1 Samuel 30:1-8, 17-19

1 Samuel 30:1-8, 17-19
A Women’s Lectionary – Proper 19


NowA when DavidB and his menC cameD to ZiklagE

Notes on verse 1a

A {untranslated} = hayah. This is to be or become, to happen.
B “David” = David. From the same as dod (beloved, love, uncle); the root may mean to boil, which is used figuratively to describe love. So, this implies someone you love such as a friend, a lover, or a close family member like an uncle. David’s name likely means something like “beloved one.”
C “men” = ish. Perhaps from enosh (human, humankind, mortal); from anash (to be weak, sick, or frail). This is man, husband, another, or humankind.
D “came” = bo. This is to enter, come in, advance, fulfill, bring offerings, enter to worship, attack. It can also have a sexual connotation.
E “Ziklag” = Tsiqelag. 15x in OT. Perhaps from tsuq (“to smelt copper”) + log (pint). This is Ziklag, a city whose name may mean “a pint of liquid metal,” “winding,” or “outflowing of a fountain.” See https://www.abarim-publications.com/Meaning/Ziklag.html

on the thirdF day,G the AmalekitesH

Notes on verse 1b

F “third” = shelishi. From shalosh (three, fork, triad). This is third or one-third of something.
G “day” = yom. Root may mean being hot. This is the day in a literal or figurative sense. It can also mean birth, age, daylight, continually or other references to time.
H “Amalekites” = Amaleqi. 12x in OT. From Amaleq (Amalek or Amalekites;  the person and their descendants); perhaps from amal (to work – hard labor) OR from am (people or nation; a tribe, troops or armies, or figuratively to refer to a flock of animals); {from amam (to darken, hide, associate; creating shadows by huddling together)} + laqaq (to lap, lick) OR from am (see above) + malaq (to wring, nip; to remove a bird’s head). This is Amalekite, perhaps meaning “people that wring,” “people that lap,” “nippers,” or “lickers.” See https://www.abarim-publications.com/Meaning/Amalekite.html & https://www.abarim-publications.com/Meaning/Amalek.html

had made a raidI on the NegebJ and on Ziklag. They had attackedK Ziklag, burned it down,L 

Notes on verse 1c

I “made a raid” = pashat. This is to raid or invade. Figuratively, it means to strip or plunder.
J “Negeb” = Negeb. Root may mean to be parched. The Negeb is the south country – sometimes used to refer to Egypt. This is a land that suffers from a lot of drought.
K “attacked” = nakah. This is to hit whether lightly or severely. It can be used in a literal or figurative sense. So, this could be beat, punish, give wounds, kill, or slaughter.
L “burned…down” = saraph + et + esh. Saraph is to burn or kindle. This is the root that “seraphim” comes from. Esh is fire, burning, flaming, hot. It is fire in a literal or figurative sense.

and taken captiveM the womenN and all who were in it, both smallO and great;P

Notes on verse 2a

M “taken captive” = shabah. This is to carry away into captivity, bring away, capture, lead away.
N “women” = ishshah. Related to “men” in v1. From ish (see note C above). This is woman, wife, or female.
O “small” = qatan. From quwt (grieved, cut off, to detest). This is least, small, young, little one. It is literally smaller whether in amount or size. Figuratively it is smaller in the sense of younger or less important.
P “great” = gadol. From gadal (to grow up, become great, become wealthy – to advance. The root meaning may be to twist in the sense of the process of growing). This is great, high, bigger, noble, old, marvelous. It can also refer to someone who is powerful or distinguished.

they killedQ noneR of them but carried them offS and wentT their way.U 

Notes on verse 2b

Q “killed” = mut. This is to die in a literal or figurative sense. It can also refer to being a dead body.
R “none” = loish. Ish is the same as “men” in v1. See note C above.
S “carried…off” = nahag. This is to drive as in driving flocks, but also driving in animal or vehicle like a chariot. It can mean to carry away, lead, drive away, proceed, or guide. It can also relate to behavior and what one is accustomed to.
T “went” = halak. This is go, come, walk. It is walk literally and figuratively and includes people and animals. It can be used figuratively for one’s moral life – how we walk according to God’s way or against it. It can also refer to the walk of life as in the course one’s life takes, the choices we make, etc.
U “way” = derek. From darak (to tread, march, to walk. Can also mean affixing a string to a box since one needs to step on it to bend it in the process; so also an archer). This is a road as a thing that is walked on. Can be used figuratively for the path that one’s life takes or how one chooses to live one’s life.

When David and his men came to the city,V, W they found it burned down and their wivesX and sonsY and daughtersZ taken captive. 

Notes on verse 3

V “city” = iyr. From uwr (to awaken or wake oneself up). This can mean excitement in the sense of wakefulness or city. Properly, this is a place that is guarded. Guards kept schedules according to watches. This sense of the word would include cities as well as encampments or posts that were guarded.
W {untranslated} = hinneh. From hen (lo! Behold! If, though; an expression of surprise). This is to draw attention, show suddenness or surprise, or to emphasize the importance of the coming statement. See! Lo! Behold!
X “wives” = ishshah. Same as “women” in v2. See note N above.
Y “sons” = ben. From banah (to build or obtain children). This is son, age, child. It is son in a literal or figurative sense.
Z “daughters” = bat. Related to “sons” in v3. From ben (see note Y above). This is daughter in a literal or figurative sense.

Then David and the peopleAA who were with him raisedBB their voicesCC and weptDD until they had no more strengthEE to weep. 

Notes on verse 4

AA “people” = am. From amam (to darken, hide, associate; creating shadows by huddling together). This is people or nation. It can be used specifically for a tribe, collectively of troops or armies, or figuratively to refer to a flock of animals.
BB “raised” = nasa. This is to lift in a broad sense, literally and figuratively. So it could be to carry, take, or arise. It could also be bring forth, advance, accept.
CC “voices” = qol. This is a sound, used often for human voices. Also used when God speaks or angels, animals or instruments. It can be a cry or a noise, thunder or earthquakes and so on.
DD “wept” = bakah. This is to weep, complain, or lament.
EE “strength” = koach. Root may mean to be firm. This is power, strength, force. It can be literal or figurative, positive or negative. It can also mean capacity or means – what something produces. Additionally, it could refer to some kind of small reptile.

David’s twoFF wives also had been taken captive, AhinoamGG of JezreelHH

Notes on verse 5a

FF “two” = shenayim. From sheni (double, again, another, second); from shanah (to fold, repeat, double, alter, or disguise). This is two, both, second, couple.
GG “Ahinoam” = Achinoam. 7x in OT. From ach (brother, kindred, another, other, like) + noam (pleasantness, beauty, favor, agreeableness, delight, splendor, or grace); {from naem (to be pleasant, beautiful, sweet, or agreeable in a literal or figurative sense)}. This is Achinoam or Ahinoam, meaning “my brother is delight” or “brother of pleasantness” or “kindred to sweetness” or “brother of grace” or “a delightful ally.” See https://www.abarim-publications.com/Meaning/Ahinoam.html
HH “Jezreel” = Yizreelith. 5x in OT. From Yizreeli (Jezreelite); from Yizreel (Jezreel, Yizreel; “God sows” or “God will sow”); {from zara (to sow or scatter seed; conceive or yield) + el (God, a god)}. This is a woman who comes from Jezreel.

and AbigailII the widowJJ of NabalKK of Carmel.LL 

Notes on verse 5b

II “Abigail” = Abigayil. 17x in OT. From ab (father, ancestor, grandfather; father in a literal or figurative sense) + gil (circle, rejoicing, or age); {from gil (properly, twirling around because of a strong feeling – whether of rejoicing or from fear; to rejoice, be glad or joyful, to cry)}. This is Abigail, meaning “my father is joy” or “the father is joyful” or “father of exultation” or “source of joy.” See https://www.abarim-publications.com/Meaning/Abigail.html
JJ “widow” = ishshah. Same as “women” in v2. See note N above.
KK “Nabal” = Nabal. From nabal (to be foolish, senseless, fall away, faint, wither, to be wicked, disgrace). This is Nabal, meaning “dolt.”
LL “Carmel” = Karmeli. 5x in OT. From Karmel (Carmel; “fruitful plentiful field” or “plantation” or “orchard” or “garden”); from the same as kerem (vineyard, garden, vines, or a vintage). This is Carmelite. See https://www.abarim-publications.com/Meaning/Carmel.html

David was in greatMM danger,NN for the people spoke of stoningOO him because allPP the peopleQQ

Notes on verse 6a

MM “great” = meod. Perhaps from the same as uwd (firebrand, a poker). This is very, greatly, exceedingly. It can also mean vehemence, force, abundance.
NN “was in…danger” = yatsar. 10x in OT. From the same as tsarar (to bind, restrict, narrow, be cramped, an adversary). This is to be narrow, pressed on. In a figurative sense, it can refer to being vexed or in distress.
OO “stoning” = saqal. Properly, this means being weighty. However, it is used for stoning someone (to death) or for removing stones.
PP “all” = kol. From kalal (to complete). This is all or every.
QQ {untranslated} = ish. Same as “men” in v1. See note C above.

were bitterRR in spiritSS for their sons and daughters. But David strengthenedTT himself in the LordUU his God.VV

Notes on verse 6b

RR “were bitter” = marah. This is to be contentious, rebellious, bitter, provoking, disobedient. It can be to be or make bitter or unpleasant. Figuratively, it is to rebel or resist and causatively to provoke. This is the root of “Miriam.”
SS “spirit” = nephesh. Related to naphash (to refresh or be refreshed). This is soul, self, person, emotion. It is a breathing creature. Can also refer to appetites and desires.
TT “strengthened” = chazaq. This is to strengthen, seize, be courageous, repair, bind, heal, conquer, harden.
UU “Lord” = YHVH. Related to {untranslated} in v1. From havah (to be, become) or hayah (see note A above). This is the name of the God of Israel, the self-existent and eternal one, the tetragrammaton. This pronunciation has been lost to time so “Lord” is generally used in its place.
VV “God” = Elohim. Related to “Jezreel” in v5. See note HH above.

David said to the priestWW AbiatharXX son of Ahimelech,YY “BringZZ, AAA me the ephod.”BBB So Abiathar brought the ephod to David. 

Notes on verse 7

WW “priest” = kohen. This is literally the one who officiates i.e. the priest. This is where the Jewish last name “Cohen” (and its variants) comes from.
XX “Abiathar” = Ebyathar. Related to “Abigail” in v5. From ab (see note II above) + yathar (to jut over, remain behind, preserve, to excel). This is Abiathar or Ebyathar, meaning “the great one is father” or “father of abundance,” in the sense of liberality or “father of a remnant” or “father of preeminence” or “father of plenty.” See https://www.abarim-publications.com/Meaning/Abiathar.html
YY “Ahimelech” = Achimelek. Related to “Ahinoam” in v5. 17x in OT. From ach (see note GG above) + melek (king, royal). This is Ahimelech, meaning “brother of a king.” It is a name used by Israelites and Hittites.
ZZ “bring” = nagash. This is to draw, bring, or come near. It is approaching for any reason – as an attack on an enemy, in order to worship, to make an argument. It can also be used as a euphemism for sex.
AAA {untranslated} = na. This particle is used for requests or for urging. It can be we pray, now, I ask you, oh. This is the same “na” in “hosanna.”
BBB “ephod” = ephod. This is an ephod, shoulder piece – perhaps a breastplate or apron. It can refer specifically to a ritual garment worn by the high priest. Alternately, it can refer to an image.

David inquiredCCC of the Lord, “Shall I pursueDDD this band?EEE Shall I overtakeFFF them?”

He answered him, “Pursue, for you shall surely overtakeGGG and shall surely rescue.”HHH

Notes on verse 8

CCC “inquired” = shaal. This is to ask, inquire, beg, borrow, desire, request. It can also mean to demand.
DDD “pursue” = radaph + achar.  Radaph is to chase after, pursue, hunt, or persecute. It is running after someone or something, generally with hostile motives. Achar is from achar (to remain behind, linger, continue, be behind, or delay; can also imply procrastination). This is after or the last part, following.
EEE “band” = gedud. From gadad (to cut, gather, assemble, crowd; also, to gash as pushing in). This is a crowd, but generally used to refer to soldiers. So, it is a band, troop, or company. It can also be a group of robbers.
FFF “overtake” = nasag. This is to reach in a literal or figurative sense. It is to overtake, catch, or be able to.
GGG “surely overtake” = nasag + nasag. Same as “overtake” in v8. See note FFF above. The word is repeated twice – the first time as an Infinitive Absolute. The Infinitive Absolute serves to emphasize the sentiment of the word. It is rather like Foghorn Leghorn’s speech pattern, “I said, I said.”
HHH “surely rescue” = natsal + natsal. This is to snatch someone or something away in a good sense – as rescue, defend, or deliver – or in a bad sense – as strip or plunder. The word is repeated twice – the first time as an Infinitive Absolute. The Infinitive Absolute serves to emphasize the sentiment of the word. It is rather like Foghorn Leghorn’s speech pattern, “I said, I said.”

17 David attacked them from twilightIII until the evening of the next day. Not oneJJJ of them escaped,KKK except fourLLL hundredMMM

Notes on verse 17a

III “twilight” = nesheph. 12x in OT. From nashaph (to blow like a breeze of fresh wind). This is twilight or dusk, dawn. It refers to the breeze and so it is the time when the breeze comes.
JJJ “one” = ish. Same as “men” in v1. See note C above.
KKK “escaped” = malat. This is to be smooth, which implies to escape as slipping away from. It can also be release, rescue, deliver, or preserve. It can be used specifically to meaning giving birth or making sparks.
LLL “four” = arba. From raba (to make square or be four-sided). This is four.
MMM “hundred” = meah. This is hundred or some number times one hundred (i.e. hundredfold or the base of two hundred, three hundred, etc.).

youngNNN men, who mountedOOO camelsPPP and fled.QQQ 18 David recoveredRRR all that the AmalekitesSSS had taken,TTT and David rescued his two wives. 

Notes on verses 17b-18

NNN “young” = naar. May be from na’ar (to shake, toss up and down, tumble around). This is a child or a servant. It is a child in their active years so they could be aged anywhere from infancy to adolescence.
OOO “mounted” = rakab. This is to ride an animal or in some vehicle. It can also mean bringing on a horse.
PPP “camels” = gamal. From gamal (how one deals with someone whether positively or negatively – so to reward, requite; to wean or the work that goes into something ripening). This is a camel as an animal of labor or one that bears burdens. The English word “camel” is from a Semitic source, perhaps Hebrew or others.
QQQ “fled” = nus. This is to flee, vanish away, hide, escape, be displayed.
RRR “recovered” = natsal. Same as “surely rescue” in v8. See note HHH above.
SSS “Amalekites” = Amaleq. Related to “Amalekites” in v1. See note H above.
TTT “taken” = laqach. This is to take, accept, carry away, receive. It can also have the sense of take a wife or take in marriage.

19 Nothing was missing,UUU whether small or great, sons or daughters, spoilVVV or anythingWWW that had been taken; David brought backXXX everything.YYY

Notes on verse 19

UUU “was missing” = adar. 10x in OT. This is to dig, help, keep rank. Properly, it is to muster troops as for battle. So, it could be to miss or lack since you can see who is missing following muster. Also, to arrange like a vineyard and so to hoe.
VVV “spoil” = shalal. From shalal (to plunder, loot, capture). This is spoil, prey, or plunder.
WWW “anything” = kol. Same as “all” in v6. See note PP above.
XXX “brought back” = shub. To turn back, return, turn away – literally or figuratively. Doesn’t necessarily imply going back to where you started from. This is also the root verb for the Hebrew word for repentance “teshubah.”
YYY “everything” = kol. Same as “all” in v6. See note PP above.

Image credit: “Battle of the Amalekites” by Stefano della Bella, circa 1645-1652.

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