Acts 1:3-5, 12-14

Acts 1:3-5, 12-14
A Women’s Lectionary 22


After his sufferingA he presentedB himself aliveC to them by manyD convincing proofs,E

Notes on verse 3a

A “suffering” = pascho. Akin to penthos (mourning, sorrow). This is to be acted on for good or ill. It is often used for negative treatment. Properly, it means feeling strong emotions – especially suffering. It can also be the ability to feel suffering.
B “presented” = paristemi. From para (from beside, by) + histemi (to stand, place, set up, establish, stand ready, stand firm, be steadfast). This is literally to place by stand. It can mean to present, exhibit, appear, bring, stand by, or prove. It can also mean to be ready, to assist, to yield, or to commend.
C “alive” = zao. This is to live literally or figuratively. It is used for life including the vitality of humans, plants, and animals – it is life physical and spiritual and life everlasting.
D “many” = polus. This is much, often, plenteous – a large number or a great extent.
E “convincing proofs” = tekmerion. 1x in NT. Perhaps from tekmar (mark, sign, goal, or limit). This is a sure sign or convincing proof.

appearingF to them during fortyG daysH and speaking about the kingdomI of God.J 

Notes on verse 3b

F “appearing” = optanomai. 1x in NT. Related to horao (to see, perceive, attend to, look upon, experience; to stare at, which implies clear discernment; by extension, attending to what was seen and learned; to see, often with a metaphorical sense, which can include inward spiritual seeing). This is to appear or be seen. It is looking at something with eyes open wide, as when one looks at a wonder.
G “forty” = tesserakonta. From tessares (four). This is forty – sometimes symbolizing a full or large period of time.
H “days” = hemera. Perhaps from hemai (to sit). This is day, time, or daybreak.
I “kingdom” = basileia. From basileus (king, emperor, sovereign); probably from basis (step, hence foot; a pace); from baino (to walk, to go). This is kingdom, rule, authority, sovereignty, royalty, a realm.
J “God” = Theos. From Proto-Indo-European origins, meaning do, put, place. This is God or a god in general.

While staying withK them, he orderedL them not to leaveM Jerusalem,N

Notes on verse 4a

K “staying with” = sunalizo. 1x in NT. From sun (with, together with) + halizo (to throng). This is to convene or assemble together. It can also mean to accumulate.
L “ordered” = paraggello. From para (from beside, by) + aggello (to announce, report) {from aggelos (angel, messenger – supernatural or human envoy of God); probably from ago (lead, bring, drive, carry, guide, go)}. This is to send a message, order, notify, command. It is a charge – a proper command as a military term that has followed proper channels. It can also mean to entreat solemnly.
M “leave” = chorizo. 13x in NT. From choris (apart from, separate from); from chora (space, land, region, fields, open area); from chasma (gap, gulf, chasm, open space); from chasko (to gape, yawn). Properly, this is to separate or create space. It can be literal as divide, depart, or withdraw. It can be figurative in reference to divorce.
N “Jerusalem” = Hierosoluma. From Hebrew yerushalaim (probably foundation of peace); {from yarah (to throw, shoot, be stunned; to flow as water so figuratively to instruct or teach) + shalam (to make amends, to be complete or sound)}. This is Jerusalem, dwelling of peace.

but to waitO there for the promiseP of the Father.Q “This,” he said, “is what you have heardR from me; 

Notes on verse 4b

O “wait” = perimeno. 1x in NT. From peri (about, concerning, all around, encompassing) + meno (to stay, remain, wait, await, continue, abide, endure). This is to wait for or await. It is comprehensive, steady waiting no matter what obstacle one is met with. It implies enduring despite difficulty.
P “promise” = epaggelia. Related to “ordered” in v4. From epi (on, upon, against, what is fitting) + aggello (see note L above). This is a summons, promise, or message. It is a formal promise that is officially sanctioned. In the New Testament, this usually refers to a promise made in the Old Testament.
Q “Father” = pater. This is father in a literal or figurative sense. Could be elder, senior, ancestor, originator, or patriarch.
R “heard” = akouo. This is hear or listen, but it also means to understand by hearing. This is where the word “acoustics” comes from.

for JohnS, T baptizedU with water,V but you will be baptized with the HolyW SpiritX not many days from now.”

Notes on verse 5

S “John” = Ioannes. From Hebrew yochanan (Johanan); from Yehochanan (“the Lord has been gracious”); {from YHVH (proper name of the God of Israel); {from havah (to become); from hayah (to be, exist, happen)} + chanan (beseech, show favor, be gracious; properly, to bend in kindness to someone with less status). This is John, meaning “the Lord has been gracious.”
T {untranslated} = men. This is truly, indeed, even, in fact. Often, it is not translated, but used to emphasize affirmation.
U “baptized” = baptizo. From bapto (to dip or dye; to entirely cover with liquid, to stain). This is to submerge, wash, or immerse. Used specially for baptism.
V “water” = hudor. Perhaps from huetos (rain); from huo (to rain). This is water literal or figurative. It is one of the roots that “hydrogen” and “hydroelectric” come from.
W “Holy” = hagios. From hagnos (holy, sacred, pure ethically, ritually, or ceremonially; prepared for worship, chaste, unadulterated, pure to the core; undefiled by sin; figurative for innocent, modest, perfect). God is totally different from humanity and thus set apart. That which is consecrated to worship God (elements of worship) or to serve God (as the saints) are holy because they are now set apart for God’s purposes. Holy because important to God. This is sacred physically, pure. It can be morally blameless or ceremonially consecrated.
X “Spirit” = pneuma. From pneo (to blow, breath, breathe hard). This is wind, breath, or ghost. A breeze or a blast or air, a breath. Figuratively used for a spirit, the human soul or part of us that is rational. It is also used supernaturally for angels, demons, God, and the Holy Spirit. This is where pneumonia comes from.

12 Then they returnedY to Jerusalem from the mountZ calledAA Olivet,BB which is nearCC Jerusalem, a sabbath day’sDD journeyEE away. 

Notes on verse 12

Y “returned” = hupostrepho. From hupo (by, under, about) + strepho (to turn, change, turn back, be converted; to turn around completely to take the opposite path or a completely different one); {from trope (turning, shifting, a revolution; figuratively, a variation); from trepo (to turn)}. This is to turn back or behind in a literal or figurative sense.
Z “mount” = oros. Perhaps from oro (to rise); perhaps akin to airo (raise, take up, lift, remove). This is mountain or hill.
AA “called” = kaleo. Related to keleuo (to command, order, direct); from kelomai (to urge on). This is to call by name, invite, to name, bid, summon, call aloud.
BB “Olivet” = elaion. 1x in NT. From elaia (olive or olive tree; also, the Mount of Olives; sometimes used figuratively to refer to the people of God). This is olive orchard or grove. It is used specifically to refer to the Mount of Olives.
CC “near” = eggus. Perhaps from agcho (to squeeze). This is nearby or near in time.
DD “sabbath day’s” = sabbaton. From Hebrew shabbath (sabbath); from shabath (to rest, stop, repose, cease working; by implication, to celebrate). This is the sabbath. It can also be used as shorthand for a week i.e. the time between two sabbaths.
EE “journey” = hodos. This is way, road, path, or journey. It can imply progress along a route.

13 When they had enteredFF the city, they wentGG to the room upstairsHH where they were staying,II Peter,JJ

Notes on verse 13a

FF “entered” = eiserchomai. From eis (to, into, for, among) + erchomai (to come, go). This is to go in in a literal or figurative sense.
GG “went” = anabaino. From ana (up, back, among, again, anew) + the same as basis (step, hence foot; a pace); {from baino (to walk, to go)}. This is to come up in a literal or figurative sense – ascent, rise, climb, enter.
HH “room upstairs” = huperoon. 4x in NT. From huperoos(upper); from huper (over, above, beyond). This refers to an upper chamber on the third floor.
II “staying” = katameno. Related to “wait” in v4. 1x in NT. From kata (down, against, throughout, among) + meno (see note O above). This is to remain, dwell, stay, reside.
JJ “Peter” = Petros. Related to petra (large rock that is connected and or projecting like a rock, ledge, or cliff; can also be cave or stony ground). This is Peter, a stone, pebble, or boulder.

and John, and James,KK and Andrew,LL PhilipMM and Thomas,NN

Notes on verse 13b

KK “James” = Iakobos. From Hebrew Yaaqov (Jacob); from the same as aqeb (heel, hind part, hoof, rear guard of an army, one who lies in wait, usurper). This is James, meaning heel grabber or usurper.
LL “Andrew” = Andreas. 13x in NT. From aner (man, male, sir, husband). This is Andrew, meaning manly.
MM “Philip” = Philippos. From philos (dear, beloved, a friend, an associate; friendship with personal affection, a trusted confidante; love from personal experience with another person) + hippos (horse). This is Philip, meaning one who loves horses or is fond of horses.
NN “Thomas” = Thomas. 11x in NT. From Hebrew toam (twin). This is Thomas, meaning twin.

BartholomewOO and Matthew,PP James son of Alphaeus,QQ

Notes on verse 13c

OO “Bartholomew” = Bartholomaios. 4x in NT. From Aramaic bar (son, age); {Aramaic corresponding to ben (son literal or figurative; also, grandson, subject, nation); from banah (to build or obtain children)} + Talmay (Talmay, meaning “plowman” or “ridged”); {from the same as telem (furrow or ridge; root may mean to accumulate)}. This is Bartholomew, meaning “son of Tolmai.”
PP “Matthew” = Matthaios. Related to “John” in v5. 5x in NT. From maththaios (Matthew); from Hebrew mattityahu (Matthew, “gift of the Lord”); {from mattanah (gift, offering of sacrifice, present, bribe); {from mattan (gift, reward, to give); from natan (to give, put, set, offer; to give literally or figuratively)} + YHVH (see note S above)}. This is Matthew or Matthaeus, meaning “give of the Lord” or “given of the Lord.” See
QQ “Alphaeus” = Alphaios. 5x in NT. From Hebrew halap (to exchange, renew, traverse). This is Alphaeus, which shares a root with Clopas. It means “traverse” or “exchange.” See

and SimonRR the Zealot,SS and JudasTT son of James. 

Notes on verse 13d

RR “Simon” = Simon. From Hebrew Shimon (Simon – Jacob’s son and his tribe); from shama (to hear, often implying attention and obedience). This is Simon, meaning “he who hears.”
SS “Zealot” = Zelotes. 8x in NT. From zeloo (jealous, eager for, burning with zeal, deeply committed, envy); from zelos (eagerness or zeal on the one hand or rivalry and jealousy on the other; burning anger or burning love) perhaps from from zeo (to boil, be hot, ferment, bubble, boil, or glow; used figuratively for being fervent or earnest). This is zealous or a zealot – someone eagerly devoted to someone or something. This is where the word “zealot” comes from.
TT “Judas” = Ioudas. From Hebrew Yehudah (Judah, son of Jacob, his tribal descendants, a name for the southern kingdom. Literally, it means praised); probably from yadah (to throw one’s hands into the air in a gesture of praise); from yad (hand). This is Judah or Judas, meaning praised.

14 AllUU these were constantly devotingVV themselves to prayer,WW togetherXX with certain women,YY

Notes on verse 14a

UU “all” = pas. This is all or every.
VV “constantly devoting” = proskartereo. 10x in NT. From pros (at, to, toward, with) + kartereo (to be strong, endure; figuratively to be steadfast, to persevere, to be patient); {from kratos (strength, power, dominion; vigor in a literal or figurative sense; power that is exercised)}. This is to show strength consistently in the face of trials. It can also mean to persist, stand ready, be earnest, or attend to something.
WW “prayer” = proseuche. From proseuchomai (to pray or pray for, to worship or supplicate; more literally exchanging one’s own wishes for God’s); {from pros (advantageous for, at, toward) + euchomai (to wish, make a request, pray)}. This is prayer, worship, or a place where one prays.
XX “together” = homothumadon. 11x in NT. From homou (together); {from homos (the same)} + thumos (passion, wrath; actions emerging from passion or impulse) {from thuo (to rush along, breathe violently, offer sacrifice)}}. This is having one mind or a shared passion. It is people who share the same desire.
YY “women” = gune. Perhaps from ginomai (to come into being, to happen, become, be born; to emerge from one state or condition to another; this is coming into being with the sense of movement or growth). This is woman, wife, or bride. This is where the word “gynecologist” comes from.

including MaryZZ the motherAAA of Jesus,BBB as well as his brothers.CCC

Notes on verse 14b

ZZ “Mary” = Mariam. From Hebrew Miryam (Aaron and Moses’s sister); from marah (to be contentious, rebellious, bitter, provoking, disobedient; to be or make bitter or unpleasant; figuratively, to rebel or resist; causatively to provoke). This is Miriam or Mary.
AAA “mother” = meter. This is mother in a literal or figurative sense.
BBB “Jesus” = Iesous. Related to “John” in v5 & “Matthew” in v13. From Hebrew Yehoshua (Joshua, the Lord is salvation); {from YHVH (see note S above)} + yasha (to deliver, defend, help, preserve, rescue; properly, to be open, wide or free, which implies being safe. So, in a causative sense, this is to free someone)}. This is Jesus or Joshua in Greek – the Lord saves or the Lord is salvation.
CCC “brothers” = adelphos. From a (with, community, fellowship) + delphus (womb). This is a brother in a literal or figurative sense. It is also used of another member of the Church.

Image credit: “Leaf from Gunda Gunde Gospels” by an Anonymous Ethiopian artist, circa 1540.

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