1 Timothy 6:6-16

1 Timothy 6:6-16
A Women’s Lectionary 32


Of course, there is greatA gainB in godlinessC combined with contentment,D 

Notes on verse 6

A “great” = megas. This is big in a literal or figurative sense – great, large, exceeding, abundant, high, mighty, perfect, strong, etc.
B “gain” = porismos. 2x in NT. From porizo (to procure) OR from poros (passageway, ford). This is a providing, acquisition, a source of gain.
C “godliness” = eusebeia. 15x in NT– 1x in Acts, 8x in 1 Timothy, 1x in 2 Timothy, 1x in Titus, and 4x in 2 Peter. From eusebes (pious, devout, respectful); {from eu (good, well, well done) + sebomai (to worship, revere, adore, hold in high regard or in awe; veneration shown by a devout one)}. This is piety, devotion – showing reverence.
D “contentment” = autarkeia. 2x in NT. From autarkes (contented, independent, having enough); {from autos (he, she, self, they, same) + arkeo (to assist, be satisfied or sufficient; properly, to ward off, by extension being satisfactory)}.  This is independence or self-sufficiency.

for we broughtE nothing into the world,F so that we canG take nothing outH of it, 

Notes on verse 7

E “brought” = eisphero. 8x in NT. From eis (to, into, for, among) + phero (to bear, bring, lead, make known publicly; to carry in a literal or figurative sense)}. This is to carry in, lead into, or announce. It can be literal or figurative.
F “world” = kosmos. Perhaps from the base of komizo (to carry, convey, recover); from komeo (to take care of). This is order, the world, the universe, including its inhabitants. Literally, this is something that is ordered so it can refer to all creation. It can also refer to decoration in the sense that something is better ordered and, thus, made more beautiful. This is where “cosmos” and “cosmetics” come from.
G “can” = dunamai. This is to be able, or something that is possible. It can also be empowered or being powerful. The Greek word for “miracle” (dunamis) comes from this root.
H “take…out” = ekphero. Related to “brought” in v7. 8x in NT. From ek (from, from out of) + phero (see note E above). This is to lead, produce, carry out.

but if we have foodI and clothing,J we will be contentK with these. 

Notes on verse 8

I “food” = diatrophe. 1x in NT. From dia (through, because of, across, thoroughly) + trophe (nourishment in a literal or figurative sense; by implication, ration or wages); {from trepo (to turn)} OR from dia (see above) + perhaps from trepho (to bring up, rear, nourish, fatten, nurse; properly, to enlarge through proper nourishment)}. This is nourishment or supplies.
J “clothing” = skepasma. 1x in NT. From skepazo (to cover) OR from skepas (a covering); maybe related to skopos (a mark or goal like the marker at the end of a race; figuratively, other goals or destinations; also, a watch or sentry); {from skeptomai (to peer out, consider, gaze carefully)}. This is covering or clothing.
K “be content” = arkeo. Related to “contentment” in v6. 8x in NT. See note D above.

But those who wantL to be richM fallN into temptationO

Notes on verse 9a

L “want” = boulomai. This is to wish, desire, intend. Also, to plan with great determination.
M “be rich” = plouteo. 12x in NT. From ploutizo (to enrich, cause abundance, bring fullness); from ploutos (abundance, wealth, or riches; money, possessions, spiritual abundance, or a valuable bestowment); from polus (much, many, abundant) OR pleo (to sail, voyage); {probably from pluno (to plunge – so to wash); from pluo (to flow)} OR pletho (to fill, accomplish, supply; to fill to maximum capacity). This is to be rich or abound in. It is to be or get wealth in a literal or figurative sense.
N “fall” = empipto. 7x in NT. From en (in, on, at, by, with) + pipto (to fall in a literal or figurative sense). This is to fall in, be trapped, involved with, or overwhelmed by.
O “temptation” = peirasmos. From peirazo (to test, try, tempt, or make proof of, scrutinize, or assay something; could also be examine, entice, prove, or discipline); from peira (trial, experiment, attempt, experience, assaying); from the base of peran (over, beyond, across); akin to pera (on the far side); from a derivative or peiro (to pierce). This is a test as in an experiment or assaying. It is also trial, temptation, and discipline. Further, it could be used to mean calamity, affliction, or adversity more generally.

and are trappedP by manyQ senselessR and harmfulS desiresT

Notes on verse 9b

P “trapped” = pagis. 5x in NT. From pegnumi (to fasten, to set up a tent). This is a trap or a snare. It is often used to snare birds. Figuratively, this is a stratagem or a moral snare, a trick.
Q “many” = polus. Related to “be rich” in v9. See note M above.
R “senseless” = anoetos. 6x in NT. From a (not, without) + noieo (to perceive, think, understand); {from nous (mind, understanding, reasoning faculty, intellect, capacity to reflect)}. This is not thinking or thoughtless. It is not using proper logic to think something through.
S “harmful” = blaberos. 1x in NT. From blapto (to harm or to hinder). This is hurtful or injurious.
T “desires” = epithumia. From epithmueo (long for, set one’s heart on, yearn, desire); {from epi (on, upon, at, what is fitting) + thumos (passion, wrath; actions emerging from passion or impulse) {from thuo (to rush along, breathe violently, offer sacrifice)}}. This is desire, a longing built on passionate emotion or urges. This can be a positive or a negative passion (lust or eagerness).

that plungeU peopleV into ruinW and destruction.X 

Notes on verse 9c

U “plunge” = buthizo. 2x in NT. From buthos (deep, bottom, deep sea); {akin to bathos (depth, fullness, profundity, or immensity); from bathus (deep in a literal or figurative sense); from the same root as basis (step, foot); from baino (to walk, go)}. This is to plunge, submerge, or sink.
V “people” = anthropos. Probably from aner (man, male, husband) + ops (eye, face); {from optanomai (to appear, be seen); perhaps from horao (become, seem, appear)}. This is human, humankind. Used for all genders.
W “ruin” = olethros. 4x in NT. From ollumi (to destroy). This is ruination, destruction, doom. It can also mean death, punishment, or undoing.
X “destruction” = apoleia. Related to “ruin” in v9. 18x in NT. From apollumi (to destroy, cut off, to perish – perhaps violently; to cancel or remove); {from apo (from, away from) + ollumi (see note W above)}. This is destruction, loss, something cut off, ruin, perdition. It can be any kind of loss whether tangible, spiritual, or eternal.

10 For the love of moneyY is a rootZ of all kindsAA of evil,BB

Notes on verse 10a

Y “love of money” = philarguria. 1x in NT. From philarguros (loving money, covetous); {from philos (dear, beloved, a friend, an associate; friendship with personal affection, a trusted confidante; love from personal experience with another person) + arguros (silver, whether the metal itself or things made from silver); {from argos (shining)}}. This is love of money, covetousness.
Z “root” = rhiza. 17x in NT. This is a root literally or figuratively so it would be the root of what comes from it – shoot, source, descendant. This is where the word “rhizome” comes from.
AA “all kinds” = pas. This is all or every.
BB “evil” = kakos.  This is bad, evil, harm, ill. It is evil that is part of someone’s core character – intrinsic, rotted, worthless, depraved, causing harm. It refers to deep inner malice that comes from a rotten character. Can be contrasted with the Greek poneros, which is that which bears pain – a focus on the miseries and pains that come with evil. Also contrasting the Greek sapros, which deals with falling away from a previously embodied virtue.

and in their eagernessCC to be rich some have wanderedDD away from the faithEE and piercedFF themselves with many pains.GG

Notes on verse 10b

CC “eagerness” = orego. 3x in NT. This is to stretch out towards, yearn for, aspire to, desire.
DD “wandered” = apoplanao. 2x in NT. From apo (from, away from) + planao (to wander, lead astray, mistake, or deceive; to sin – going off the right path); {from plane (wandering – used figuratively for deceit, error, sin, fraudulence, or wandering from orthodoxy); from planos (wandering, misleading, a deceiver or imposter)}. This is to wander, go astray. It is to lead someone from where they belong causing problems as a result.
EE “faith” = pistis. From peitho (to have confidence, urge, be persuaded, agree, assure, believe, have confidence, trust). This is less about knowing, believing, and repeating a list of doctrines then it is about trusting God. Faith means listening to God and seeking to live a holy life even (and especially) when we don’t understand how everything works or fits together. Faith is about being faithful (trusting and doing) rather than being all knowing.
FF “pierced” = peripeiro. Related to “temptation” in v9. 1x in NT. From peri (all-around, encompassing, excess) + peiro (see note O above). This is to penetrate or transfix.
GG “pains” = odune. 2x in NT. Perhaps from duno (to enter, sink into; can also be set like the sun); from duo (to sink). This is pain, distress, or anguish, whether physical or mental.

11 But as for you,HH manII of God,JJ shunKK all this; pursueLL righteousness,MM

Notes on verse 11a

HH {untranslated} = o. 17x in NT. This is O or oh – used to speak to someone or express a strong feeling.
II “man” = anthropos. Same as “people” in v9. See note V above.
JJ “God” = Theos. From Proto-Indo-European origins, meaning do, put, place. This is God or a god in general.
KK “shun” = pheugo. This is to run away in a literal or figurative sense. It can also be to flee, escape, shun, or vanish.
LL “pursue” = dioko. From dio (put to flight). This is chase or pursue in an aggressive fashion. By implication, it is persecute. It can also be used positively for eagerly pursuing something.
MM “righteousness” = dikaiosune. From dikaios (correct, righteous – implies innocent; this is that which conforms to God’s notion of justice, uprightness); from dike (the principle of justice; that which is right in a way that is very clear; a decision or the execution of that decision; originally, this word was for custom or usage; evolved to include the process of law, judicial hearing, execution of sentence, penalty, and even vengeance; more commonly, it refers to what is right); may be from deiknumi (to show, point out, exhibit; figurative for teach, demonstrate, make known). This is judicial or divine approval of character or action. This is righteousness, justice, justness, divine righteousness.

godliness, faith, love,NN endurance,OO gentleness.PP 

Notes on verse 11b

NN “love” = agape. From agapao (to love, take pleasure in, esteem; to prefer). This is love, goodwill, benevolence. It is God’s divine love or human love that mirrors God’s love.
OO “endurance” = hupomone. From hupo (by, under, about) + meno (to stay, remain, wait, await, continue, abide). This is properly to remain behind or remain under. It implies endurance, patience, steadfastness, and waiting in hope.
PP “gentleness” = prautes. 12x in NT. From praus (gentle, meek, which implies humility); related to praios (meek, gentle, kind); related to praotes (mildness kindness, meekness; being temperate – gentle, but strong; implies humility). This is gentleness, mildness, meekness, or humility. It is strength mixed with gentleness.

12 FightQQ the goodRR fightSS of the faith; take holdTT of the eternalUU lifeVV

Notes on verse 12a

QQ “fight” = agonizomai. 8x in NT. From agon (a gathering or contest – as an athletic competition such as a race; also conflict, struggle, opposition or a fight; used figuratively in a positive sense – as fighting the good fight of faith; used in a negative figurative sense for effort or anxiety; properly, refers to a place where people gather, which implies the game or contest); from ago (lead, bring, carry, drive, go). This is to struggle, strive, or fight. It could be contending to win a prize or against an adversary or in war. It can also mean striving to accomplish something. This is where the word “agonize” comes from.
RR “good” = kalos. This is good, noble, beautiful, correct, or worthy. This is external signs of goodness like beauty, demonstrations of honorable character, showing moral virtues. A different word, agathos, speaks of intrinsic good.
SS “fight” = agon. Related to “fight” in v12. 6x in NT. See note QQ above.
TT “take hold” = epilambanomai. 19x in NT. From epi (on, upon, against, what is fitting) + lambano (active acceptance/taking of what is available or what has been offered; emphasizes the choice and action of the individual). This is to take hold of, catch, or seize. It can also mean to help. It focuses on the intentionality and resolve of the one doing the catching.
UU “eternal” = aionios. From aion (an age, length of time). This is age-long, forever, everlasting. Properly, that which lasts for an age. This is where eon comes from.
VV “life” = zoe. From zao (to live, be alive). This is life including the vitality of humans, plants, and animals – it is life physical and spiritual and life everlasting.

to which you were calledWW and for which you madeXX the good confessionYY in the presence ofZZ many witnesses.AAA 

Notes on verse 12b

WW “called” = kaleo. Related to keleuo (to command, order, direct); from kelomai (to urge on). This is to call by name, invite, to name, bid, summon, call aloud.
XX “made” = homologeo. From homologos (of one mind); {from homos (the same) + lego (to say, speak, tell)}. This is to agree, speak the same, declare, promise, praise, celebrate. It can mean to align with, express the same conclusion, endorse.
YY “confession” = homologia. Related to “made” in v12. 6x in NT. From homologeo (see note XX above). This is agreement, confession, acknowledgment. It is professing or affirming a conclusion.
ZZ “in the presence of” = enopios. Related to “people” in v9. From en (in, on, at, by, with) + ops (see note V above). This is literally “in sight of.” It means before in a literal or figurative sense.
AAA “witnesses” = martus. This is a witness whether having heard or seen something. It refers to a witness literally, judicially, or figuratively. By analogy, this is a martyr. This is also where the word “martyr” comes from.

13 In the presence of God, who gives lifeBBB to all things, and of ChristCCC Jesus,DDD

Notes on verse 13a

BBB “gives life” = zoogoneo. Related to “life” in v12. 3x in NT. From zoon (literally a thing that is alive; so, an animal or living creature); {from zao (see note VV above)} + ginomai (to come into being, to happen, become, be born; to emerge from one state or condition to another; this is coming into being with the sense of movement or growth). This is to keep alive, save, preserve, rescue.
CCC “Christ” = Christos. From chrio (consecrate by anointing with oil; often done for prophets, priests, or kings). Literally, the anointed one, Christ. The Greek word for Messiah.
DDD “Jesus” = Iesous. From Hebrew Yehoshua (Joshua, the Lord is salvation); {from YHVH (proper name of the God of Israel; the self-existent and eternal one); {from havah (to become) or from hayah (to come to pass, become, be)} + yasha (to deliver, defend, help, preserve, rescue; properly, to be open, wide or free, which implies being safe. So, in a causative sense, this is to free someone)}. This is Jesus or Joshua in Greek – the Lord saves or the Lord is salvation.

who in his testimonyEEE before PontiusFFF PilateGGG made the good confession, I chargeHHH you 

Notes on verse 13b

EEE “in…testimony” = martureo. Related to “witnesses” in v12. From martus (see note AAA above). This is to bear witness, testify, give evidence. It is to testify in a literal or figurative sense.
FFF “Pontius” = Pontios. 3x in NT. From Latin Pontius (Pontius, a name); from Oscan pontus or pmptus (given names Pontus or Pomptus); {from Proto-Italic kenke (give)} OR from Latin pons (bridge); {from Proto-Indo-European pontehs (path, road); from pent (path)}. This is Pontius, perhaps meaning “bridged.” See https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/Pontius.
GGG “Pilate” = Pilatos. From Latin Pilatus (may mean one who has skill with a javelin); perhaps from pilum (javelin) OR perhaps from pileus (a soft cap made of felt that was brimless and was associated with people who were freedmen). This is Pilate. See https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pontius_Pilate
HHH “charge” = paraggello. Related to “fight” and “fight” in v12. From para (from beside, by) + aggello (to announce, report) {from aggelos (angel, messenger – supernatural or human envoy of God); probably from ago (see note QQ above)}. This is to send a message, order, notify, command. It is a charge – a proper command as a military term that has followed proper channels. It can also mean to entreat solemnly.

14 to keepIII the commandmentJJJ without spotKKK

Notes on verse 14a

III “keep” = tereo. From teros (a guard or a watch that guards keep); perhaps related to theoreo (gazing, beholding, experiencing, discerning; looking at something to analyze it and concentrate on what it means; the root of the word “theatre” in that people concentrate on the action of the play to understand its meaning); from theaomai (to behold, look upon, see, contemplate, visit); from thaomai (to gaze at a spectacle; to look at or contemplate as a spectator; to interpret something in efforts to grasp its significance); from theoros (a spectator or envoy). This is to guard, observe, keep, maintain, or preserve. It can also be used f iguratively for spiritual watchfulness. It is guarding something from being lost or harmed – keeping an eye on it. Contrast the Greek phulasso, which is to guard something so that it doesn’t escape. Also contrast koustodia, which generally denotes a fortress or military presence. This word can mean fulfilling commands, keeping in custody, or maintaining. It can also figuratively mean to remain unmarried.
JJJ “commandment” = entole. From entellomai (to charge, command, give orders or instructions) {from en (in, on, at, by, with) + tellomai (to accomplish); {from telos (an end, aim, purpose, completion, end goal, consummation, tax; going through the steps to complete a stage or phase and then moving on to the next one)}}. This is an order, command, ordinance, or law. It focuses on the purpose of the command and its end result.
KKK “without spot” = aspilos. 4x in NT. From a (not, without) + spiloo (this is to stain or defile; figuratively, it can refer to spiritually defile or pollute, a defect or disgrace). This is spotless, undefiled, or pure. Figuratively, it is morally pure.

or blameLLL until the manifestationMMM of our LordNNN Jesus Christ, 

Notes on verse 14b

LLL “blame” = anepilemptos. Related to “take hold” in v12. 3x in NT. From a (not, without) + epilambanomai (see note TT above). This is without reproach, without blame, not caught in doing something blameworthy.
MMM “manifestation” = epiphaneia. 6x in NT. From epiphanes (manifest, glorious, conspicuous, memorable); from epiphaino (to shine on, appear, become visible, give light; figuratively, to reveal or be known); {from epi (on, upon, among, what is fitting) + phaino (to bring light, cause to appear, shine, become visible or clear); {perhaps from phos (light, radiance; light literal or figurative)}}. This is appearing, brightness, epiphany, Christ’s coming.
NNN “Lord” = Kurios. From kuros (authority, supremacy). This is a respectful address meaning master or sir. It refers to one who has control or power greater than one’s own. So, it was also applied to God and Jesus as Master or Lord.

15 which he will bring aboutOOO at the rightPPP timeQQQ—he who is the blessedRRR

Notes on verse 15a

OOO “bring about” = deiknumi. Related to “righteousness” in v11. See note MM above.
PPP “right” = idios. This is something that belongs to you or that is personal, private, apart. It indicates a stronger sense of possession than a simple possessive pronoun. This is where “idiot” comes from (denoting someone who hasn’t had formal training or education and so they rely on their own understanding).
QQQ “time” = kairos. This is season, opportunity, occasion. The word chronos is used for chronological time. Kairos is used for spiritually significant time – the right time or appointed time.
RRR “blessed” = makarios. From makar (happy); from mak– (to become long or large). This is blessed, happy, fortunate. It is when God’s grace/abundance is extended.

and onlySSS Sovereign,TTT the King of kingsUUU and Lord of lords.VVV 

Notes on verse 15b

SSS “only” = monos. Related to “endurance” in v11. Perhaps from meno (see note OO above). This is alone, single, remaining, mere, desolate.
TTT “Sovereign” = Dunastes. Related to “can” in v7. 3x in NT. From dunamai (see note G above). This is ruler, powerful, or court official. It is someone who has power and authority or, by extension, someone in the royal court.
UUU “King of kings” = Basileus + ho + basileuo. Literally, “King of those being kings.” Basileus is related to “plunge” in v9. Probably from basis (see note U above). This is king, emperor, or sovereign. Basileuo is related to “plunge” in v9 & “King” in v15. From basileus (see above). This is to reign as king, to rule in a literal or figurative sense.
VVV “Lord of lords” = Kurios + ho + kurieuo. Literally, “Lord of those being lords.” Kurios is the same as “Lord” in v14. See note NNN above. Kurieuo is related to “Lord” in v14. 7x in NT. From kurios (see note NNN above). This is to be lord of, rule, lord over.

16 It is he aloneWWW who has immortalityXXX and dwellsYYY in unapproachableZZZ light,AAAA

Notes on verse 16a

WWW “alone” = monos. Same as “only” in v15. See note SSS above.
XXX “immortality” = athanasia. 3x in NT. From a (not, without) + thanatos (death, whether literal or spiritual; also something fatal); {from thnesko (to die, be dead)}. This is immortality or imperishability.
YYY “dwells” = oikeo. 9x in NT. From oikos (house – the building, the household, the family, descendants; the temple). Properly, this means making a home or living at home. So, this is dwell or indwell, remain, reside, or cohabit.
ZZZ “unapproachable” = aprositos. 1x in NT. From a (not, without) + pros (at, to, toward, with) + eimi (to go). This is unapproachable or inaccessible.
AAAA “light” = phos. Related to “manifestation” in v14. See note MMM above.

whom no oneBBBB has ever seenCCCC or can see; to him be honorDDDD and eternal dominion.EEEE Amen.FFFF

Notes on verse 16b

BBBB “one” = anthropos. Same as “people” in v9. See note V above.
CCCC “seen” = horao. Related to “people” in v9 & “in the presence of” in v12. See note V above.
DDDD “honor” = time. From tino (to pay, be punished, pay a penalty or fine because of a crime); from tio (to pay respect, value). This has to do with worth or something’s perceived value. Literally, it means price, but figuratively, it means the honor or value one sees in someone or something else. It can be esteem or dignity. It can also mean precious or valuables.
EEEE “dominion” = kratos. 12x in NT. This is strength, power, or dominion. It is vigor in a literal or figurative sense or power that is exercised.
FFFF “amen” = amen. From Hebrew amen (verily, truly, amen, truth, so be it, faithfulness); from aman (to believe, endure, fulfill, confirm, support, be faithful, put one’s trust in, be steadfast. Figuratively, this is to be firm, steadfast, or faithful, trusting, believing, being permanent, morally solid). This word is literally firmness, but figuratively fidelity, faithfulness, honesty, responsibility, trust, truth, steadfastness. Properly, it is to be sure, certain, or firm. This is a word of emphasis indicating that something crucial follows.

Image credit: “The finished print. It’s a portrait of conservation activist and founder of @sierraclub John Muir. Unlike those who plunder the natural environment just for greed, Muir dedicated his life to protecting nature.” by Cranky Pressman, 2017.

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