Acts 11

Acts 11


Now the apostlesI and the brothersII and sisters who wereIII

Notes on verse 1a

I “apostles” = apostolos. From apostello (to send, send away, send forth as a messenger, to commission); {from apo (from, away from) + stello (to set, arrange, prepare, provide for); {probably from histemi (to stand, place, set up, establish, stand firm)}}. This is a messenger – someone sent out on a mission as an envoy or delegate. It can also refer to someone set at liberty. Generally, this is a messenger who is meant to be a representative of the one who sent them. They are thus, set apart on a mission literally or figuratively.
II “brothers” = adelphos. From a (with, community, fellowship) + delphus (womb). This is a brother in a literal or figurative sense. It is also used of another member of the Church.
III “were” = eimi. This is to be, exist.

in JudeaIV heardV that the gentilesVI

Notes on verse 1b

IV “Judea” = Ioudaia. From Hebrew Yehudah (Judah, son of Jacob, his tribal descendants, a name for the southern kingdom. Literally, it means praised); probably from yadah (to throw one’s hands into the air in a gesture of praise); from yad (hand). This is Judea, which was a Roman province.
V “heard” = akouo. This is hear or listen, but it also means to understand by hearing. This is where the word “acoustics” comes from.
VI “gentiles” = ethnos. Probably from etho (a custom or culture). This is people who are united by having similar customs or culture. Generally, it is used to refer to Gentiles. This is a tribe, race, nation, or Gentiles in general. This is where the term “ethnicity” comes from.

had also acceptedVII the wordVIII of God.IX 

Notes on verse 1c

VII “accepted” = dechomai. This is to warmly receive, be ready for what is offered, take, accept, or welcome. It is to receive in a literal or figurative sense.
VIII “word” = logos. From lego (to speak, tell, mention). This is word, statement, speech, analogy. It is a word that carries an idea or expresses a thought, a saying. It could refer to a person with a message or reasoning laid out in words. By implication, this could be a topic, line of reasoning, or a motive. It can be used for a divine utterance or as Word – Christ.
IX “God” = Theos. From Proto-Indo-European origins, meaning do, put, place. This is God or a god in general.

So when PeterX went upXI to Jerusalem,XII the circumcised believersXIII criticizedXIV him, 

Notes on verse 2

X “Peter” = Petros. Related to petra (large rock that is connected and or projecting like a rock, ledge, or cliff; can also be cave or stony ground). This is Peter, a stone, pebble, or boulder.
XI “went up” = anabaino. From ana (up, back, among, again, anew) + the same as basis (step, hence foot; a pace); {from baino (to walk, to go)}. This is to come up in a literal or figurative sense – ascent, rise, climb, enter.
XII “Jerusalem” = Ierousalem. From Hebrew Yerushalaim (probably foundation of peace); {from yarah (to throw, shoot, be stunned; to flow as water so figuratively to instruct or teach) + shalam (to make amends, to be complete or sound)}. This is Jerusalem, dwelling of peace.
XIII “circumcised believers” = peritome. From peritemno (to circumcise; literally cut around); {from peri (about, concerning, all around, encompassing) + same as tomos or tomoteros (sharp or keener); from temno (to cut as with a single slice)}. This is properly, cut around, referring to the way that foreskin is removed and so this is to circumcise. It can be used or the rite or the people who are circumcised – in a literal or figurative sense.
XIV “criticized” = diakrino. 19x in NT. From dia (through, across to the other side, thoroughly) + krino (to judge, decide, think good, condemn, determine, pass judgment, stand trial, sue; judging whether in court or in a private setting; properly, mentally separating or distinguishing an issue – to come to a choice or decision, to judge positively or negatively in seeking what is right or wrong, who is innocent or guilty; can imply trying, condemning, punishing, or avenging). This is to judge, separate, contend, investigate, thoroughly judge.

saying,XV “Why did you goXVI to uncircumcisedXVII menXVIII and eat withXIX them?” 

Notes on verse 3

XV “saying” = lego. Related to “word” in v1. See note VIII above.
XVI “go” = eiserchomai. From eis (to, into, for, among) + erchomai (to come, go). This is to go in in a literal or figurative sense.
XVII “uncircumcised” = akrobustia + echo. Akrobustia is perhaps from akron (end, tip, top, extreme); {related to akantha (thorn bush, thorn); from ake (point, edge)} + posthe (penis). This is foreskin – so, someone who is not circumcised or a Gentile. Echo is have, hold, possess.
XVIII “men” = aner. This is man, male, husband, or fellow. It can also refer to an individual.
XIX “eat with” = sunesthio. 5x in NT. From sun (with, together with) + esthio (to eat or figuratively to devour or consume like rust); {akin to edo (to eat)}. This is to eat with.

Then Peter beganXX to explainXXI it to them, step by step,XXII saying, 

Notes on verse 4

XX “began” = archomai. From archo (to rule, begin, have first rank or have political power). This is to begin or rule.
XXI “explain” = ektithemi. 4x in NT. From ek (from, from out of) + tithemi (to put, place, set, fix, establish in a literal or figurative sense; properly, this is placing something in a passive or horizontal position). This is to set forth, expound, abandon, declare.
XXII “step by step” = kathexes. Related to “uncircumcised” in v3. 5x in NT. From kata (down, against, throughout) + hexes (next, soon, adjoining); {from echo (see note XVII above)}. This is in order, right after. It could be the next person or the next unit of time.

“I was in the cityXXIII of JoppaXXIV praying,XXV

Notes on verse 5a

XXIII “city” = polis. This is a city or its inhabitants. It is a town of variable size, but one that has walls. This is where “metropolis” and “police” come from.
XXIV “Joppa” = Ioppe. 10x in NT– all in Acts. From Hebrew Yapho (Joppa, a city); from yaphah (to be beautiful; properly, to be bright; to decorate). This is Joppa, a city whose name means “beauty” or “beautiful.” See
XXV “praying” = proseuchomai. From pros (advantageous for, at, toward) + euchomai (to wish, make a request, pray). This is to pray or pray for, to worship or supplicate. It is more literally exchanging one’s own wishes for God’s.

and in a tranceXXVI I sawXXVII a vision.XXVIII

Notes on verse 5b

XXVI “trance” = ekstasis. Related to “apostles” in v1. 7x in NT. From existemi (o displace or take something or someone from standing; figuratively, to be overwhelmed and flabbergasted – as if beside oneself; astonished, amazed, or mad); {from ek (from, from out of) + histemi (see note I above)}. This is bewilderment, amazement, distraction, shock, a trance, rapture. It is the root of the word “ecstasy.”
XXVII “saw” = horao. To see, perceive, attend to, look upon, experience. Properly, to stare at and so implying clear discernment. This, by extension, would indicate attending to what was seen and learned. This is to see, often with a metaphorical sense. Can include inward spiritual seeing.
XXVIII “vision” = horama. Related to “saw” in v5. 12x in NT. From horao (see note XXVII above). This is a sight, something seen, a vision. In the New Testament, it is always a supernatural vision.

There was somethingXXIX like a largeXXX sheetXXXI coming downXXXII from heaven,XXXIII

Notes on verse 5c

XXIX “something” = skeuos. This is a vessel, object, article, property, a tool. It is an implement or other equipment in a literal or figurative sense. It could also refer to a vessel of mercy or a wife.
XXX “large” = megas. This is big in a literal or figurative sense – great, large, exceeding, abundant, high, mighty, perfect, strong, etc.
XXXI “sheet” = othone. 2x in NT– both in Acts describing this vision. This is a cloth made of linen, a sail.
XXXII “coming down” = katabaino. Related to “went up” in v2. From kata (down, against, throughout, among) + baino (see note XI above). This is to come down whether from the sky to the ground or from higher ground to lower. It can be used in a literal or figurative sense.
XXXIII “heaven” = ouranos. May be related to oros (mountain, hill); probably related to airo (raise, take up, lift, remove). This is the air, the sky, the atmosphere, and heaven. It is the sky that is visible and the spiritual heaven where God dwells. Heaven implies happiness, power, and eternity.

being loweredXXXIV by its fourXXXV corners,XXXVI and it cameXXXVII close to me. 

Notes on verse 5d

XXXIV “lowered” = kathiemi. 4x in NT. From kata (down, against, throughout) + hiemi (to send). This is to lower, send.
XXXV “four” = tessares. This is four – used figuratively for total coverage.
XXXVI “corners” = arche. Related to “began” in v4. From archomai (see note XX above). Properly, this is what is first. In a temporal sense, that is beginning or origin. It can also refer to the one who ranks first, i.e. king or ruler. So, it can also be magistrate, power, or principality. It can be used more generally for what is preeminent.
XXXVII “came” = erchomai. Related to “go” in v3. See note XVI above.

As I looked at it closelyXXXVIII I saw four-footed animals,XXXIX beasts of prey,XL

Notes on verse 6a

XXXVIII “looked…closely” = atenizo + katanoeo. Atenizo is 14x in NT. From a (has an intensive sense) + teino (to stretch, extend, strain). This is to gaze or look steadily at with one’s full attention and fascination. Katanoeo is 14x in NT.  From kata (down, against, throughout, among) + noeo (to think, understand, conceive, realize, see; one who thinks things through sufficiently to reach a conclusion or value judgment; moral reasoning.); {from nous (mind, understanding, reasoning faculty, intellect, capacity to reflect); from noos (mind); probably from the base as ginosko (to know, recognize, realize, perceive, learn; gaining knowledge through personal experience)}. This is to consider, discern, perceive, notice, observe. It is to think through something thoroughly in order to come to a conclusion – fully concentrated thinking.
XXXIX “four-footed animals” = tetrapous + ho + ge. Literally, “four footed of the earth.” Tetrapous is related to “four” in v5. 3x in NT. From tessares (see note XXXV above) + pous (foot, literally or figuratively). This is four-footed or quadruped. Geis earth, land, soil, region, country, the inhabitants of an area.
XL “beasts of prey” = therion. From the same as thera (hunting, game, a net, trap, destruction); from ther (wild animal – particularly one that is hunted). This is wild animal or any creature. Figuratively, as wild animals are often dangerous, it can refer to a brutal nature.

reptiles,XLI and birdsXLII of the air.XLIII 

Notes on verse 6b

XLI “reptiles” = herpeton. 4x in NT. From herpo (to crawl). This is an animal that creeps or crawls. It is often used for snakes, reptiles, small creatures.
XLII “birds” = peteinon. 14x in NT. From petomai (to fly). This is something with wings i.e. a bird.
XLIII “air” = ouranos. Same as “heaven” in v5. See note XXXIII above.

I also heard a voiceXLIV saying to me, ‘Get up,XLV Peter; killXLVI and eat.’XLVII 

Notes on verse 7

XLIV “voice” = phone. Probably from phemi (to declare, say, use contrasts in speaking to shed light on one point of view); {from phao (to shine) or phaino (to bring light, cause to appear, shine, become visible or clear). This is a voice, sound, tone or noise. It can also be a language or dialect.
XLV “get up” = anistemi. Related to “apostles” in v1 & “trance” in v5. From ana (upwards, up, again, back, anew) + histemi (see note I above). This is to raise up, rise, appear. It is to stand up literally or figuratively. Can also mean to resurrect.
XLVI “kill” = thuo. 14x in NT. This is to rush along, breathe violently. It can also mean to offer sacrifice, specifically by fire (in reference to the blowing smoke).
XLVII “eat” = phago. This is to eat or figuratively to consume like rust does.

But I replied, ‘By no means, Lord,XLVIII for nothing profaneXLIX or uncleanL has ever enteredLI my mouth.’LII 

Notes on verse 8

XLVIII “Lord” = Kurios. From kuros (authority, supremacy). This is a respectful address meaning master or sir. It refers to one who has control or power greater than one’s own. So, it was also applied to God and Jesus as Master or Lord.
XLIX “profane” = koinos. 14x in NT. From sun (with, together with). This is common, shared – something for ordinary or everyday use. It can also denote unclean, unholy, or profane – unholy rather than something reserved for a sacred purpose.
L “unclean” = akathartos. From a (not, without) + kathairo (to cleanse or purify by purging out unwanted elements); {from katharos (clean, clear, pure, unstained; clean in a literal, ritual, or spiritual sense; so, also guiltless, innocent or upright; something that is pure because it has been separated from the negative substance or aspect; spiritually clean because of God’s act of purifying)}. This is unclean or impure, whether a thing or a person. It is something that is not mixed with something that would taint. This is unclean in a ritual or moral sense. It can also mean demonic or foul.
LI “entered” = eiserchomai. Same as “go” in v3. See note XVI above.
LII “mouth” = stoma. Related to “circumcised believers” in v2. Perhaps from tomoteros (see note XIII above). This is mouth, speech, language, the tip of a sword, an opening in the ground.

But a secondLIII time the voice answeredLIV from heaven, ‘What God has made clean,LV you must not call profane.’LVI 

Notes on verse 9

LIII “second” = deuteros. From duo (two, both). This is second, twice, again. It is part of where “Deuteronomy” comes from, which means “second law” or “a repetition of the law.” See
LIV “answered” = apokrinomai. Related to “criticized” in v2. From apo (from, away from) + krino (see note XIV above). This is to reply or respond, to draw one’s own conclusions, to speak when one is expected to.
LV “made clean” = katharizo. Related to “unclean” n v8. From katharos (see note L above). This is to cleanse, make clean, purify, purge, or declare to be clean. Like its roots, it includes cleansing in a literal, ritual, or spiritual sense. Being pure or purified is not something that is only available to the rare few or the innocent. Anyone can be purified.
LVI “call profane” = koinoo. Related to “profane” in v8. 14x in NT. From koinos (see note XLIX above). This is to make something common i.e. treated as ordinary and so not ceremonially pure/sacred. So, it can also mean to pollute or desecrate.

10 This happenedLVII three times;LVIII then everythingLIX was pulled upLX again to heaven. 

Notes on verse 10

LVII “happened” = ginomai. This is to come into being, to happen, become, be born. It can be to emerge from one state or condition to another or is coming into being with the sense of movement or growth.
LVIII “three times” = tris. 12x in NT. From treis (three). This is three times.
LIX “everything” = hapas. From hama (at once, together with) + pas (all, every, every kind of) OR from a (with) + pas (see above). This is all; every part working together as a unit.
LX “pulled up” = anaspao. 2x in NT. From ana (up, again, back, anew) + spao (to pull, to draw a sword). This is to pull up, draw out, extricate.

11 LXIAt that very momentLXII threeLXIII men,

Notes on verse 11a

LXI {untranslated} = idou. From eido (to be aware, see, know, remember, appreciate). This is see! Lo! Behold! Look! Used to express surprise and or draw attention to the statement.
LXII “at that very moment” = exautes. 6x in NT. From ek (from, from out of) + autos (he, she, self, they, same). Literally “from that one,” with the sense of “from that hour.” So, it is at once, immediately.
LXIII “three” = treis. Related to “three times” in v10. See note LVIII above.

sentLXIV to me from Caesarea,LXV arrivedLXVI at the houseLXVII where we were. 

Notes on verse 11b

LXIV “sent” = apostello. Related to “apostles” in v1 & “trance” in v5 & “get up” in v7 & “arrived” in v11. See note I above.
LXV “Caesarea” = Kaisareia. 17x in NT. From kaisar (Caesar, at first a last name, then taken as a title by Roman emperors); from Latin (Caesar); perhaps from Punic caesai (elephant) OR from Latin a cesiis oculis (because of the blue eyes) OR from Latin a caesarie (because of the hair) OR from Latin a caeso matris utero (born by Caesarean section) OR from Latin caedo (to cut). This is Caesarea – part of the name of two cities in Palestine. See
LXVI “arrived” = ephistemi. Related to “apostles” in v1 & “trance” in v5 & “get up” in v7. From epi (on, upon, what is fitting) + histemi (see note I above). This is to stand upon, happen, be present. Usually, it is used in a literal sense.
LXVII “house” = oikia. From oikos (house – the building, the household, the family, descendants; the temple). This is a house, household, goods, property, family, or means.

12 The SpiritLXVIII told me to go withLXIX them and not to make a distinctionLXX between them and us. These sixLXXI brothers also accompaniedLXXII me, and we entered the man’s house.LXXIII 

Notes on verse 12

LXVIII “Spirit” = Pneuma. From pneo (to blow, breathe, breathe hard). This is wind, breath, or ghost. A breeze or a blast or air, a breath. Figuratively used for a spirit, the human soul or part of us that is rational. It is also used supernaturally for angels, demons, God, and the Holy Spirit. This is where pneumonia comes from.
LXIX “go with” = sunerchomai. Related to “go” in v3 & “came” in v5. From sun (with, together with) + erchomai (see note XVI above). This is to go with, assemble, leave together with, cohabit.
LXX “make a distinction” = diakrino. Same as “criticized” in v2. See note XIV above.
LXXI “six” = hex. 13x in NT. This is six.
LXXII “accompanied” = erchomai. Same as “came” in v5. See note XXXVII above.
LXXIII “house” = oikos. Related to “house” in v11. See note LXVII above.

13 He toldLXXIV us how he had seen the angelLXXV standingLXXVI in his houseLXXVII

Notes on verse 13a

LXXIV “told” = apaggello. From apo (from, away from) + aggello (to announce, report); {from aggelos (angel, messenger); probably from ago (to lead, bring, carry, guide, drive)}. This is to report, declare, bring word. It is an announcement that emphasizes the source.
LXXV “angel” = aggelos. Related to “told” in v13. See note LXXIV above.
LXXVI “standing” = histemi. Related to “apostles” in v1 & “trance” in v5 & “get up” in v7 & “arrived” in v11and “sent” in v11. See note I above.
LXXVII “house” = oikos. Same as “house” in v12. See note LXXIII above.

and saying, ‘Send to Joppa and bringLXXVIII Simon,LXXIX who is calledLXXX Peter; 

Notes on verse 13b

LXXVIII “bring” = metapempo. 9x in NT. From meta (with, among, behind, beyond) + pempo (to send, put forth, or dispatch; often a temporary errand; sending someone with a focus on the place they departed from). This is to send after, summon, invite.
LXXIX “Simon” = Simon. From Hebrew Shimon (Simon – Jacob’s son and his tribe); from shama (to hear, often implying attention and obedience). This is Simon, meaning “he who hears.”
LXXX “called” = epikaleo. From epi (on, upon, among, what is fitting) + kaleo (to call by name, invite, to name, bid, summon, call aloud); {related to keleuo (to command, order, direct); from kelomai (to urge on)}. This is to call on, appeal to, worship, invoke for help.

14 he will giveLXXXI you a messageLXXXII by which you and your entireLXXXIII householdLXXXIV will be saved.’LXXXV 

Notes on verse 14

LXXXI “give” = laleo. From lalos (talkative). This is to talk, say, or preach.
LXXXII “message” = rhema. From rheo (to speak, command, make, say, speak of); from ereo (to all, say, speak of, tell; denotes ongoing speech). This is word, which implies a matter or thing spoken, a command, report, promise, thing, or business. Often used for narration, commands, or disputes.
LXXXIII “entire” = pas. Related to “everything” in v10. See note LIX above.
LXXXIV “household” = oikos. Same as “house” in v12. See note LXXIII above.
LXXXV “saved” = sozo. From sos (safe, rescued, well). This is to save, heal, preserve, or rescue. Properly, this is taking someone from danger to safety. It can be delivering or protecting literally or figuratively. This is the root that “savior” and “salvation” come from in Greek.

15 And as I began to speak,LXXXVI the HolyLXXXVII Spirit fellLXXXVIII upon them just as it had upon us at the beginning.LXXXIX 

Notes on verse 15

LXXXVI “speak” = laleo. Same as “give” in v14. See note LXXXI above.
LXXXVII “Holy” = Hagios. From hagnos (holy, sacred, pure ethically, ritually, or ceremonially; prepared for worship, chaste, unadulterated, pure to the core; undefiled by sin; figurative for innocent, modest, perfect). God is totally different from humanity and thus set apart. That which is consecrated to worship God (elements of worship) or to serve God (as the saints) are holy because they are now set apart for God’s purposes. Holy because important to God. This is sacred physically, pure. It can be morally blameless or ceremonially consecrated.
LXXXVIII “fell” = epipipto. 11x in NT. From epi (on, upon, to, against, what is fitting) + pipto (to fall in a literal or figurative sense). This is fall upon. It could be in the sense of pressing in on, being seized with fear, being embraced (as in the parable of the prodigal son in Luke 15:20), bending over, being insulted, or the Spirit falling on people. So, it is coming upon someone with more or less affection or violence.
LXXXIX “beginning” = arche. Same as “corners” in v5. See note XXXVI above.

16 And I rememberedXC the wordXCI of the Lord, how he had said, ‘JohnXCII, XCIII baptizedXCIV with water,XCV but you will be baptized with the Holy Spirit.’ 

Notes on verse 16

XC “remembered” = mimnesko. From mnaomai (to remember; by implication give reward or consequence); perhaps from meno (to stay, abide, wait, endure). This is to remind or remember. It is memory through an active, intentional process or being mindful of. It is not incidentally or accidentally remembering.
XCI “word” = rhema. Same as “message” in v14. See note LXXXII above.
XCII “John” = Ioannes. From Hebrew yochanan (Johanan); from Yehochanan (“the Lord has been gracious”); {from YHVH (proper name of the God of Israel); {from havah (to become); from hayah (to be, exist, happen)} + chanan (beseech, show favor, be gracious; properly, to bend in kindness to someone with less status). This is John, meaning “the Lord has been gracious.”
XCIII {untranslated} = men. This is truly, indeed, even, in fact. Often, it is not translated, but used to emphasize affirmation.
XCIV “baptized” = baptizo. From bapto (to dip or dye; to entirely cover with liquid, to stain). This is to submerge, wash, or immerse. Used specially for baptism.
XCV “water” = hudor. Perhaps from huetos (rain); from huo (to rain). This is water literal or figurative. It is one of the roots that “hydrogen” and “hydroelectric” come from.

17 If then God gave them the sameXCVI giftXCVII that he gaveXCVIII us when we believedXCIX

Notes on verse 17a

XCVI “same” = isos. Related to {untranslated} in v11. 8x in NT. Perhaps from eido (see note LXI above). This is equal, identical, similar. It is an equivalence of substance or number or quality.
XCVII “gift” = dorea. 11x in NT. From doron (gift, offering, sacrifice; emphasizes that the gift is given freely, voluntarily); from didomi (to give in a literal or figurative sense). This is a free gift given voluntarily and not received by merit or entitlement. It emphasizes the benevolence of the giver.
XCVIII “gave” = didomi. Related to “gift” in v17. See note XCVII above.
XCIX “believed” = pisteuo. From pistis (faith, faithfulness, belief, trust, confidence; to be persuaded or come to trust); from peitho (to have confidence, urge, be persuaded, agree, assure, believe, have confidence, trust). This is to believe, entrust, have faith it, affirm, have confidence in. This is less to do with a series of beliefs or doctrines that one believes and more to do with faithfulness, loyalty, and fidelity. It is trusting and then acting based on that trust.

in the Lord JesusC Christ,CI who was I that I couldCII hinderCIII God?” 

Notes on verse 17b

C “Jesus” = Iesous. Related to “John” in v16. From Hebrew Yehoshua (Joshua, the Lord is salvation); {from YHVH (see note XCII above) + yasha (to deliver, defend, help, preserve, rescue; properly, to be open, wide or free, which implies being safe. So, in a causative sense, this is to free someone)}. This is Jesus or Joshua in Greek – the Lord saves or the Lord is salvation.
CI “Christ” = Christos. From chrio (consecrate by anointing with oil; often done for prophets, priests, or kings). Literally, the anointed one, Christ. The Greek word for Messiah.
CII “could” = dunatos. From dunamai (to be able, have power or ability). This is mighty or powerful. It speaks of ability of persons, possibility of things. It is what can be given the power or ability that the subject exhibits. The root verb is also related to miracles i.e. deeds of power.
CIII “hinder” = koluo. Perhaps from the same as kolazo (to punish, particularly to punish slaves so that they are restricted or chastised); from kolos (docked, dwarf). This is to hinder or prevent, restrain, refuse. It can be prevent, whether through words or actions.

18 When they heard this, they were silenced.CIV And they praisedCV God, saying, “Then God has givenCVI even to the gentiles the repentanceCVII that leads to life.”CVIII

Notes on verse 18

CIV “silenced” = hesuchazo. Related to “uncircumcised” in v3 & “step by step” in v4. 5x in NT. Related to hesuchios (quiet, peaceful, settled, sitting); {from hesuchos (still, quiet)} OR from hedraios (sitting, well-seated, immovable; figuratively, steadfast, firm, morally fixed); {from hedra (seat)} + echo (see note XVII above). This is to be quiet, to stop working, to live and quiet life.
CV “praised” = doxazo. From doxa (glory, opinion, praise, honor, renown; particularly used as a quality of God or manifestation of God – splendor); from dokeo (to have an opinion, seem, appear, suppose; a personal judgment; to think); from dokos (opinion). This is to render or hold something as glorious, to glorify, honor, magnify, or celebrate. This is ascribing weight to something by recognizing its true value or essence.
CVI “given” = didomi. Same as “gave” in v17. See note XCVIII above.
CVII “repentance” = metanoia. Related to “looked closely” in v6. From meta (with, among, after, beyond) + noieo (to perceive, think, understand); {from nous (see note XXXVIII above)}. This is literally to change one’s mind – to choose to think differently and so to act differently because of a moral compunction. It is an intentional change to the inner self. This word shares a root with the English “paranoia.”
CVIII “life” = zoe. From zao (to live, be alive). This is life including the vitality of humans, plants, and animals – it is life physical and spiritual and life everlasting.

19 Now thoseCIX who were scatteredCX because of the persecutionCXI

Notes on verse 19a

CIX {untranslated} = men. Same as {untranslated} in v16. See note XCIII above.
CX “scattered” = diaspeiro. Related to “pulled up” in v10. 3x in NT. From dia (through, for the sake of, across, thoroughly) + speiro (to sow seed, spread, scatter); {perhaps from spao (see note LX above)}. This is to scatter as one scatters seed, disperse. Figuratively, it is people living in many places in foreign countries.
CXI “persecution” = thlipsis. From thlibo (to press in on and make narrow, rub together, constrict; figuratively to oppress or afflict). This is pressure that hems us in – used often of internal pressure that makes us feel like we have no other options and are confined or restricted. So, this is persecution, affliction, trouble, distress, and anguish. There is a different word, stenoxoria, that refers to external pressure that we feel from what’s going on.

that took placeCXII over StephenCXIII traveledCXIV as far as Phoenicia,CXV

Notes on verse 19b

CXII “took place” = ginomai. Same as “happened” in v10. See note LVII above.
CXIII “Stephen” = Stephanos. 7x in NT. From stephanos (something that surrounds i.e. a crown or garland; properly, the wreath or garland that the winner of athletic games would win; symbolized victory and honor from skill as contrasted with a royal crown, which is diadema in Greek); stepho (to twine, encircle). This is Stephen or Stephanus, meaning “crown.”
CXIV “traveled” = dierchomai. Related to “go” in v3 & “came” in v5 & “go with” in v12. From dia (through, across to the other side, thoroughly) + erchomai (see note XVI above). This is to go through, come, depart, pierce, travel, traverse.
CXV “Phoenicia” = Phoinike. 3x in NT– all in Acts. Probably from phoinix (palm tree, palm branch, date palm) OR from Phoinix (Phoenician, Tyrian purple); {related to phoinos (red); probably related to Egyptian fenkhu (carpenter – used to refer to a people)}. This is Phoenicia, perhaps meaning “palm country.” It is north of Galilee. See

Cyprus,CXVI and Antioch,CXVII and they spoke the wordCXVIII

Notes on verse 19c

CXVI “Cyprus” = Kupros. 5x in NT. Perhaps from kaphar (to appease, cover, pacify, cancel) or from kuparissos (cypress tree) or from kupros (henna tree) or from Sumerian zubar (copper) or from Sumerian kubar (bronze). This is Cyprus, meaning “enclave” or “redeemed” or “fortified settlement” or “atoned from.” See;
CXVII “Antioch” = Antiocheia. Related to “uncircumcised” in v3 & “step by step” in v4 & “were silenced” in v18. 18x in NT. From Antiochos (Antiochus, a proper name common to kings of Syria); {perhaps from anti (opposite, instead of, against) + echo (see note XVII above)}. This is Antioch or Antiochia, two cities in the Bible have this name. It means “resistant” or “set against.” See
CXVIII “word” = logos. Same as “word” in v1. See note VIII above.

to no one exceptCXIX Jews.CXX 20 But among them were some men of CyprusCXXI and CyreneCXXII

Notes on verses 19d-20a

CXIX {untranslated} = monon. Related to “remembered” in v16. From monos (alone, single, remaining, mere, desolate); from meno (see note XC above). This is merely, only, simply, sole. It can also imply alone.
CXX “Jews” = Ioudaios. Related to “Judea” in v1. From Ioudas (Judah, Judas); from Hebrew Yehudah (see note IV above). This is Jewish, a Jew, or Judea.
CXXI “of Cyprus” = Kuprios. Related to “Cyprus” in v19. 3x in NT– all in Acts. From Kupros (see note CXVI above). This is related to Cyprus or living in Cyprus. It may mean “enclave” or “redeemed” or “fortified settlement” or “atoned from. See;
CXXII “Cyrene” = Kurenaios. 6x in NT. From Kurene (Cyrene, a Greek mythological figure; perhaps meaning sovereign queen). This is from Cyrene. See

who, on comingCXXIII to Antioch, spoke to the HellenistsCXXIV also, proclaimingCXXV the Lord Jesus. 

Notes on verse 20b

CXXIII “coming” = erchomai. Same as “came” in v5. See note XXXVII above.
CXXIV “Hellenists” = Hellenistes. 3x in NT. From hellenizo (to Hellenize); from Hellen (Greek; used for Gentiles, broader populations that spoke Greek and were a part of Greek culture regardless of their heritage); from Hellas (Hellas, what Greeks called themselves); perhaps from helane (torch) OR from selene (moon). This is Hellenist – a Jew who spoke Greek and adhered to some degree to Greek culture. See
CXXV “proclaiming” = euaggelizo. Related to “told” and “angel” in v13. From eu (well, good, rightly) + aggelos (see note LXXIV above). This is evangelize – literally to preach the good news. It can be those who hear the news, the news, or a way to say gospel.

21 The handCXXVI of the Lord was with them, and a greatCXXVII numberCXXVIII became believersCXXIX and turnedCXXX to the Lord. 

Notes on verse 21

CXXVI “hand” = cheir. This is the hand in a literal sense. Figuratively, the hand is the means a person uses to accomplish things so it can also mean power, means, or instrument.
CXXVII “great” = polus. This is much, often, plenteous – a large number or a great extent.
CXXVIII “number” = arithmos. Related to “heaven” in v5. 18x in NT. From airo (see note XXXIII above). This is a number or total that has been counted together.
CXXIX “believers” = pisteuo. Same as “believed” in v17. See note XCIX above.
CXXX “turned” = epistrepho. From epi (on, upon, among, what is fitting) + strepho (to turn, change, turn back, be converted; to turn around completely to take the opposite path or a completely different one); {from trope (turning, shifting, a revolution; figuratively, a variation); from trepo (to turn)}. This is to turn, return, or come again. It can also mean to revert. It is turning in a literal or figurative sense – also a moral turning.

22 NewsCXXXI of this cameCXXXII to the earsCXXXIII of the churchCXXXIV in Jerusalem,

Notes on verse 22a

CXXXI “news” = logos. Same as “word” in v1. See note VIII above.
CXXXII “came” = akouo. Same as “heard” in v1. See note V above.
CXXXIII “ears” = ous. This is the physical ear, or the perception of hearing, whether physical or cognitive.
CXXXIV “church” = ekklesia. Related to “called” in v13. From ek (from, out from) + kaleo (see note LXXX above). This is properly a calling out or an assembly. It was used to refer to a church.

and they sentCXXXV BarnabasCXXXVI, CXXXVII to Antioch. 

Notes on verse 22b

CXXXV “sent” = exapostello. Related to “apostles” in v1 & “trance” in v5 & “get up” in v7 & “arrived” in v11 and “sent” in v11 & “standing” in v13. 13x in NT. From ek (from, from out of) + apostello (see note I above). This is to send away, dismiss, send someone for a mission.
CXXXVI “Barnabas” = Barnabas. Probably from Aramaic Barnabas (Barnabas); {from bar (son); {Aramaic corresponding to ben (son literal or figurative; also, grandson, subject, nation); from banah (to build or obtain children)} + nabi (prophet, prophecy, speaker; someone inspired)}. This is Barnabas, meaning “son of prophecy” or “representative.” See
CXXXVII {untranslated} = dierchomai. Same as “traveled” in v19. See note CXIV above.

23 When he cameCXXXVIII and saw the graceCXXXIX of God, he rejoiced,CXL and he exhortedCXLI

Notes on verse 23a

CXXXVIII “came” = paraginomai. Related to “happened” in v10. From para (from beside, by) + ginomai (see note LVII above). This is to arrive, appear, reach. It implies appearing publicly.
CXXXIX “grace” = charis. From chairo (to rejoice, be glad; used to say hello; properly, delighting in the grace of God or experiencing God’s favor); from char– (to extend favor, lean towards, be inclined to be favorable towards). This is grace, kindness, favor, gratitude, thanks. It is the sense of being inclined to or favorable towards – leaning towards someone to share some good or benefit. This can be literal, figurative, or spiritual. It is grace as abstract concept, manner, or action.
CXL “rejoiced” = chairo. Related to “grace” in v23. See note CXXXIX above.
CXLI “exhorted” = parakaleo. Related to “is called” in v13 & “church” in v22. From para (beside, by, in the presence of) + kaleo (see note LXXX above). This is to call to, summon, invite, request, or beg. It can also be exhort or admonish. Also, this can be encourage, comfort, or console. This word has legal overtones and is used of one’s advocate in a courtroom. It is the root of the name of the Holy Spirit “paraclete” is our advocate and comforter.

them allCXLII to remain faithfulCXLIII to the Lord with steadfastCXLIV devotion,CXLV 

Notes on verse 23b

CXLII “all” = pas. Same as “entire” in v14. See note LXXXIII above.
CXLIII “remain faithful” = prosmeno. Related to “remembered” in v16 & {untranslated} in v19. 7x in NT. From pros (at, to, toward, with) + meno (see note XC above). This is to remain, adhere to continue, remain together in a place or with someone. Figuratively, to persevere in something.
CXLIV “steadfast” = prothesis. Related to “explain” in v4. 12x in NT. From protithemi (to set before, purpose, plan, determine, put in a public display); {from pro (before, earlier than, ahead, prior) + tithemi (see note XXI above)}. This is a setting forth – a proposal, predetermination, purpose. It can also mean something that is sacred or consecrated so it can be used for the showbread or sacred bread.
CXLV “devotion” = kardia. Literally the heart, but figuratively mind, character, inner self, will, intention, thoughts, feelings. Also, the center of something. The word heart is only used figuratively in the Old and New Testaments. This is where “cardiac” comes from.

24 for he was a goodCXLVI man, fullCXLVII of the Holy Spirit and of faith.CXLVIII

Notes on verse 24a

CXLVI “good” = agathos. This is good, a benefit, or a good thing. It is good by its very nature, intrinsically good. A different word, kalos, refers to external signs of goodness.
CXLVII “full” = pleres. 16x in NT. From pletho (to fill, accomplish, supply; to fill to maximum capacity). This is to be full, complete, abounding in, or occupied with.
CXLVIII “faith” = pistis. From peitho (to have confidence, urge, be persuaded, agree, assure, believe, have confidence, trust). This is less about knowing, believing, and repeating a list of doctrines then it is about trusting God. Faith means listening to God and seeking to live a holy life even (and especially) when we don’t understand how everything works or fits together. Faith is about being faithful (trusting and doing) rather than being all knowing.

And a great manyCXLIX peopleCL were brought toCLI the Lord. 

Notes on verse 24b

CXLIX “great many” = hikanos. From hikneomai (to reach, come to, attain). This is sufficient, suitable, adequate, competent, ample.
CL “people” = ochlos. Related to “uncircumcised” in v3 & “step by step” in v4 & “were silenced” in v18 & “Antioch” in v19. Perhaps from echo (see note XVII above). This is a crowd, the common people, a rabble. Figuratively, it can refer to a riot.
CLI “brought to” = prostithemi. Related to “explain” in v4 & “steadfast” in v23. 18x in NT. From pros (at, to, toward, with) + tithemi (see note XXI above). This is to add, place to, bring together for a reason, or add up.

25 Then Barnabas wentCLII to TarsusCLIII to look forCLIV Saul,CLV 

Notes on verse 25

CLII “went” = exerchomai. Related to “go” in v3 & “came” in v5 & “go with” in v12 & “traveled” in v19. From ek (from, from out of) + erchomai (see note XVI above). This is to go out, depart, escape, proceed from, spread news abroad.
CLIII “Tarsus” = Tarsos. 3x in NT – all in Acts. Perhaps from tarsos (basket) or Hebrew tirza (cypress) or Hebrew erez (cedar) or Hittite Tarsa (Tarsa); {perhaps from Tarhunz (a storm god)}. This is Tarsus, which may mean “cypress” or “forest of cedars” or “courage” or “confidence” or “basket” or a reference to Tarhunz. See &,_Mersin
CLIV “look for” = anazeteo. 3x in NT. From ana (up, again, back, among, anew) + zeteo (to seek, search for, desire. searching for something by inquiring or investigation; to seek in a literal or figurative sense; to worship God). This is to look for thoroughly – a difficult searching. It is a full inquiry or investigation that is conducted with persistence.
CLV “Saul” = Saulos. 15x in NT. From Saoul (Saul); from Hebrew shaal (to ask, inquire, beg, borrow, desire, request; can also mean demand). This is Saul or Shaul, meaning “asked of the Lord.”

26 and when he had foundCLVI him he broughtCLVII him to Antioch. So it wasCLVIII

Notes on verse 26a

CLVI “found” = heurisko. This is to find, learn, or obtain. It is to discover something, which generally implies a period of searching for it. This is to find in a literal or figurative sense. This is where the word “heuristic” comes from.
CLVII “brought” = ago. Related to “told” and “angel” in v13 & “proclaiming” in v20. See note LXXIV above.
CLVIII “was” = ginomai. Same as “happened” in v10. See note LVII above.

that for an entireCLIX yearCLX they metCLXI with the church

Notes on verse 26b

CLIX “entire” = holos. This is whole, complete, or entire. It is a state where every member is present and functioning in concert. This is the root of the word “whole.”
CLX “year” = eniautos. 14x in NT. Perhaps from enos (year). A cycle, a year.
CLXI “met” = sunago. Related to “told” and “angel” in v13 & “proclaiming” in v20 & “brought” in v26. From sun (with, together with, closely associated) + ago (see note LXXIV above). This is to lead together and so to assemble, bring together, welcome with hospitality, or entertain. In the sense of assembly, this is the root of the word “synagogue.”

and taughtCLXII a great many people, and it was in Antioch that the disciplesCLXIII were firstCLXIV calledCLXV “Christians.”CLXVI

Notes on verse 26c

CLXII “taught” = didasko. From dao (learn). This is to teach, direct, instruct, or impart knowledge. In the New Testament, this is almost always used for teaching scripture.
CLXIII “disciples” = mathetes. From matheteuo (to make a disciple of); from manthano (to learn key facts, gain knowledge from experience; generally implies reflection as part of the learning process); from math– (thinking things through). This is a disciple, learner, or student. It is where we get “mathematics” from.
CLXIV “first” = protos. From pro (before, first, in front of, earlier). This is what is first, which could be the most important, the first in order, the main one, the chief.
CLXV “called” = chrematizo. Related to “hand” in v21. 9x in NT– including Matthew 2:12 when the wise men were warned in a dream not to return to Herod. 9x in NT. From chrema (something one uses or needs; money, possessions, wealth); from chraomai (to use, make use of, give what is needed, act in a specific way, request); perhaps from cheir (see note CXXVI above). This is to conduct business, instruct, warn, reveal, to utter an oracle, be warned by God.
CLXVI “Christians” = Christianos. Related to “Christ” in v17. 3x in NT. From Christos (see note CI above). This is one who follows Christ.

27 At that timeCLXVII prophetsCLXVIII came downCLXIX from Jerusalem to Antioch. 

Notes on verse 27

CLXVII “at that time” = en + houtos + de + ho + hemera. Literally, “in those days.” Hemera is perhaps from hemai (to sit). This is day, time, or daybreak.
CLXVIII “prophets” = prophetes. Related to “voice” in v7. From pro (before, in front of, earlier than) + phemi (see note XLIV above); {from phao (see note XLIV above) or phaino (see note XLIV above)}. This is a prophet or poet – one who speaks with inspiration from God.
CLXIX “came down” = katerchomai. Related to “go” in v3 & “came” in v5 & “go with” in v12 & “traveled” in v19 & “went” in v25. 16x in NT. From kata (down, against, throughout, among) + erchomai (see note XVI above). This is to go down, leave, go down. It could be one who goes from sky to land or one who goes from sea to shore.

28 OneCLXX of them namedCLXXI AgabusCLXXII

Notes on verse 28a

CLXX “one” = heis. This is one, a person, only, some.
CLXXI “named” = onoma. Related to “looked closely” in v6 & “repentance” in v18. May be from ginosko (see note XXXVIII above). This is a name, authority, cause, character, fame, reputation. The name was thought to include something of the essence of the person so it was not thought to be separate from the person.
CLXXII “Agabus” = Agabos. 2x in NT – both in Acts. Perhaps from Hebrew chagab (grasshopper) OR from Hebrew agab (to desire, get caught up in an urge and lower one’s guard) OR from gibeah (hill) OR from gobay (locust). This is Agabus, a name that is not Latin or Greek, but probably has a Semitic origin. It may mean “grasshopper” or “party person” or “person from the hill” or “locust” or “he loved” or “the Gibeonite.” See

stood upCLXXIII and predictedCLXXIV by the Spirit that there wouldCLXXV be a severeCLXXVI famineCLXXVII

Notes on verse 28b

CLXXIII “stood up” = anistemi. Same as “get up” in v7. See note XLV above.
CLXXIV “predicted” = semaino. 6x in NT. From sema (a sign or mark). This is to give a sign, signify, indicate, make known, communicate. In John’s Gospel miracles are referred to as signs.
CLXXV “would” = mello. Perhaps from melo (something that one is worried or concerned about, something one pays attention to or thinks about). Properly, this is ready, about to happen, to intend, delay, or linger. This is just on the point of acting.
CLXXVI “severe” = megas. Same as “large” in v5. See note XXX above.
CLXXVII “famine” = limos. 12x in NT. Probably from leipo (to leave behind, be lacking). This is hunger, famine, or lacking.

over allCLXXVIII the world,CLXXIX and this took place during the reign of Claudius.CLXXX 

Notes on verse 28c

CLXXVIII “all” = holos. Same as “entire” in v26. See note CLIX above.
CLXXIX “world” = oikoumene. Related to “house” in v11 & “house” in v12. 15x in NT. From oikeo (to settle or be established somewhere in a permanent way, to make a home or live at home); from oikos (see note LXVII above). This is the world – the part where people live. It was used specifically for the Roman world. It is the root of the word “ecumenic.”
CLXXX “Claudius” = Klaudios. 3x in NT – all in Acts. From Latin Claudius (Claudius); {from Latin claudico (to limp, waver, be lacking in something) or from Latin claudo (to enclose, close)}. This is Claudius, meaning “limp” or “enclosure” or “lame” or “safe haven” or “support” or “one to lean on.” See &

29 The disciples determinedCLXXXI that, according to their ability,CLXXXII eachCLXXXIII

Notes on verse 29a

CLXXXI “determined” = horizo. 8x in NT. From the same as horion (boundary, territory); from horos (limit, boundary). This is to determine, set boundaries, appoint, designate, pre-determined. Literally, this is setting horizons.
CLXXXII “ability” = euporeo. Related to “proclaiming” in v20. 1x in NT. From eu (see note CXXV above) + related to poreuomai (to go, travel, journey, die; refers to transporting things from one place to another; focuses on the personal significance of the destination); {from poros (passageway)}. This is to prosper, have abundance, have sufficient means, ability.
CLXXXIII “each” = hekastos. Perhaps from hekas (separate). This is each one, any, every. It is every individual as a distinct entity as opposed to those counted as a group in small sets.

would sendCLXXXIV reliefCLXXXV to the brothers and sisters livingCLXXXVI in Judea; 

Notes on verse 29b

CLXXXIV “send” = pempo. Related to “bring” in v13. See note LXXVIII above.
CLXXXV “relief” = diakonia. Perhaps from dia (through, across to the other side, thoroughly) + konis (dust) OR from dioko (to chase after, put to flight; by implication, to persecute or to purse like a hunter after its prey; this can be earnestly pursue or zealously persecute) {related to dio (put to flight)}. This is service, ministry, attending someone, service. It can mean serving someone at a table or otherwise as their servant/slave. It is also used for people who serve/minister in temples, as well as the work of Christian ministry. Figuratively, this word can mean money given for charity. This shares a root with “deacon” and is where the word “diaconate” comes from.
CLXXXVI “living” = katoikeo. Related to “house” in v11 & “house” in v12 & “world” in v28. From kata (down, against, throughout, among) + oikeo (see note CLXXIX above). This is to live or settle on a permanent basis.

30 this they did,CLXXXVII sendingCLXXXVIII it to the eldersCLXXXIX byCXC Barnabas and Saul.

Notes on verse 30

CLXXXVII “did” = poieo. This is to make, do, act, construct, abide, or cause.
CLXXXVIII “sending” = apostello.  Same as “sent” in v11. See note LXIV above.
CLXXXIX “elders” = presbuteros. From presbus (old man). This is an elder as one of the Sanhedrin and also in the Christian assembly in the early church.
CXC {untranslated} = cheir. This is the hand in a literal sense. Figuratively, the hand is the means a person uses to accomplish things so it can also mean power, means, or instrument.

Image credit: “Unity of the Early Believers” by Aya & Nicole Velasquez.

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