2 Timothy 3:14-4:5

2 Timothy 3:14-4:5
Ordinary C47


3:14 But as for you, continueA in what you have learnedB and firmly believed,C knowingD from whom you learned it 

Notes on verse 3:14

A “continue” = meno. This is to stay, remain, wait, await, continue, abide, endure. It can mean to literally stay in a place or to remain in a condition or to continue with hope and expectation.
B “learned” = manthano. This is to learn, ascertain, understand. It is knowledge that one gets from personal experience and it implies reflecting on that experience. It can also focus on gaining knowledge by learning facts. This root is where the Greek word for disciple comes from (mathetes).
C “firmly believed” = pistoo. 1x in NT. From pistos (faithful, trustworthy, reliable, sure, or true; a fullness of faith); from peitho (to have confidence, urge, be persuaded, agree, assure, believe, have confidence, trust). This is to establish, convince, firmly believe, cause to be trustworthy.
D “knowing” = eido. This is to know, consider perceive, appreciate, behold, or remember. It means seeing with one’s eyes, but also figuratively, it means perceiving – seeing that becomes understanding. So, by implication, this means knowing or being aware.

15 and how from childhoodE you have known sacredF writingsG that are ableH to instructI you

Notes on verse 3:15a

E “childhood” = brephos. 8x in NT. This is used of a fetus (as when the child leapt in Elizabeth’s womb on seeing Mary in Luke 1:41) or a newborn (as the child found in the manger in Luke 2:12). It is a young child or an infant in a literal or figurative sense.
F “sacred” = hieros. 4x in NT. This is sacred, something sacred, temple, holy, set apart. It is something consecrated to God or a god.
G “writings” = gramma. 15x in NT. From grapho (to write, describe). This is something drawn or written. So, it could be a letter of the alphabet, an epistle, a book, literature, etc.
H “are able” = dunamai. This is to be able, or something that is possible. It can also be empowered or being powerful. The Greek word for “miracle” (dunamis) comes from this root.
I “instruct” = sophizo. 2x in NT. From sopos (wise, clever, skilled, learned, cultivated); related to saphes (clear). This is to teach, give wisdom, devise in a clever way.

for salvationJ through faithK in ChristL Jesus.M 

Notes on verse 3:15b

J “salvation” = soteria. From soter (a savior, deliverer); from sozo (to save, heal, preserve, or rescue; taking someone from danger to safety; delivering or protecting literally or figuratively); from sos (safe, rescued, well). This is deliverance, salvation, preservation, welfare, prosperity, safety.
K “faith” = pistis. Related to “firmly believed” in v3:14. From peitho (see note C above). This is less about knowing, believing, and repeating a list of doctrines then it is about trusting God. Faith means listening to God and seeking to live a holy life even (and especially) when we don’t understand how everything works or fits together. Faith is about being faithful (trusting and doing) rather than being all knowing.
L “Christ” = Christos. From chrio (consecrate by anointing with oil; often done for prophets, priests, or kings). Literally, the anointed one, Christ. The Greek word for Messiah.
M “Jesus” = Iesous. From Hebrew Yehoshua (Joshua, the Lord is salvation); {from YHVH (proper name of the God of Israel; the self-existent and eternal one); {from havah (to become) or from hayah (to come to pass, become, be)} + yasha (to deliver, defend, help, preserve, rescue; properly, to be open, wide or free, which implies being safe. So, in a causative sense, this is to free someone)}. This is Jesus or Joshua in Greek – the Lord saves or the Lord is salvation.

16 AllN scriptureO is inspired by GodP

Notes on verse 3:16a

N “all” = pas. This is all or every.
O “scripture” = graphe. Related to “writings” in v3:15. From grapho (see note G above). This is literally writing, a document. In the New Testament, this is always used for scripture.
P “inspired by God” = theopneustos. 1x in NT. From Theos (God, a god) + pneo (to blow, breathe, breathe hard). This is breathed out by God, which can imply inspiration. It is probably a word that Paul made up.

and is usefulQ for teaching,R for reproof,S

Notes on verse 3:16b

Q “useful” = ophelimos. 4x in NT – 2x in 1 Timothy, 1x in 2 Timothy, 1x in Titus. From opheleo (to help, benefit, do good, or be useful); from ophelos (help, gain, profit); from ophello (to heap up or increase). This is valuable, useful, profitable, helpful, of benefit or profit.
R “teaching” = didaskalia. From didaskalos (teacher, master); from didasko (to teach, direct, instruct, or impart knowledge; in the New Testament, almost always used for teaching scripture); from dao (to learn).. This is teaching or instruction.
S “reproof” = elegchos. 2x in NT. From elegcho (to expose, reprove, discipline, convict, or rebuke; using convincing evidence to expose a wrong). This is proof, evidence, conviction.

for correction,T and for trainingU in righteousness,V 

Notes on verse 3:16c

T “correction” = epanorthosis. 1x in NT. From epi (on, upon, among, what is fitting) + anorthoo (to set up straight, restore, strengthen, lift up); {from ana (up, again, back, among, anew) + orthoo (to set up, be straight); {from the base of orthos (straight, direct, morally upright)}}. This is a correction – to put something or someone back on the right (i.e. straight) path.
U “training” = paideia. 6x in NT. From paideuo (training or teaching children; to educate, correct, discipline, and punish); from pais (child, youth, servant, slave); perhaps from paio (to strike or sting). This is training, discipline, correction, nurture. It is the teaching that brings someone from immaturity to maturity or from being partially developed to fully developed.
V “righteousness” = dikaiosune. From dikaios (correct, righteous – implies innocent; this is that which conforms to God’s notion of justice, uprightness); from dike (the principle of justice; that which is right in a way that is very clear; a decision or the execution of that decision; originally, this word was for custom or usage; evolved to include the process of law, judicial hearing, execution of sentence, penalty, and even vengeance; more commonly, it refers to what is right); may be from deiknumi (to show, point out, exhibit; figurative for teach, demonstrate, make known). This is judicial or divine approval of character or action. This is righteousness, justice, justness, divine righteousness.

17 so that the personW of GodX may beY proficient,Z

Notes on verse 3:17a

W “person” = anthropos. Probably from aner (man, male, husband) + ops (eye, face); {from optanomai (to appear, be seen); perhaps from horao (become, seem, appear)}. This is human, humankind. Used for all genders.
X “God” = Theos. Related to “inspired by God” in v3:16. See note P above.
Y “be” = eimi. This is to be, exist.
Z “proficient” = artios. 1x in NT. From arti (now, in the moment); from airo (raise, take up, lift, remove). This is fitted or complete – therefore, presently ready to perform a task.

equippedAA for everyBB goodCC work.DD

Notes on verse 3:17b

AA “equipped” = exartizo. Related to “proficient” in v3:17. 2x in NT. From ek (from, from out of) + artizo (get ready, prepare); {akin to artios (see note Z above)}. This is to complete, supply, accomplish, end, equip. It is something that is completed because the different parts function together.
BB “every” = pas. Same as “all” in v3:16. See note N above.
CC “good” = agathos. This is good, a benefit, or a good thing. It is good by its very nature, intrinsically good. A different word, kalos, refers to external signs of goodness.
DD “work” = ergon. From ergo (to work, accomplish, do). This is work, task, deed, labor, effort.

4:1 In the presence ofEE God and of Christ Jesus, who isFF to judgeGG the livingHH and the dead,II

Notes on verse 4:1a

EE “in the presence of” = enopios. Related to “person” in v3:17. From en (in, on, at, by, with) + ops (see note W above). This is literally “in sight of.” It means before in a literal or figurative sense.
FF “is” = mello. Perhaps from melo (something that one is worried or concerned about, something one pays attention to or thinks about). Properly, this is ready, about to happen, to intend, delay, or linger. This is just on the point of acting.
GG “judge” = krino. To judge, decide, think good, condemn, determine, pass judgment, stand trial, sue. This is judging whether it is done in court or in a private setting. Properly, it refers to mentally separating or distinguishing an issue – to come to a choice or decision, to judge positively or negatively in seeking what is right or wrong, who is innocent or guilty. It can imply trying, condemning, punishing, or avenging.
HH “living” = zao. This is to live literally or figuratively. It is used for life including the vitality of humans, plants, and animals – it is life physical and spiritual and life everlasting.
II “dead” = nekros. Perhaps from nekus (corpse). This is dead or lifeless, mortal, corpse. It can also be used figuratively for powerless or ineffective. It is where the word “necrotic” comes from.

and in view of his appearingJJ and his kingdom,KK I solemnly urgeLL you: 

Notes on verse 4:1b

JJ “appearing” = epiphaneia. 6x in NT. From epiphanes (manifest, glorious, conspicuous, memorable); from epiphaino (to shine on, give light to); {from epi (on, upon, among, what is fitting) + phaino (to bring light, cause to appear, shine, become visible or clear)}. This is manifestation, appearing, brightness. It is literally the word “epiphany” comes from.
KK “kingdom” = basileia. From basileus (king, emperor, sovereign); probably from basis (step, hence foot; a pace); from baino (to walk, to go). This is kingdom, rule, authority, sovereignty, royalty, a realm.
LL “solemnly urge” = diamarturomai. 15x in NT. From dia (through, across to the other side, thoroughly) + marturomai (to witness, testify, call as a witness, affirm, charge, protest); {from martus (a witness whether having heard or seen something; witness literally, judicially, or figuratively; by analogy, a martyr)}. This is to affirm, give evidence, testify thoroughly. It is giving full testimony.

proclaimMM the message;NN be persistentOO whether the time is favorablePP or unfavorable;QQ

Notes on verse 4:2a

MM “proclaim” = kerusso. This is to proclaim, preach, publish. Properly, it is to act as a herald – announcing something publicly with confidence and/or to persuade.
NN “message” = logos. From lego (to speak, tell, mention). This is word, statement, speech, analogy. It is a word that carries an idea or expresses a thought, a saying. It could refer to a person with a message or reasoning laid out in words. By implication, this could be a topic, line of reasoning, or a motive. It can be used for a divine utterance or as Word – Christ.
OO “be persistent” = ephistemi. From epi (on, upon, what is fitting) + histemi (to stand, place, set up, establish, stand ready, stand firm, be steadfast). This is to stand upon, happen, be present. Usually, it is used in a literal sense.
PP “time is favorable” = eukairos. 2x in NT. From eukairos (timely, suitable, strategic, well-timed, opportune, festival); {from eu (good, well, well done) + kairos (season, opportunity, occasion; spiritually significant time – the right time or appointed time)}. This is opportunely, season, conveniently.
QQ “unfavorable” = akairos. Related to “time is favorable” in v4:2. From the same as akaireomai (to not have an opportunity or proper occasion); from akairos (unseasonable); {from a (not, without) + kairos (see note PP above)}. This is unfavorable, unseasonable, inopportunely.

convince,RR rebuke,SS and encourageTT

Notes on verse 4:2b

RR “convince” = elegcho. Related to “reproof” in v3:16. 17x in NT. See note S above.
SS “rebuke” = epitimao. From epi (on, upon, against, what is fitting) + timao (properly, this is setting a value or price on something, to estimate. Figuratively, it speaks to what level of honor we afford someone or something depending on our personal feeling toward it. By implication, this can mean to revere or honor); {from time (worth or perceived value; literally, price, but figuratively, the honor or value one sees in someone or something; can be esteem or dignity; can also mean precious or valuables); from tino (to pay, be punished, pay a penalty or fine because of a crime); from tio (to pay respect, value)}. This is to render what is due – to assign the value that is appropriate for the situation. So, it could mean to honor or to warn, to rebuke or to charge. Generally, it is a warning meant to guide someone away from doing something wrong or taking the wrong path. It can imply to forbid.
TT “encourage” = parakaleo. From para (beside, by, in the presence of) + kaleo (to call by name, invite, to name, bid, summon, call aloud) {related to keleuo (to command, order, direct); from kelomai (to urge on)}. This is to call to, summon, invite, request, or beg. It can also be exhort or admonish. Also, this can be encourage, comfort, or console. This word has legal overtones and is used of one’s advocate in a courtroom. It is the root of the name of the Holy Spirit “paraclete” is our advocate and comforter.

with the utmostUU patienceVV in teaching.WW 

Notes on verse 4:2c

UU “utmost” = pas. Same as “all” in v3:16. See note N above.
VV “patience” = makrothumia. 14x in NT. From makros (long, long lasting) {from mekos (length); probably related to megas (great or large)} + thumos (passion, wrath; actions emerging from passion or impulse) {from thuo (to rush along, breathe violently, offer sacrifice)}. Properly, this is long-passion or long-suffering – one who waits the needed amount of time before expressing anger. This is also patience, perseverance, and fortitude.
WW “teaching” = didache. Related to “teaching” in v3:16. From didasko (see note R above). This is teaching or doctrine.

For the timeXX is comingYY when people will not put up withZZ soundAAA teaching,BBB but, having their earsCCC tickled,DDD

Notes on verse 4:3a

XX “time” = kairos. Related to “time is favorable” and “unfavorable” in v4:2. See note PP above.
YY “coming” = eimi. Same as “be” in v3:17. See note Y above.
ZZ “put up with” = anecho. 15x in NT. From ana (up, again, back, among, anew) + echo (to have, hold, possess). This is to endure, bear with, tolerate, persist, put up with.
AAA “sound” = hugiaino. 12x in NT. From hugies (healthy, whole, pure, normal, restored, wholesome; figuratively, sound or true teaching); from the base of auxano (to grow or enlarge, whether literal or figurative). This is healthy, sound, reasonable, pure, total health. This is the root that “hygiene” comes from.
BBB “teaching” = didaskalia. Same as “teaching” in v3:16. See note R above.
CCC “ears” = akoe. From akouo (listen, hear, understand through hearing). This is hearing, ear, audience, fame, report, rumor.
DDD “tickled” = knetho. 1x in NT. From knao (to scrape). This is to itch, rub, or tickle.

they will accumulateEEE for themselves teachersFFF to suitGGG their ownHHH desiresIII 

Notes on verse 4:3b

EEE “accumulate” = episoreuo. 1x in NT. From epi (on, upon, at, what is fitting) + soreuo (to heap, pile up; can be literal or figurative); {from soros (a heap)}. This is to gather in a heap, get a lot of, accumulate, seek further.
FFF “teachers” = didaskalos. Related to “teaching” in v3:16 & “teaching” in v4:2. From didasko (see note R above). This is teacher or master.
GGG “to suit” = kata. This is down, according to, by way of.
HHH “own” = idios. This is something that belongs to you or that is personal, private, apart. It indicates a stronger sense of possession than a simple possessive pronoun. This is where “idiot” comes from (denoting someone who hasn’t had formal training or education and so they rely on their own understanding).
III “desires” = epithumia. Related to “patience” in v4:2. From epithmueo (long for, set one’s heart on, yearn, desire); {from epi (on, upon, at, what is fitting) + thumos (see note VV above)}. This is desire, a longing built on passionate emotion or urges. This can be a positive or a negative passion (lust or eagerness).

and will turn awayJJJ fromKKK listeningLLL

Notes on verse 4:4a

JJJ “turn away” = apostrepho. 9x in NT. From apo (from, away from) + strepho (to turn, change, turn back, be converted; to turn around completely to take the opposite path or a completely different one); {from trope (turning, shifting, a revolution; figuratively, a variation); from trepo (to turn)}. This is to turn away from so it could be to leave, to reject, remove, or even desert. It places a focus on one’s personal commitment to this turning back and rejecting.
KKK {untranslated} = men. This is truly, indeed, even, in fact. Often, it is not translated, but used to emphasize affirmation.
LLL “listening” = akoe. Same as “ears” in v4:3. See note CCC above.

to the truthMMM and wander awayNNN to myths.OOO 

Notes on verse 4:4b

MMM “truth” = aletheia. From alethes (true, unconcealed; true because it is in concert with fact and reality – attested; literally, what cannot be hidden; truth stands up to test and scrutiny and is undeniable, authentic). {from a (not, without) + lanthano (unnoticed, concealed)}. Truth is literally that which is not or cannot be concealed. This word covers more than the sense of true versus false. It spoke of truth as that which corresponds to reality – reality as opposed to illusion. Thus, it includes, sincerity, straightforwardness, and reality itself.
NNN “wander away” = ektrepo. Related to “turn away” in v4:4. 5x in NT. From ek (from, from out of) + the same as trope (see note JJJ above). This is turn to, turn away, avoid, wander away, be put out of joint. It can be literal or figurative.
OOO “myths” = muthos. 5x in NT. Perhaps from the same as mueo (to initiate someone into the secrets or mysteries of an order; to instruct learn, be disciples; properly, shutting your mouth and eyes to experience mystery); from muo (shutting eyes or mouth). This is a story, idle tale, or myth. It could be a word or a saying. It could be a true narrative or an invented tale or even a falsehood. This is where the word “myth” comes from.

As for you, be soberPPP in everything,QQQ endure suffering,RRR

Notes on verse 4:5a

PPP “be sober” = nepho. 6x in NT. To be sober in a literal sense. Also to be calm or vigilant, not subject to illusion or the influence of selfish greed or other sins. This is one who uses clear judgment and has their wits about them.
QQQ “everything” = pas. Same as “all” in v3:16. See note N above.
RRR “endure suffering” = kakopatheo. 3x in NT. From the same as kakopatheia (suffering, distress, hardship; undergoing evil); {from kakos (bad, evil, harm, ill; evil that is part of someone’s core character – intrinsic, rotted, worthless, depraved, causing harm; deep inner malice that comes from a rotten character) + pathos (passion, lust, suffering, something that happens to you, strong feelings); {from pascho (to be acted on for good or ill; often used for negative treatment; properly, feeling strong emotions – especially suffering; can also be the ability to feel suffering)}}. This is to experience hardship or evil – to suffer.

doSSS the work of an evangelist,TTT carry out your ministryUUU fully.VVV

Notes on verse 4:5b

SSS “do” = poieo. This is to make, do, act, construct, abide, or cause.
TTT “evangelist” = euaggelistes. Related to “time is favorable” in v4:2. 3x in NT. From euaggelizo (to evangelize – literally to preach the good news. It can be those who hear the news, the news, or a way to say gospel); {from eu (well, good, rightly) + aggelos (angel, messenger; a messenger from God bringing news – whether a prophet or an angel) {from aggellos (to bring tidings); probably from ago (to bring, lead, carry, guide)}}. This is an evangelist or missionary – one who bears good news.
UUU “ministry” = diakonia. Perhaps from dia (through, across to the other side, thoroughly) + konis (dust) OR from dioko (to chase after, put to flight; by implication, to persecute or to purse like a hunter after its prey; this can be earnestly pursue or zealously persecute) {related to dio (put to flight)}. This is service, ministry, attending someone, service. It can mean serving someone at a table or otherwise as their servant/slave. It is also used for people who serve/minister in temples, as well as the work of Christian ministry. Figuratively, this word can mean money given for charity. This shares a root with “deacon” and is where the word “diaconate” comes from.
VVV “carry out…fully” = plerophoreo. 6x in NT. From pleres (to be full, complete, abounding in, or occupied with); {from pletho (to fill, accomplish, supply; to fill to maximum capacity)} + phoreo (to bear constantly or habitually or repeatedly; it can mean to wear or carry a burden); {from phero (to bear, bring, lead, make known publicly; to carry in a literal or figurative sense)}. This is to fulfills, fully convince, satisfy, accomplish, fully assure. It can be to fully convince by using evidence or to make full.

Image credit: “Statue at St Paul’s Anglican Church, Beaconsfield, Fremantle, Western Australia.” Photo by Jim Owens, 2011.

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