2 Kings 5:1-14

2 Kings 5:1-14
Ordinary C32


Naaman,A commanderB of the armyC of the kingD of Aram,E

Notes on verse 1a

A “Naaman” = Naaman. 16x in OT. From naem (to be pleasant, beautiful, sweet, or agreeable in a literal or figurative sense). This is Naaman, meaning “pleasantness” or “pleasant.”
B “commander” = sar. This is chief, leader, ruler, lord, official, governor, prince, military leader. It refers to someone at the top of a rank or class.
C “army” = tsaba. From tsaba (to wage war, serve, assemble, fight, perform, muster, wait on). This is a large group of persons (used figuratively for a group of things). It implies a campaign literally as with army, war, warfare, battle, company, soldiers. Can also be used figuratively for hardship or for worship.
D “king” = melek. From malak (to be or become king or queen, to rise to the throne, to be crowned; by implication, to take counsel). This is king or royal.
E “Aram” = Aram. Perhaps from ‘armon (any fortified building – castle, citadel, palace) OR from rum (to be high, rise, exalt self, extol, be haughty; to rise literally or figuratively). This is Aram, Syria, Mesopotamia – meaning elevated or citadel. See https://www.abarim-publications.com/Meaning/Aram.html#.XqfDX8hKhPY

wasF a greatG manH and in high favor withI

Notes on verse 1b

F “was” = hayah. This is to be or become, to happen.
G “great” = gadol. From gadal (to grow up, become great, become wealthy – to advance. The root meaning may be to twist in the sense of the process of growing). This is great, high, bigger, noble, old, marvelous. It can also refer to someone who is powerful or distinguished.
H “man” = ish. Perhaps from enosh (human, humankind, mortal); from anash (to be weak, sick, or frail). This is man, husband, another, or humankind.
I “in high favor with” = panehnasa + paneh. Paneh is from panah (to turn, face, appear). This is face in a literal or figurative sense. It could be face, presence, anger, respect. It can also be used of God to indicate divine favor or presence. Nasa is to lift in a broad sense, literally and figuratively. So it could be to carry, take, or arise. It could also be bring forth, advance, accept.

his masterJ because by him the LordK had givenL victoryM to Aram.

Notes on verse 1c

J “master” = adon. From a root that means ruling or being sovereign. This is lord, master, or owner.
K “Lord” = YHVH. Related to “was” in v1. From havah (to be, become) or hayah (see note F above). This is the name of the God of Israel, the self-existent and eternal one, the tetragrammaton. This pronunciation has been lost to time so “Lord” is generally used in its place.
L “given” = natan. This is to give, put, set, offer. It is to give literally or figuratively.
M “victory” = teshuah. From yasha (to deliver, defend, help, preserve, rescue; properly, to be open, wide or free, which implies being safe; to free someone). This is deliverance or salvation.

The man, thoughN a mightyO warrior,P suffered from a skin disease.Q 

Notes on verse 1d

N {untranslated} = hayah. Same as “was” in v1. See note F above.
O “mighty” = gibbor. From gabar (to be strong or mighty; to prevail or be insolent). This is strong, mighty, or powerful. This can imply a warrior, hero, or tyrant.
P “warrior” = chayil. From chul (to be firm, strong, prosperous; to endure). This is strength, wealth, ability, activity. It can refer to soldier or a company of soldiers as well as goods. It is a force of people, means, or goods. It can speak of valor, virtue, or strength.
Q “suffered from a skin disease” = tsara. From tsaraath (leprosy or a mark). This is to have leprosy or be a leper.

Now the ArameansR on one of their raidsS had taken a youngT girlU

Notes on verse 2a

R {untranslated} = yatsa. This is to go or come out, bring forth, appear. It is to go out in a literal or figurative sense.
S “raids” = gedud. From gadad (to cut, gather, assemble, crowd; also, to gash as pushing in). This is a crowd, but generally used to refer to soldiers. So, it is a band, troop, or company. It can also be a group of robbers.
T “young” = qatan. From quwt (grieved, cut off, to detest). This is least, small, young, little one. It is literally smaller whether in amount or size. Figuratively it is smaller in the sense of younger or less important.
U “girl” = naarah. From naar (child or a servant; a child in their active years so they could be aged anywhere from infancy to adolescence); perhaps from naar (to shake, toss up and down, tumble around). This is a girl or young lady ranging anywhere in age from infancy to adolescence.

captiveV from the landW of Israel,X and she servedY Naaman’s wife.Z 

Notes on verse 2b

V “taken…captive” = shabah. This is to carry away into captivity, bring away, capture, lead away.
W “land” = erets. Root may mean to be firm. This is earth, ground, field land, or country.
X “Israel” = Yisrael. From sarah (to persist, exert oneself, contend, persevere, wrestle, prevail) + el (God or god). This is Israel, meaning God strives or one who strives with God; new name for Jacob and for his offspring. This refers to the people and to the land.
Y “served” = hayah + paneh. Hayah is the same as “was” in v1. Se note F above. Paneh is the same as “in high favor with” in v1. See note I above.
Z “wife” = ishshah. Related to “man” in v1. From ish (see note H above). This is woman, wife, or female.

She said to her mistress,AA “If onlyBB my lordCC were withDD

Notes on verse 3a

AA “mistress” = gebereth. Related to “mighty” in v1. 9x in OT. From gebir (lord, master); from gabar (see note O above). This is lady or mistress.
BB “if only” = achalay. 2x in OT. Perhaps from ach (ah, oh, alas; used for grief or surprise); {from ahahh (alas, oh; exclamation of pain)} + lu (if only, please, would, I pray; a conditional). This is if only, oh, a wish.
CC “lord” = adon. Same as “master” in v1. See note J above.
DD “with” = paneh. Same as “in high favor with” in v1. See note I above.

the prophetEE who is in Samaria!FF He would cureGG him of his skin disease.”HH  So Naaman went inII and toldJJ his lord just what the girl from the land of Israel had said.KK 

Notes on verses 3b-4

EE “prophet” = nabi. This is prophet, prophecy, speaker, or someone inspired.
FF “Samaria” = Shomron. From shamar (to keep, watch, or preserve; to guard something or to protect it as a thorny hedge protects something). This is Samaria, meaning watch station.
GG “cure” = asaph. This is to gather, assemble, or bring. It can also mean to take away, destroy, or remove.
HH “skin disease” = tsaraath. Related to “suffered from a skin disease” in v1. See note Q above.
II “went in” = bo. This is to enter, come in, advance, fulfill, bring offerings, enter to worship, attack. It can also have a sexual connotation.
JJ “told” = nagad. This is to declare, make conspicuous, stand in front, manifest, predict, explain.
KK “said” = dabar. This is generally to speak, answer, declare, or command. It might mean to arrange and so to speak in a figurative sense as arranging words.

And the king of Aram said, “Go,LL then, and I will sendMM along a letterNN to the king of Israel.”

Notes on verse 5a

LL “go” = halak + bo. Halak is go, come, walk. It is walk literally and figuratively and includes people and animals. It can be used figuratively for one’s moral life – how we walk according to God’s way or against it. It can also refer to the walk of life as in the course one’s life takes, the choices we make, etc. Bo is the same as “went in” in v4. See note II above.
MM “send” = shalach. This is to send out, away, send for, forsake. It can also mean to divorce or set a slave free.
NN “letter” = sepher. Perhaps from saphar (to tally or record something; to enumerate, recount, number, celebrate, or declare). This can be writing itself or something that is written like a document, book, letter, evidence, bill, scroll, or register.

He went, takingOO with himPP tenQQ talentsRR of silver,SS

Notes on verse 5b

OO “taking” = laqach. This is to take, accept, carry away, receive. It can also have the sense of take a wife or take in marriage.
PP “him” = yad. This is hand, ability, power. Hand in a literal sense, but also what one can do or the means by which one does it.
QQ “ten” = eser. Perhaps from asar (to tithe, render a tenth of). This is ten or -teen. While 7 is symbolically the number of perfection, ten is also symbolically a number of perfection (but to a lesser degree than 7 is).
RR “talents” = kikkar. From karar (to dance or whirl). This is round so it can refer to a circle, a circular region, a weight used for measurement, money, a loaf of bread that is round, a cover, a plain, or a valley in the Jordan.
SS “silver” = keseph. From kasaph (to long for, be greedy; to become pale). This is silver or money.

six thousandTT shekels of gold,UU and ten setsVV of garments.WW 

Notes on verse 5c

TT “six thousand” = shesh + eleph. Shesh is six. Figuratively, it can be a surplus since it is one more than the number of fingers on the hand. Eleph is perhaps from the same as eleph (herd, cattle); from alaph (to learn, speak, associate with). This is thousand.
UU “gold” = zahab. Root may mean to shimmer. This is gold or something that has the color of gold like oil. It can also refer to a clear sky – to good weather.
VV “sets” = chaliphah. 12x in OT. From chalaph (to slide by or rush like a flood; to pass through, change, sprout, renew, break a promise, pierce, or violate). This is a change, alternation, release, shift, change of clothing.
WW “garments” = beged. From bagad (to cover or conceal; figuratively, to act in a covert or treacherous way, to transgress or pillage). This is clothing, garment, robe, or some other kind of clothing. Figuratively, it can be treachery or pillaging.

He broughtXX the letter to the king of Israel, which read, “When this letter reachesYY you, knowZZ that I have sent to you my servantAAA Naaman, that you may cure him of his skin disease.” 

Notes on verse 6

XX “brought” = bo. Same as “went in” in v4. See note II above.
YY “reaches” = bo. Same as “went in” in v4. See note II above.
ZZ “know” = hinneh. From hen (lo! Behold! If, though; an expression of surprise). This is to draw attention, show suddenness or surprise, or to emphasize the importance of the coming statement. See! Lo! Behold!
AAA “servant” = ebed. From abad (to work, serve, compel; any kind of work; used causatively, can mean to enslave or keep in bondage). This is a servant, slave, or bondservant.

BBBWhen the king of Israel readCCC the letter, he toreDDD his clothes and said, “Am I God,EEE to give deathFFF

Notes on verse 7a

BBB {untranslated} = hayah. Same as “was” in v1. See note F above.
CCC “read” = qara. This is to call or call out – to call someone by name. Also used more broadly for calling forth.
DDD “tore” = qara. This is to tear or cut out in a literal or figurative sense. It an also be to revile or to apply eye make up – as though they are made to look larger.
EEE “God” = Elohim. Related to “Israel” in v2. See note X above.
FFF “give death” = mut. This is to die in a literal or figurative sense. It can also refer to being a dead body.

or life,GGG that this man sends word to me to cure a man of his skin disease? Just lookHHH, III and seeJJJ how he is trying to pick a quarrelKKK with me.”

Notes on verse 7b

GGG “life” = chayah. This is to live or keep alive in a literal or figurative sense. So, it an be revive, nourish, or save.
HHH “look” = yada. This is to know, acknowledge, advise, answer, be aware, be acquainted with. Properly, this is to figure something out by seeing. It includes ideas of observation, recognition, and care about something. It can be used causatively for instruction, designation, and punishment.
III {untranslated} = na. This particle is used for requests or for urging. It can be we pray, now, I ask you, oh. This is the same “na” in “hosanna.”
JJJ “see” = raah. This is to see in a literal or figurative sense so stare, advise, think, view.
KKK “trying to pick a quarrel” = anah. 6x in OT. This is to meet, happen, approach.

ButLLL when ElishaMMM the man of God heardNNN that the king of Israel had torn his clothes, he sent a message to the king, “Why have you torn your clothes? Let him comeOOO, PPP to me, that he may learnQQQ that there is a prophet in Israel.” 

Notes on verse 8

LLL {untranslated} = hayah. Same as “was” in v1. See note F above.
MMM “Elisha” = Elisha. Related to “Israel” in v2 & “God” in v7 & “victory” in v1. From Elishua (Elishua, meaning “God is salvation”); {from el (see note X above) + yasha (see note M above)}. This is Elisha, meaning “God is salvation.”
NNN “heard” = shama. This is to hear, call, consent, or consider. It implies listening intelligently, giving attention, and, because of these two factors, obedience and action are often implied.
OOO “come” = bo. Same as “went in” in v4. See note II above.
PPP {untranslated} = na. Same as {untranslated} in v7. See note III above.
QQQ “learn” = yada. Same as “look” in v7. See note HHH above.

So Naaman came with his horsesRRR and chariotsSSS and haltedTTT at the entranceUUU of Elisha’s house.VVV 

Notes on verse 9

RRR “horses” = sus. Root may mean to skip as in jump for joy. This is a crane or a swift bird. It is also a horse as leaping.
SSS “chariots” = rekeb. From rakab (to ride an animal or in some vehicle; also, bringing on a horse). This is a vehicle, wagon, or chariot. It can be cavalry or an individual rider.
TTT “halted” = amad. This is to stand up in a literal or figurative sense. So it can be establish, continue, endure, take a stand, act, be a servant, stand still, remain, stand against an enemy.
UUU “entrance” = petach. From patach (to open wide in a literal or figurative sense, loosen, plow, carve). This is opening, door, gate, entrance.
VVV “house” = bayit. Probably from banah (to build, make, set up, obtain children; to build literally or figuratively). This is house, court, family, palace, temple.

10 Elisha sent a messengerWWW to him, saying, “Go, washXXX in the JordanYYY sevenZZZ times,AAAA

Notes on verse 10a

WWW “messenger” = malak. This is a messenger, an angel, or a deputy of some kind. Can be used for human messengers literally or for prophets, priests, or teachers as messengers of God. Also used for supernatural messengers i.e. angels.
XXX “wash” = rachats. This is to wash, wash away – it can be complete or partial.
YYY “Jordan” = Yarden. From yarad (to go down, descend; going down in a literal or figurative sense; going to the shore or a boundary, bringing down an enemy). This is the Jordan River, meaning “descending.”
ZZZ “seven” = sheba. This is seven or by sevenfold. It can also be used to imply a week or an indefinite number. Symbolically, this is the number of fullness, sacredness, perfection.
AAAA “times” = paam. From paam (to move, trouble; to tap in a regular rhythm; to agitate). This is a beat, stroke, footstep, or occurrence.

and your fleshBBBB shall be restored,CCCC and you shall be clean.”DDDD 

Notes on verse 10b

BBBB “flesh” = basar. From basar (being a messenger, publish, carry preach; properly, this is being fresh, rosy or cheerful as one bearing news). This is flesh, the body, fat, skin, self, nakedness, humankind, or kin. It can also refer to private parts.
CCCC “restored” = shub. To turn back, return, turn away – literally or figuratively. Doesn’t necessarily imply going back to where you started from. This is also the root verb for the Hebrew word for repentance “teshubah.”
DDDD “be clean” = taher. This is properly being bright, which implies being pure or clean. This word can also mean purge, cleanse, or purify. It can be clean in a ritual sense or a moral one (i.e. moral or holy).

11 But Naaman became angryEEEE and went away, saying, “FFFFI thought that for me he would surely come outGGGG and stand and call on the nameHHHH of the Lord his God

Notes on verse 11a

EEEE “became angry” = qatsaph. This is angry or provoked to wrath. It suggests a bursting into anger.
FFFF {untranslated} = hinneh. Same as “know” in v6. See note ZZ above.
GGGG “surely come out” = yatsa + yatsa. Same as {untranslated} in v2. See note R above. The word is repeated twice – the second time as an Infinitive Absolute. The Infinitive Absolute serves to emphasize the sentiment of the word. It is rather like Foghorn Leghorn’s speech pattern, “I said, I said.”
HHHH “name” = shem. May be from sum (to put, place, set). This is name, fame, renown. A name was thought to indicate something essential about a person – something about their individuality. So, this word can also mean honor, authority, or character.

and would waveIIII his handJJJJ over the spotKKKK and cure the skin disease! 

Notes on verse 11b

IIII “wave” = nuph. This is to rock back and forth, wave, sprinkle, quiver, beckon, offer, present.
JJJJ “hand” = yad. Same as “him” in v5. See note PP above.
KKKK “spot” = maqom. From qum (to arise, stand, accomplish, establish, abide; rising against, getting up after being sick or asleep, arising from one state to another, becoming powerful, or rising for action; standing in a figurative sense). This is a standing, which is to say a spot or space a place. It can also refer to a locality or a physical/mental condition. HaMaqom is also a Jewish name for God – the place, i.e. the Omnipresent One.

12 Are not AbanaLLLL and Pharpar,MMMM the riversNNNN of Damascus,OOOO

Notes on verse 12a

LLLL “Abana” = Abanah. Related to “house” in v9. 1x in OT. Related to Amanah (Amanah or Amana; a river and its region; a mountain); {from amanah (faith, support, sure, covenant); from aman (to believe, endure, fulfill, confirm, support, be faithful, put one’s trust in, be steadfast; figuratively, to be firm, steadfast, or faithful, trusting, believing, being permanent, morally solid)} OR from eben (a stone, weight, or mason); {from banah (see note VVV above)}. This is Abanah or Abana, a river. It may mean “stony,” “faith,” “support,” “her stone,” “onto stone,” or “petrifaction.” See https://www.abarim-publications.com/Meaning/Abanah.html  
MMMM “Pharpar” = Parpar. 1x in OT. Perhaps from parar (to break, defeat, frustrate, caste off, clean, cease). This is Parpar or Pharpar, a river. It may mean “rushing,” “rapid,” “many splits,” or “divisions upon divisions.” See https://www.abarim-publications.com/Meaning/Pharpar.html
NNNN “rivers” = nahar. From nahar (to flow, sparkle, be cheerful). This is a stream, river, or flood. Particularly used for the Nile or Euphrates. Figuratively, this can mean prosperity.
OOOO “Damascus” = Dammeseq. From Old Aramaic dammasq (Damascus); perhaps related to d-r (dwelling) OR in Syriac darsuq (“a well-watered land”). This is Damascus. See https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Damascus.

betterPPPP than allQQQQ the watersRRRR of Israel? Could I not wash in them and be clean?” He turnedSSSS and went away in a rage.TTTT 

Notes on verse 12b

PPPP “better” = tob. From tob (to be pleasing, to be good). This is good, beautiful, pleasant, agreeable, bountiful, at ease. This word is used for goodness as a concept, a good thing, a good person. This can refer to prosperity and welfare as well as joy, kindness, sweetness, and graciousness. So, this is ethically good, but also enjoyably good.
QQQQ “all” = kol. From kalal (to complete). This is all or every.
RRRR “waters” = mayim. This is water, waters, or waterway in a general sense. Figuratively, it can also mean juice, urine, or semen.
SSSS “turned” = panah. Related to “in high favor with” in v1. See note I above.
TTTT “rage” = chemah. From yacham (to be hot, mate; figuratively, to conceive). This is heat – figuratively it can be anger or fury. It can also refer to poison or venom as they can cause fever.

13 But his servants approachedUUUU and said to him, “Father,VVVV if the prophet had commandedWWWW you to do somethingXXXX difficult,YYYY would you not have doneZZZZ it? How much more, when all he said to you was, ‘Wash, and be clean’?” 

Notes on verse 13

UUUU “approached” = nagash. This is to draw, bring, or come near. It is approaching for any reason – as an attack on an enemy, in order to worship, to make an argument. It can also be used as a euphemism for sex.
VVVV “father” = ab. This is father, chief, or ancestor. It is father in a literal or figurative sense.
WWWW “commanded” = dabar. Same as “said” in v4. See note KK above.
XXXX “something” = dabar. Related to “said” in v4. From dabar (see note KK above). This is speech, a word, a matter, an affair, charge, command, message, promise, purpose, report, request. It is a word, which implies things that are spoken of in a wide sense.
YYYY “difficult” = gadol. Same as “great” in v1. See note G above.
ZZZZ “done” = asah. This is to make, do, act, appoint, become in many senses.

14 So he went downAAAAA and immersedBBBBB himself seven times in the Jordan, according to the wordCCCCC of the man of God; his flesh was restored like the flesh of a young boy,DDDDD and he was clean.

Notes on verse 14

AAAAA “went down” = yarad. Related to “Jordan” in v10. See note YYY above.
BBBBB “immersed” = tabal. 16x in OT. This is to dip or immerse. It is used to describe religious rites, as part of murderous schemes (e.g. Joseph’s brothers dipping his coat in goat’s blood), for everyday purposes, and also of miracles (e.g. Naaman immersing himself in the Jordan).
CCCCC “word” = dabar. Same as “something” in v13. See note XXXX above.
DDDDD “boy” = naar. Related to “girl” in v2. See note U above.

Image credit: “Man in the Ganga” by Jack Zalium, 2011.

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