2 Kings 5:1-3, 7-15

2 Kings 5:1-3, 7-15
Ordinary C46


Naaman,A commanderB of the armyC of the kingD of Aram,E

Notes on verse 1a

A “Naaman” = Naaman. 16x in OT. From naem (to be pleasant, beautiful, sweet, or agreeable in a literal or figurative sense). This is Naaman, meaning “pleasantness” or “pleasant.”
B “commander” = sar. This is chief, leader, ruler, lord, official, governor, prince, military leader. It refers to someone at the top of a rank or class.
C “army” = tsaba. From tsaba (to wage war, serve, assemble, fight, perform, muster, wait on). This is a large group of persons (used figuratively for a group of things). It implies a campaign literally as with army, war, warfare, battle, company, soldiers. Can also be used figuratively for hardship or for worship.
D “king” = melek. From malak (to be or become king or queen, to rise to the throne, to be crowned; by implication, to take counsel). This is king or royal.
E “Aram” = Aram. Perhaps from ‘armon (any fortified building – castle, citadel, palace) OR from rum (to be high, rise, exalt self, extol, be haughty; to rise literally or figuratively). This is Aram, Syria, Mesopotamia – meaning elevated or citadel. See https://www.abarim-publications.com/Meaning/Aram.html#.XqfDX8hKhPY

wasF a greatG manH and in high favor withI his masterJ, K

Notes on verse 1b

F “was” = hayah. This is to be or become, to happen.
G “great” = gadol. From gadal (to grow up, become great, become wealthy – to advance. The root meaning may be to twist in the sense of the process of growing). This is great, high, bigger, noble, old, marvelous. It can also refer to someone who is powerful or distinguished.
H “man” = ish. Perhaps from enosh (human, humankind, mortal); from anash (to be weak, sick, or frail). This is man, husband, another, or humankind.
I “in high favor with” = paneh. From panah (to turn, face, appear). This is face in a literal or figurative sense. It could be face, presence, anger, respect. It can also be used of God to indicate divine favor or presence.
J “master” = adon. From a root that means ruling or being sovereign. This is lord, master, or owner.
K {untranslated} = nasa + paneh. Literally, “lifted the face.” Sometimes translated as “honorable.” Nasa is to lift in a broad sense, literally and figuratively. So it could be to carry, take, or arise. It could also be bring forth, advance, accept. Pahen is the same as “in high favor with” in v1. See note I above.

because by him the LordL had givenM victoryN to Aram.

Notes on verse 1c

L “Lord” = YHVH. Related to “was” in v1. From havah (to be, become) or hayah (see note F above). This is the name of the God of Israel, the self-existent and eternal one, the tetragrammaton. This pronunciation has been lost to time so “Lord” is generally used in its place.
M “given” = natan. This is to give, put, set, offer. It is to give literally or figuratively.
N “victory” = teshuah. From yasha (to deliver, defend, help, preserve, rescue; properly, to be open, wide or free, which implies being safe; to free someone). This is deliverance or salvation.

The man, thoughO a mightyP warrior,Q suffered from a skin disease.R 

Notes on verse 1d

O {untranslated} = hayah. Same as “was” in v1. See note F above.
P “mighty” = gibbor. From gabar (to be strong or mighty; to prevail or be insolent). This is strong, mighty, or powerful. This can imply a warrior, hero, or tyrant.
Q “warrior” = chayil. From chul (to be firm, strong, prosperous; to endure). This is strength, wealth, ability, activity. It can refer to soldier or a company of soldiers as well as goods. It is a force of people, means, or goods. It can speak of valor, virtue, or strength.
R “suffered from a skin disease” = tsara. From tsaraath (leprosy or a mark). This is to have leprosy or be a leper.

Now the ArameansS on one of their raidsT had taken a youngU girlV

Notes on verse 2a

S {untranslated} = yatsa. This is to go or come out, bring forth, appear. It is to go out in a literal or figurative sense.
T “raids” = gedud. From gadad (to cut, gather, assemble, crowd; also, to gash as pushing in). This is a crowd, but generally used to refer to soldiers. So, it is a band, troop, or company. It can also be a group of robbers.
U “young” = qatan. From quwt (grieved, cut off, to detest). This is least, small, young, little one. It is literally smaller whether in amount or size. Figuratively it is smaller in the sense of younger or less important.
V “girl” = naarah. From naar (child or a servant; a child in their active years so they could be aged anywhere from infancy to adolescence); perhaps from naar (to shake, toss up and down, tumble around). This is a girl or young lady ranging anywhere in age from infancy to adolescence.

captiveW from the landX of Israel,Y and she servedZ Naaman’s wife.AA 

Notes on verse 2b

W “taken…captive” = shabah. This is to carry away into captivity, bring away, capture, lead away.
X “land” = erets. Root may mean to be firm. This is earth, ground, field land, or country.
Y “Israel” = Yisrael. From sarah (to persist, exert oneself, contend, persevere, wrestle, prevail) + el (God or god). This is Israel, meaning God strives or one who strives with God; new name for Jacob and for his offspring. This refers to the people and to the land.
Z “served” = hayah + paneh. Hayah is the same as “was” in v1. See note F above. Paneh is the same as “in high favor with” in v1. See note I above.
AA “wife” = ishshah. From ish (man); perhaps from enosh (human, humankind, mortal); from anash (to be weak, sick, or frail). This is woman, wife, or female.

She said to her mistress,BB “If onlyCC my lordDD

Notes on verse 3a

BB “mistress” = gebereth. Related to “mighty” in v1. 9x in OT. From gebir (lord or master); from gabar (see note P above). This is lady or mistress.
CC “if only” = achalay. 2x in OT. Perhaps from ach (ah, oh, alas; used for grief or surprise); {from ahahh (alas, oh; exclamation of pain)} + lu (if only, please, would, I pray; a conditional). This is if only, oh, a wish.
DD “lord” = adon. Same as “master” in v1. See note J above.

were withEE the prophetFF who is in Samaria!GG He would cureHH him of his skin disease.”II

Notes on verse 3b

EE “with” = paneh. Same as “in high favor with” in v1. See note I above.
FF “prophet” = nabi. This is prophet, prophecy, speaker, or someone inspired.
GG “Samaria” = Shomron. From shamar (to keep, watch, or preserve; to guard something or to protect it as a thorny hedge protects something). This is Samaria, meaning watch station.
HH “cure” = asaph. This is to gather, assemble, or bring. It can also mean to take away, destroy, or remove.
II “skin disease” = tsaraath. Related to “suffered from a skin disease” in v1. See note R above.

JJWhen the king of Israel readKK the letter,LL he toreMM his clothesNN

Notes on verse 7a

JJ {untranslated} = hayah. Same as “was” in v1. See note F above.
KK “read” = qara. This is to call or call out – to call someone by name. Also used more broadly for calling forth.
LL “letter” = sepher. Perhaps from saphar (to tally or record something; to enumerate, recount, number, celebrate, or declare). This can be writing itself or something that is written like a document, book, letter, evidence, bill, scroll, or register.
MM “tore” = qara. This is to tear or cut out in a literal or figurative sense. It an also be to revile or to apply eye make up – as though they are made to look larger.
NN “clothes” = beged. From bagad (to cover or conceal; figuratively, to act in a covert or treacherous way, to transgress or pillage). This is clothing, garment, robe, or some other kind of clothing. Figuratively, it can be treachery or pillaging.

and said, “Am I God,OO to give deathPP or life,QQ that this man sendsRR word to me to cure a man of his skin disease?

Notes on verse 7b

OO “God” = Elohim. Related to “Israel” in v2. See note Y above.
PP “give death” = mut. This is to die in a literal or figurative sense. It can also refer to being a dead body.
QQ “life” = chayah. This is to live or keep alive in a literal or figurative sense. So, it can be revive, nourish, or save.
RR “sends” = shalach. This is to send out, away, send for, forsake. It can also mean to divorce or set a slave free.

JustSS lookTT, UU and seeVV how he is trying to pick a quarrelWW with me.”

Notes on verse 7c

SS “just” = ak. Related to aken (surely, truly, nevertheless); from kun (properly, in a perpendicular position; literally, to establish, fix, fasten, prepare; figuratively, it is certainty, to be firm, faithfulness, render sure or prosperous). This is a positive statement – surely, also, certainly, alone, only.
TT “look” = yada. This is to know, acknowledge, advise, answer, be aware, be acquainted with. Properly, this is to figure something out by seeing. It includes ideas of observation, recognition, and care about something. It can be used causatively for instruction, designation, and punishment.
UU {untranslated} = na. This particle is used for requests or for urging. It can be we pray, now, I ask you, oh. This is the same “na” in “hosanna.”
VV “see” = raah. This is to see in a literal or figurative sense so stare, advise, think, view.
WW “trying to pick a quarrel” = anah. 6x in OT. This is to meet, happen, approach, look for a fight.

ButXX when ElishaYY the man of God heardZZ that the king of Israel had torn his clothes, he sent a message to the king, “Why have you torn your clothes? Let him comeAAA to me, that he may learnBBB that there is a prophet in Israel.” 

Notes on verse 8

XX {untranslated} = hayah. Same as “was” in v1. See note F above.
YY “Elisha” = Elisha. Related to “victory” in v1 & “Israel” in v2 & “God” in v7. From Elishua (Elishua, meaning “God is salvation”); {from el (see note Y above) + yasha (see note N above)}. This is Elisha, meaning “God is salvation.”
ZZ “heard” = shama. This is to hear, call, consent, or consider. It implies listening intelligently, giving attention, and, because of these two factors, obedience and action are often implied.
AAA “come” = bo. This is to enter, come in, advance, fulfill, bring offerings, enter to worship, attack. It can also have a sexual connotation.
BBB “learn” = yada. Same as “look” in v7. See note TT above.

So Naaman came with his horsesCCC and chariotsDDD and haltedEEE at the entranceFFF of Elisha’s house.GGG 

Notes on verse 9

CCC “horses” = sus. Root may mean to skip as in jump for joy. This is a crane or a swift bird. It is also a horse as leaping.
DDD “chariots” = rekeb. From rakab (to ride an animal or in some vehicle; also, bringing on a horse). This is a vehicle, wagon, or chariot. It can be cavalry or an individual rider.
EEE “halted” = amad. This is to stand up in a literal or figurative sense. So it can be establish, continue, endure, take a stand, act, be a servant, stand still, remain, stand against an enemy.
FFF “entrance” = petach. From patach (to open wide in a literal or figurative sense, loosen, plow, carve). This is opening, door, gate, entrance.
GGG “house” = bayit. Probably from banah (to build, make, set up, obtain children; to build literally or figuratively). This is house, court, family, palace, temple.

10 Elisha sent a messengerHHH to him, saying, “Go,III washJJJ

Notes on verse 10a

HHH “messenger” = malak. This is a messenger, an angel, or a deputy of some kind. Can be used for human messengers literally or for prophets, priests, or teachers as messengers of God. Also used for supernatural messengers i.e. angels.
III “go” = halak. This is go, come, walk. It is walk literally and figuratively and includes people and animals. It can be used figuratively for one’s moral life – how we walk according to God’s way or against it. It can also refer to the walk of life as in the course one’s life takes, the choices we make, etc.
JJJ “wash” = rachats. This is to wash, wash away – it can be complete or partial.

in the JordanKKK sevenLLL times,MMM

Notes on verse 10b

KKK “Jordan” = Yarden. From yarad (to go down, descend; going down in a literal or figurative sense; going to the shore or a boundary, bringing down an enemy). This is the Jordan River, meaning “descending.”
LLL “seven” = sheba. This is seven or by sevenfold. It can also be used to imply a week or an indefinite number. Symbolically, this is the number of fullness, sacredness, perfection.
MMM “times” = paam. From paam (to move, trouble; to tap in a regular rhythm; to agitate). This is a beat, stroke, footstep, or occurrence.

and your fleshNNN shall be restored,OOO and you shall be clean.”PPP 

Notes on verse 10c

NNN “flesh” = basar. From basar (being a messenger, publish, carry preach; properly, this is being fresh, rosy or cheerful as one bearing news). This is flesh, the body, fat, skin, self, nakedness, humankind, or kin. It can also refer to private parts.
OOO “restored” = shub. To turn back, return, turn away – literally or figuratively. Doesn’t necessarily imply going back to where you started from. This is also the root verb for the Hebrew word for repentance “teshubah.”
PPP “be clean” = taher. This is properly being bright, which implies being pure or clean. This word can also mean purge, cleanse, or purify. It can be clean in a ritual sense or a moral one (i.e. moral or holy).

11 But Naaman became angryQQQ and went away, saying, “RRRI thought that for me he would surely come outSSS

Notes on verse 11a

QQQ “became angry” = qatsaph. This is angry or provoked to wrath. It suggests a bursting into anger.
RRR {untranslated} = hinneh. From hen (lo! Behold! If, though; an expression of surprise). This is to draw attention, show suddenness or surprise, or to emphasize the importance of the coming statement. See! Lo! Behold!
SSS “surely come out” = yatsa + yatsa. Same as {untranslated} in v2. See note S above. The word is repeated twice – the second time as an Infinitive Absolute. The Infinitive Absolute serves to emphasize the sentiment of the word. It is rather like Foghorn Leghorn’s speech pattern, “I said, I said.”

and stand and call on the nameTTT of the LordUUU his God and would waveVVV his handWWW over the spotXXX and cure the skin disease! 

Notes on verse 11b

TTT “name” = shem. May be from sum (to put, place, set). This is name, fame, renown. A name was thought to indicate something essential about a person – something about their individuality. So, this word can also mean honor, authority, or character.
UUU “Lord” = YHVH. Same as “Lord” in v1. See note L above.
VVV “wave” = nuph. This is to rock back and forth, wave, sprinkle, quiver, beckon, offer, present.
WWW “hand” = yad. This is hand, ability, power. Hand in a literal sense, but also what one can do or the means by which one does it.
XXX “spot” = maqom. From qum(to arise, stand, accomplish, establish, abide; rising against, getting up after being sick or asleep, arising from one state to another, becoming powerful, or rising for action; standing in a figurative sense). This is a standing, which is to say a spot or space a place. It can also refer to a locality or a physical/mental condition. HaMaqom is also a Jewish name for God – the place, i.e. the Omnipresent One.

12 Are not AbanaYYY and Pharpar,ZZZ the riversAAAA of Damascus,BBBB

Notes on verse 12a

YYY “Abana” = Abanah. Related to “house” in v9. 1x in OT. Related to Amanah (Amanah or Amana; a river and its region; a mountain); {from amanah (faith, support, sure, covenant); from aman (to believe, endure, fulfill, confirm, support, be faithful, put one’s trust in, be steadfast; figuratively, to be firm, steadfast, or faithful, trusting, believing, being permanent, morally solid)} OR from eben (a stone, weight, or mason); {from banah (see note GGG above)}. This is Abanah or Abana, a river. It may mean “stony,” “faith,” “support,” “her stone,” “onto stone,” or “petrifaction.” See https://www.abarim-publications.com/Meaning/Abanah.html 
ZZZ “Pharpar” = Parpar. 1x in OT. Perhaps from parar (to break, defeat, frustrate, caste off, clean, cease). This is Parpar or Pharpar, a river. It may mean “rushing,” “rapid,” “many splits,” or “divisions upon divisions.” See https://www.abarim-publications.com/Meaning/Pharpar.html
AAAA “rivers” = nahar. From nahar (to flow, sparkle, be cheerful). This is a stream, river, or flood. Particularly used for the Nile or Euphrates. Figuratively, this can mean prosperity.
BBBB “Damascus” = Dammeseq. From Old Aramaic dammasq (Damascus); perhaps related to d-r (dwelling) OR in Syriac darsuq (“a well-watered land”). This is Damascus. See https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Damascus.

betterCCCC than allDDDD the watersEEEE of Israel? Could I not wash in them and be clean?” He turnedFFFF and went away in a rage.GGGG 

Notes on verse 12b

CCCC “better” = tob. From tob (to be pleasing, to be good). This is good, beautiful, pleasant, agreeable, bountiful, at ease. This word is used for goodness as a concept, a good thing, a good person. This can refer to prosperity and welfare as well as joy, kindness, sweetness, and graciousness. So, this is ethically good, but also enjoyably good.
DDDD “all” = kol. From kalal (to complete). This is all or every.
EEEE “waters” = mayim. This is water, waters, or waterway in a general sense. Figuratively, it can also mean juice, urine, or semen.
FFFF “turned” = panah. Related to “in high favor with” in v1. See note I above.
GGGG “rage” = chemah. From yacham (to be hot, mate; figuratively, to conceive). This is heat – figuratively it can be anger or fury. It can also refer to poison or venom as they can cause fever.

13 But his servantsHHHH approachedIIII and saidJJJJ to him,

Notes on verse 13a

HHHH “servants” = ebed. From abad (to work, serve, compel; any kind of work; used causatively, can mean to enslave or keep in bondage). This is a servant, slave, or bondservant.
IIII “approached” = nagash. This is to draw, bring, or come near. It is approaching for any reason – as an attack on an enemy, in order to worship, to make an argument. It can also be used as a euphemism for sex.
JJJJ “said” = dabar. This is generally to speak, answer, declare, or command. It might mean to arrange and so to speak in a figurative sense as arranging words.

“Father,KKKK if the prophet had commandedLLLL you to do somethingMMMM difficult,NNNN would you not have doneOOOO it? How much more, when all he said to you was, ‘Wash, and be clean’?” 

Notes on verse 13b

KKKK “father” = ab. This is father, chief, or ancestor. It is father in a literal or figurative sense.
LLLL “commanded” = dabar. Same as “said” in v13. See note JJJJ above.
MMMM “something” = dabar. Related to “said” in v13. From dabar (see note JJJJ above). This is speech, a word, a matter, an affair, charge, command, message, promise, purpose, report, request. It is a word, which implies things that are spoken of in a wide sense.
NNNN “difficult” = gadol. Same as “great” in v1. See note G above.
OOOO “done” = asah. This is to make, do, act, appoint, become in many senses.

14 So he went downPPPP and immersedQQQQ himself seven times in the Jordan, according to the wordRRRR of the man of God; his flesh was restored like the flesh of a young boy,SSSS and he was clean.

Notes on verse 14

PPPP “went down” = yarad. Related to “Jordan” in v10. See note KKK above.
QQQQ “immersed” = tabal. 16x in OT. This is to dip or immerse. It is used to describe religious rites, as part of murderous schemes (e.g. Joseph’s brothers dipping his coat in goat’s blood), for everyday purposes, and also of miracles (e.g. Naaman immersing himself in the Jordan).
RRRR “word” = dabar. Same as “something” in v13. See note MMMM above.
SSSS “boy” = naar. Related to “girl” in v2. See note V above.

15 Then he returnedTTTT to the man of God, he and all his company;UUUU he came and stoodVVVV beforeWWWW him

Notes on verse 15a

TTTT “returned” = shub. Same as “restored” in v10. See note OOO above.
UUUU “company” = machaneh. From chanah (to decline, bending down, or living in tents; can be camping to create a home or camping as a part of battle). This is an encampment, whether of people traveling together or soldiers. So, it can be a camp band, or company as well as an army of soldiers. Also can be used of other groups like animals, angels or stars.
VVVV “stood” = amad. Same as “halted” in v9. See note EEE above.
WWWW “before” = paneh. Same as “in high favor with” in v1. See note I above.

and said, “XXXXNow I knowYYYY that there is no God in all the earthZZZZ except in Israel; pleaseAAAAA acceptBBBBB a presentCCCCC from your servant.”

Notes on verse 15b

XXXX {untranslated} = hinneh + na. Hinneh is the same as {untranslated} in v11. See note RRR above. Na is the same as {untranslated} in v7. See note UU above.
YYYY “know” = yada. Same as “look” in v7. See note TT above.
ZZZZ “earth” = erets. Same as “land” in v2. See note X above.
AAAAA “please” = na. Same as {untranslated} in v7. See note UU above.
BBBBB “accept” = laqach. This is to take, accept, carry away, receive. It can also have the sense of take a wife or take in marriage.
CCCCC “present” = barakah. From barak (to kneel, bless; blessing God as part of worship and adoration; blessing humans to help them; can be used as a euphemism to say curse God). This is blessing, which implies prosperity or peace.

Image credit: “Saint Elisha the Prophet” from Bodești, Vâlcea county. Photo by Țetcu Mircea Rareș, 2010.

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