2 Kings 24:8, 11-17

2 Kings 24:8, 11-17
Majesty of Christ – A Women’s Lectionary


JehoiachinA was eighteenB yearsC oldD when he began to reign;E

Notes on verse 8a

A “Jehoiachin” = Yehoyakin. 10x in OT. From YHVH (proper name of the God of Israel; God, Lord; the self-existent or eternal one); {from havah (to become) or hayah (to be, become, happen)} + kun (properly, in a perpendicular position; literally, to establish, fix, fasten, prepare; figuratively, it is certainty, to be firm, faithfulness, render sure or prosperous)}. This is Jehoiachin, meaning “the Lord appoints” or “the Lord will establish.”
B “eighteen” = shemoneh + asar. Shemoneh is perhaps from shamen (to shine, which implies being oily, growing fat); from shaman (to grow fat, shine, be oily). This is eight or eighth. It can refer to abundance as being more than 7, the number of sacred fullness. Asar is from eser (ten). This is -teen or -teenth.
C “years” = shanah. From shana (to change, alter). This is a year, age, old. It can also mean yearly.
D “old” = ben. From banah (to build or obtain children). This is son, age, child. It is son in a literal or figurative sense.
E “reign” = malak. To be or become king or queen, to rise to the throne, to be crowned. By implication, to take counsel. This word may be from the Hebrew word for king “melek” or vice versa.

he reigned threeF monthsG in Jerusalem.H His mother’sI nameJ

Notes on verse 8b

F “three” = shalosh. This is three, fork, three times.
G “months” = chodesh. From chadash (to renew, repair). This refers to a new moon. It can also mean monthly.
H “Jerusalem” = Yerushalaim. From yarah (to throw, shoot, be stunned; to flow as water so figuratively to instruct or teach) + shalam (to make amends, to be complete or sound). This is Jerusalem, dwelling of peace.
I “mother’s” = em. This is a mother as binding a family together or a breeding female animal. It could be mother in a literal or figurative sense.
J “name” = shem. May be from sum (to put, place, set). This is name, fame, renown. A name was thought to indicate something essential about a person – something about their individuality. So, this word can also mean honor, authority, or character.

was NehushtaK daughterL of ElnathanM of Jerusalem.

Notes on verse 8c

K “Nehushta” = Nchushta. 1x in OT. Perhaps from nechosheth (bronze, copper, steel, brass or something made from copper; a coin or chains; figuratively, something lesser in contrast to gold or silver); perhaps from nechushah (copper, bronze, brass – something made from this metal like a coin or fetter; something that is considered base in contrast to gold or silver.; from nachush (made of bronze or brass, coppery; figuratively, hard); from nachash (to divine, interpret omens, learn from experience, observe; to hiss).. This is Nehushta, which may mean “lust” or “harlotry” or “copper” or “serpentine” or “brass.” See https://www.abarim-publications.com/Meaning/Nehushta.html
L “daughter” = bat. Related to “old” in v8. From ben (see note D above). This is daughter in a literal or figurative sense.
M “Elnathan” = Elnathan. 7x in OT. From El (God, a god) + natan (to give, put, set, offer; to give literally or figuratively). This is Elnathan, meaning “God has given” or “God is the giver.”

11 KingN NebuchadnezzarO of BabylonP

Notes on verse 11a

N “King” = melek. Related to “reign” in v8. From malak (see note E above). This is king or royal.
O “Nebuchadnezzar” = Nebukadnetstsar. From Akkadian Nabu-kudurri-utsur (Nebuchadnezzar; meaning “Nabu protect the king”). This is Nebuchadnezzar, a name meaning “Nebo, protect the boundary” or “Nabu, protect the king.” See https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/Nebuchadnezzar
P “Babylon” = Babel. Perhaps from balal (to anoint, mix, overflow) OR from Akkadian Bbilim; perhaps from earlier Sumerian name Ca-dimirra (gate of god). This is Babylon or Babel. See https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Babylon.

cameQ to the cityR while his servantsS were besiegingT it; 

Notes on verse 11b

Q “came” = bo. This is to enter, come in, advance, fulfill, bring offerings, enter to worship, attack. It can also have a sexual connotation.
R “city” = iyr. From uwr (to awaken or wake oneself up). This can mean excitement in the sense of wakefulness or city. Properly, this is a place that is guarded. Guards kept schedules according to watches. This sense of the word would include cities as well as encampments or posts that were guarded.
S “servants” = ebed. From abad (to work, serve, compel; any kind of work; used causatively, can mean to enslave or keep in bondage). This is a servant, slave, or bondservant.
T “besieging” = tsur. This is to confine, assault, bind up, be an adversary.

12 King Jehoiachin of JudahU gave himself upV to the king of Babylon: himself, his mother, his servants, his officers,W and his palace officials.X The king of Babylon took him prisonerY in the eighth year of his reign.

Notes on verse 12

U “Judah” = Yehudah. Probably from yadah (to throw one’s hands into the air in a gesture of praise); from yad (hand). This is Judah, meaning “praised.”
V “gave…up” = yatsa. This is to go or come out, bring forth, appear. It is to go out in a literal or figurative sense.
W “officers” = sar. This is chief, leader, ruler, lord, official, governor, prince, military leader. It refers to someone at the top of a rank or class.
X “palace officials” = saris. Root is likely foreign and may mean castrate. So, this could be a eunuch, valet, or other kind of officer.
Y “took…prisoner” = laqach. This is to take, accept, carry away, receive. It can also have the sense of take a wife or take in marriage.

13 He carried offZ allAA the treasuresBB of the houseCC of the LordDD and the treasures of the king’s house;

Notes on verse 13a

Z “carried off” = yatsa. Same as “gave…up” in v12. See note V above.
AA “all” = kol. From kalal (to complete). This is all or every.
BB “treasures” = otsar. From atsar (to store up, hoard). This is treasure or the place where one keeps treasure – a depository, storehouse, armory, cellar.
CC “house” = bayit. Related to “old” and “daughter” in v8. Probably from banah (see note D above). This is house, court, family, palace, temple.
DD “Lord” = YHVH. From havah (to be, become) or hayah (to come to pass, become, be). This is the name of the God of Israel, the self-existent and eternal one, the tetragrammaton. This pronunciation has been lost to time so “Lord” is generally used in its place.

he cut in piecesEE all the vesselsFF of goldGG in the templeHH of the Lord 

Notes on verse 13b

EE “cut in pieces” = qatsats. 14x in OT. This is to cut or chop off in a literal or figurative sense. It an also be to cut in pieces.
FF “vessels” = keli. From kalah (to end, be finished, complete, prepare, consume, spent, or completely destroyed). This is something that was prepared – any implement, utensil, article, vessel, weapon, or instrument. Also includes jewels, weapons, bags, carriages, and furniture.
GG “gold” = zahab. Root may mean to shimmer. This is gold or something that has the color of gold like oil. It can also refer to a clear sky – to good weather.
HH “temple” = hekal. Perhaps from yakol (to be able, endure, overcome, prevail). This is a large building with public access such as a palace or temple.

that King SolomonII of IsraelJJ had made,KK all this as the Lord had foretold.LL 

Notes on verse 13c

II “Solomon” = Shelomoh. Related to “Jerusalem” in v8. From shalam (see note H above). This is Solomon or Shelomoh, meaning “peaceful.” It is the same word as the Hebrew word for peace – shalom.
JJ “Israel” = Yisrael. Related to “Elnathan” in v8. From sarah (to persist, exert oneself, contend, persevere, wrestle, prevail) + el (see note M above). This is Israel, meaning God strives or one who strives with God; new name for Jacob and for his offspring. This refers to the people and to the land.
KK “made” = asah. This is to make, do, act, appoint, become in many senses.
LL “foretold” = dabar. This is generally to speak, answer, declare, or command. It might mean to arrange and so to speak in a figurative sense as arranging words.

14 He carried awayMM all Jerusalem, all the officials,NN all the warriors,OO

Notes on verse 14a

MM “carried away” = galah. This is to remove, bring, carry, lead, appear, advertise. It can mean to strip someone or something bare in a negative sense. Captives were typically stripped before they were sent into exile. Used figuratively, in a positive sense, this word means reveal, disclose, discover.
NN “officials” = sar. Same as “officers” in v12. See note W above.
OO “warriors” = gibbor + chayil. Gibbor is from gabar (to be strong or mighty; to prevail or be insolent). This is strong, mighty, or powerful. This can imply a warrior, hero, or tyrant. Chayil is from chul (to be firm, strong, prosperous; to endure). This is strength, wealth, ability, activity. It can refer to soldier or a company of soldiers as well as goods. It is a force of people, means, or goods. It can speak of valor, virtue, or strength.

tenPP thousandQQ captives,RR all the artisansSS and the smiths;TT

Notes on verse 14b

PP “ten” = eser. Related to “eighteen” in v8. See note B above.
QQ “thousand” = eleph. Perhaps from the same as eleph (herd, cattle); from alaph (to learn, speak, associate with). This is thousand.
RR “captives” = golah. Related to “carried away” in v14. From galah (see note MM above). This is exile, captive, captivity, removing, or carried away.
SS “artisans” = charash. From charash (to scratch, which implies etching or plowing; to manufacture regardless of materials used; figuratively, to devise or conceal; a sense of secrecy; hence, being silent or left alone; speechless). This is an artisan, regardless of medium. So, for example, it could be an engrave, a blacksmith, a mason, and so on.
TT “smiths” = masger. 7x in OT. From sagar (to shut up, imprison, lock, hand over, or figuratively surrender). This is a locksmith, prison, dungeon.

no one remainedUU except the poorestVV peopleWW of the land.XX 

Notes on verse 14c

UU “remained” = shaar. Properly, this is swelling up i.e. being left over, a remnant, remaining, being redundant.
VV “poorest” = dallah. 8x in OT. From dalah (to draw, lift up; properly, to dangle; draw water; figuratively, to deliver). This is something that dangles, so it could refer to a thread or a hair. It could also mean poor, indigent, or a wasting illness.
WW “people” = am. From amam (to darken, hide, associate; creating shadows by huddling together). This is people or nation. It can be used specifically for a tribe, collectively of troops or armies, or figuratively to refer to a flock of animals.
XX “land” = erets. Root may mean to be firm. This is earth, ground, field land, or country.

15 He carried away Jehoiachin to Babylon; the king’s mother, the king’s wives,YY his officials,ZZ and the eliteAAA of the land, he tookBBB into captivityCCC from Jerusalem to Babylon. 

Notes on verse 15

YY “wives” = ishshah. From ish (man); perhaps from enosh (human, humankind, mortal); from anash (to be weak, sick, or frail). This is woman, wife, or female.
ZZ “officials” = saris. Same as “palace officials” in v12. See note X above.
AAA “elite” = uwl. 2x in OT. This is strength, body, or belly. It may come from a word meaning to twist.
BBB “took” = halak. This is go, come, walk. It is walk literally and figuratively and includes people and animals. It can be used figuratively for one’s moral life – how we walk according to God’s way or against it. It can also refer to the walk of life as in the course one’s life takes, the choices we make, etc.
CCC “captivity” = golah. Same as “captives” in v14. See note RR above.

16 The king of Babylon broughtDDD captive to Babylon all the menEEE of valor,FFF sevenGGG thousand, the artisans and the smiths, one thousand,

Notes on verse 16a

DDD “brought” = bo. Same as “came” in v11. See note Q above.
EEE “men” = enosh. Related to “wives” in v15. See note YY above.
FFF “valor” = chayil. Same as “warriors” in v14. See note OO above.
GGG “seven” = sheba. This is seven or by sevenfold. It can also be used to imply a week or an indefinite number. Symbolically, this is the number of fullness, sacredness, perfection.

all of them strongHHH and fitIII for war.JJJ 

Notes on verse 16b

HHH “strong” = gibbor. Same as “warrior” in v14. See note OO above.
III “fit” = asah. Same as “made” in v13. See note KK above.
JJJ “war” = milchamah. From lacham (to eat or feed on; figuratively, to battle as a kind of consumption/destruction). This is battle, war, fighting, or one who fights (i.e. a warrior).

17 The king of Babylon made Mattaniah,KKK Jehoiachin’s uncle,LLL kingMMM in his place and changedNNN his name to Zedekiah.OOO

Notes on verse 17

KKK “Mattaniah” = Mattanyah. Related to “Elnathan” in v8 & “Jehoiachin” in v8 & “Lord” in v13. 16x in OT. From mattan (gift, reward, to give); {from natan (see note M above)} + Yah (God, the Lord; a shortening of the sacred name of the God of Israel); {from YHVH (see note A above)}. This is Mattaniah or Matanyahu, meaning “gift of the Lord.”
LLL “uncle” = dod. This may come from a word that means to boil. It is love or lover. It can also refer to one who is beloved, like an uncle, or a love-token.
MMM “made…king” = malak. Same as “reign” in v8. See note E above.
NNN “changed” = sabab. This is turning around, going around; to surround, cast, walk, fetch. It is to revolve or border in a literal or figurative sense.
OOO “Zedekiah” = Tsidqiyyahu. Related to Jehoiachin” in v8 & “Lord” in v13 & “Mattaniah” in v17. From the same as tsedeq (rightness, righteousness, just cause, vindication; that which is right in a natural, moral, or legal sense; abstractly equity; figuratively prosperity) + Yah (see note KKK above). This is Zedekiah or Tsidqiyyahu, meaning “the Lord is righteousness” or “the right of the Lord” or “justice of the Lord.” See https://www.abarim-publications.com/Meaning/Zedekiah.html

Image credit: “Lamp with the Three Hebrews before Nebuchadnezzar,” 5th-6th century from the Rogers fund 1927.

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