, arising from one state to another, becoming powerful, or rising for action. It can also be standing in a figurative sense.
CXII “catch” = chazaq. This is to strengthen, seize, be courageous, repair, bind, heal, conquer, harden.
CXIII “jaw” = zaqan. 19x in OT. Perhaps from zaqen (to grow old, an old person). This is beard, especially as referring to someone older.
CXIV “kill” = mut. This is to die in a literal or figurative sense. It can also refer to being a dead body.

36 Your servant has killedCXV both lions and bears; and this uncircumcisedCXVI Philistine shall be like oneCXVII of them, since he has defied the armiesCXVIII of the livingCXIX God.”CXX 

Notes on verse 36

CXV “killed” = nakah. Same as “kill” in v9. See note LIV above.
CXVI “uncircumcised” = arel. From arel (to strip or expose, restrain; to remove in a literal or figurative sense). This is uncircumcised, unskilled, exposed, forbidden.
CXVII “one” = echad. Perhaps from achad (to unify, continue on a path; figuratively, to gather one’s thoughts). This is the number one, first, united. It can also be alone, altogether, a certain, a few.
CXVIII “armies” = maarakah. Same as “armies” in v8. See note XLIV above.
CXIX “living” = chay. From chayah (to live or keep alive literally or figuratively). This is alive, living, lifetime. It can also be used to describe someone’s age. It can refer to animals, plants, water, or a company or congregation of people. It is life in a very broad sense.
CXX “God” = Elohim. Related to “Israel” in v8. See note XLV above.

37 David said, “The Lord,CXXI who savedCXXII me from the pawCXXIII of the lion and from the paw of the bear, will save me from the handCXXIV of this Philistine.”

So Saul said to David, “Go, and may the Lord be with you!”

Notes on verse 37

CXXI “Lord” = YHVH. Related to “be” in v9. From havah (to be, become) or hayah (see note LV above). This is the name of the God of Israel, the self-existent and eternal one, the tetragrammaton. This pronunciation has been lost to time so “Lord” is generally used in its place.
CXXII “saved” = natsal. Same as “rescuing” in v35. See note CIX above.
CXXIII “paw” = yad. Same as “charge” in v22. See note LXXXV above.
CXXIV “hand” = yad. Same as “charge” in v22. See note LXXXV above.

38 Saul clothedCXXV David with his armor;CXXVI he putCXXVII a bronze helmetCXXVIII on his head and clothed him with a coat of mail. 

Notes on verse 38

CXXV “clothed” = labash. Same as “armed” in v5. See note XXIV above.
CXXVI “armor” = mad. 11x in OT. From madad (to measure, stretch, be extended, continue). This is measure, cloth, cloak, armor, stature, height.
CXXVII “put” = natan. Same as “give” in v10. See note LIX above.
CXXVIII “helmet” = qoba. Related to “helmet” in v5. 2x in OT. Perhaps related to koba (see note XXI above). This is helmet.

39 David strappedCXXIX Saul’s swordCXXX over the armor, and he triedCXXXI in vain to walk,CXXXII for he was not used toCXXXIII them. Then David said to Saul, “I cannotCXXXIV walk with these; for I am not used to them.” So David removedCXXXV them. 

Notes on verse 39

CXXIX “strapped” = chagar. This is to gird, bind, or arm. Generally, it is using a belt to gather up one’s garment so that it’s easier to run or move quickly.
CXXX “sword” = chereb. From charab (to attack, slay). This is any sharp instrument like a sword, dagger, axe, or mattock.
CXXXI “tried” = yaal. 19x in OT. This to be pleased or willing, determined, to take on something, to try, to do willingly, to begin. It can have the idea of assent or consent as well as continuing or persisting.
CXXXII “walk” = halak. Same as “went” in v7. See note XL above.
CXXXIII “used to” = nasah. This is to test, prove, try, tempt, or attempt.
CXXXIV “cannot” = lo + yakol. Yakol is the same as “is able” in v9. See note LII above.
CXXXV “removed” = sur. This is to turn aside in a literal or figurative sense – to depart, decline, rebel, remove, or withdraw.

40 Then he tookCXXXVI his staffCXXXVII in his hand, and choseCXXXVIII five smoothCXXXIX stonesCXL from the wadi,CXLI

Notes on verse 40a

CXXXVI “took” = laqach. This is to take, accept, carry away, receive. It can also have the sense of take a wife or take in marriage.
CXXXVII “staff” = maqqel. 18x in OT. This is a shoot with leaves growing from it or a staff. It could be a walking stick, a stick for guiding (e.g. sheep), a stick for striking like a war club, or a divining rod.
CXXXVIII “chose” = bachar. This is to choose, appoint, try, excellent.
CXXXIX “smooth” = challuq. 1x in OT. From chalaq (to be smooth in a figurative sense; can refer to the stones that were part of casting lots – hence, apportion, share, distribute; figuratively, it can also mean to flatter, slippery). This is smooth.
CXL “stones” = eben. This is a stone, weight, or mason. It is part of the word “Ebenezer.”
CXLI “wadi” = nachal. From nachal (to take as heritage, inherit, or distribute). This is a river or stream. It could be a wadi or arroyo – sometimes a narrow valley with no water at all, but in strong rains or when winter snow melts, it swells or floods with water.

and putCXLII them in his shepherd’sCXLIII bag,CXLIV in the pouch;CXLV his slingCXLVI was in his hand, and he drew nearCXLVII to the Philistine.

Notes on verse 40b

CXLII “put” = sum. Related to “named” in v4. See note XIV above.
CXLIII “shepherd’s” = ra’ah. Same as “keep” in v34. See note CII above.
CXLIV “bag” = keli. Same as “things” in v22. See note LXXXIV above.
CXLV “pouch” = yalqut. 1x in OT. From laqat (to pick up, glean, sling, gather). This is a container like a wallet or pouch.
CXLVI “sling” = qela. From qala (to sling, carve). This is something that hangs like a door screen, a door, a leaf or a sling.
CXLVII “drew near” = nagash. This is to draw, bring, or come near. It is approaching for any reason – as an attack on an enemy, in order to worship, to make an argument. It can also be used as a euphemism for sex.

41 The Philistine came on and drew nearCXLVIII to David, with his shield-bearer in frontCXLIX of him. 42 When the Philistine lookedCL and sawCLI David, he disdainedCLII him,

Notes on verses 41-42a

CXLVIII “drew near” = qareb. 8x in OT. From qarab (to come near, offer, make ready). This is to come, approach, draw near.
CXLIX “front” = paneh. From panah (to turn, face, appear). This is face in a literal or figurative sense. It could be face, presence, anger, respect. It can also be used of God to indicate divine favor or presence.
CL “looked” = nabat. This is to behold, look at intently, consider, or scan. It can mean to have respect or regard someone favorably.
CLI “saw” = raah. This is to see in a literal or figurative sense so stare, advise, think, view.
CLII “disdained” = bazah. This is to despise, hold in contempt, disesteem, or a person who is vile.

for he was only a youth, ruddyCLIII and handsomeCLIV in appearance.CLV 

Notes on verse 42b

CLIII “ruddy” = admoni. Related to “one’s” in v32. 3x in OT. From the same as adam (see note XCVI above). This is red or ruddy, whether of the hair or complexion.
CLIV “handsome” = yapheh. From yaphah (to be beautiful, decorate; root means being bright, which implies being beautiful). This is beautiful in a literal or figurative sense – appropriate, handsome, godly, pleasant.
CLV “appearance” = mareh. Related to “saw” in v42. From raah (see note CLI above). This is sight, appearance, or vision. It can be a view, seeing itself, that which is seen, something real, or a vision one sees

43 The Philistine said to David, “Am I a dog,CLVI that you come to me with sticks?”CLVII And the Philistine cursedCLVIII David by his gods.CLIX 

Notes on verse 43

CLVI “dog” = keleb. This is yelping or attacking. It can also refer to a dog or it can be a term used for a male prostitute.
CLVII “sticks” = maqqel. Same as “staff” in v40. See note CXXXVII above.
CLVIII “cursed” = qalal. This is to be little, insignificant, swift. It can also mean to bring down in esteem, create contempt, curse.
CLIX “gods” = elohim. Same as “God” in v36. See note CXX above.

44 The Philistine said to David, “Come to me, and I will give your fleshCLX to the birdsCLXI of the airCLXII and to the wild animalsCLXIII of the field.”CLXIV 

Notes on verse 44

CLX “flesh” = basar. From basar (being a messenger, publish, carry preach; properly, this is being fresh, rosy or cheerful as one bearing news). This is flesh, the body, fat, skin, self, nakedness, humankind, or kin. It can also refer to private parts.
CLXI “birds” = oph. From uph (to fly, flee, shine, be weary, be faint). This is a flying creature.
CLXII “air” = shamayim. Root may mean being lofty. This is sky, the air, or heaven. It is in a dual noun form so this might refer to the part of the sky where the clouds move on the one hand and the part beyond that where the sun, moon, and stars are on the other hand.
CLXIII “wild animals” = behemah. This is animal or cattle. It is often used of large quadrupeds.
CLXIV “field” = sadeh. This is literally field, ground, soil, or land. It can be used to mean wild like a wild animal.

45 But David said to the Philistine, “You come to me with sword and spear and javelin; but I come to you in the name of the Lord of hosts,CLXV the God of the armiesCLXVI of Israel, whom you have defied. 46 This very day the Lord will deliverCLXVII you into my hand, and I will strike you down and cut offCLXVIII your head;

Notes on verses 45-46a

CLXV “hosts” = tsaba. From tsaba (to wage war, serve, assemble, fight, perform, muster, wait on). This is a large group of persons (used figuratively for a group of things). It implies a campaign literally as with army, war, warfare, battle, company, soldiers. Can also be used figuratively for hardship or for worship.
CLXVI “armies” = maarakah. Same as “ranks” in v8. See note XLIV above.
CLXVII “deliver” = sagar. This is to shut up, imprison, lock, hand over, or figuratively surrender.
CLXVIII “cut off” = sur. Same as “removed” in v39. See note CXXXV above.

and I will give the dead bodiesCLXIX of the Philistine armyCLXX this very day to the birds of the air and to the wild animalsCLXXI of the earth,CLXXII

Notes on verse 46b

CLXIX “dead bodies” = peger. From pagar (to be exhausted, relax). This is a carcass or remains, whether a person or animal. Figuratively, it can also refer to an idol.
CLXX “army” = machaneh. Same as “armies” in v1. See note III above.
CLXXI “wild animals” = chay. Same as “living” in v36. See note CXIX above.
CLXXII “earth” = erets. Root may mean to be firm. This is earth, ground, field land, or country.

so that all the earth may knowCLXXIII that there isCLXXIV a God in Israel, 47 and that all this assemblyCLXXV may know that the Lord does not saveCLXXVI by sword and spear; for the battle is the Lord’s and he will give you into our hand.”

Notes on verses 46c-47

CLXXIII “know” = yada. This is to know, acknowledge, advise, answer, be aware, be acquainted with. Properly, this is to figure something out by seeing. It includes ideas of observation, recognition, and care about something. It can be used causatively for instruction, designation, and punishment.
CLXXIV “there is” = yesh. Related to “Jesse” in v20. See note LXXV above.
CLXXV “assembly” = qahal. This is an assembly, congregation, or multitude.
CLXXVI “save” = yasha. To deliver, defend, help, preserve, rescue, be safe. Properly, to be open, wide or free, which implies being safe. Used causatively, it means to free.

48 CLXXVIIWhenCLXXVIII the Philistine drew nearerCLXXIX to meetCLXXX David, David ran quicklyCLXXXI toward the battle lineCLXXXII to meet the Philistine. 

Notes on verse 48

CLXXVII {untranslated} = hayah. Same as “be” in v9. See note LV above.
CLXXVIII {untranslated} = qum. Same as “turned” in v35. See note CXI above.
CLXXIX “drew nearer” = halak + qarab. Halak is the same as “went” in v7. See note XL above. Qarab is related to “drew near” in v41. See note CXLVIII above.
CLXXX “meet” = qara. Same as “against” in v21. See note LXXXIII above.
CLXXXI “quickly” = mahar. This is being liquid, which implies flowing. So, this word implies hurrying forward, whether in a positive or negative sense.
CLXXXII “battle line” = maarakah. Same as “ranks” in v8. See note XLIV above.

49 David putCLXXXIII his hand in his bag, tookCLXXXIV out a stone, slungCLXXXV it, and struck the Philistine on his forehead;CLXXXVI

Notes on verse 49a

CLXXXIII “put” = shalach. This is to send out, away, send for, forsake. It can also mean to divorce or set a slave free.
CLXXXIV “took” = laqach. Same as “quick” in v40. See note CXXXVI above.
CLXXXV “slung” = qala. Related to “sling” in v40. 7x in OT. See note CXLVI above.
CLXXXVI “forehead” = metsach. Related to “greaves” in v6. 13x in OT. See note XXIX above.

the stone sankCLXXXVII into his forehead, and he fellCLXXXVIII faceCLXXXIX down on the ground.CXC

Notes on verse 49b

CLXXXVII “sank” = taba. 10x in OT. This is sink, drown, settle, or fasten.
CLXXXVIII “fell” = naphal. Same as “let…fail” in v32. See note XCVIII above.
CLXXXIX “face” = paneh. Same as “before” in v7. See note XLI above.
CXC “ground” = erets. Same as “earth” in v46. See note CLXXII above.

Image credit: “David and Goliath” by John August Swanson, 2005.

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