Acts 13

Acts 13


Now in the churchI at AntiochII there wereIII

Notes on verse 1a

I “church” = ekklesia. From ek (from, out from) + kaleo (to call by name, invite, to name, bid, summon, call aloud) {related to keleuo (to command, order, direct); from kelomai (to urge on)}. This is properly a calling out or an assembly. It was used to refer to a church.
II “Antioch” = Antiocheia. 18x in NT. From Antiochos (Antiochus, a proper name common to kings of Syria); {perhaps from anti (opposite, instead of, against) + echo (to have, hold, possess)}. This is Antioch or Antiochia, two cities in the Bible have this name. It means “resistant” or “set against.” See
III “were” = eimi. This is to be, exist.

prophetsIV and teachers:V Barnabas,VI

Notes on verse 1b

IV “prophets” = prophetes. From pro (before, in front of, earlier than) + phemi (to declare, say, use contrasts in speaking to shed light on one point of view); {from phao (to shine) or phaino (to bring light, cause to appear, shine, become visible or clear)}. This is a prophet or poet – one who speaks with inspiration from God.
V “teachers” = didaskalos. From didasko (to teach, direct, instruct, or impart knowledge; in the New Testament, almost always used for teaching scripture); from dao (to learn). This is teacher or master.
VI “Barnabas” = Barnabas. Probably from Aramaic Barnabas (Barnabas); {from bar (son); {Aramaic corresponding to ben (son literal or figurative; also, grandson, subject, nation); from banah (to build or obtain children)} + nabi (prophet, prophecy, speaker; someone inspired)}. This is Barnabas, meaning “son of prophecy” or “representative.” See

SimeonVII who was calledVIII Niger,IX

Notes on verse 1c

VII “Simeon” = Sumeon. 7x in NT. From Hebrew Shimon (Simon – Jacob’s son and his tribe); from shama (to hear, often implying attention and obedience). This is Simeon, Symeon, or Simon. It is a personal name as well as the tribe Simeon. It means “he who hears.”
VIII “called” = kaleo. Related to “church” in v1. See note I above.
IX “Niger” = Niger. 1x in NT. From Latin niger (dark, shiny and black, negative omen). This is Niger, meaning “black.” It might have been associated with the god Pluto, implying a meaning of “rich guy” or figuratively mean “wisdom-hungry.” See

LuciusX of Cyrene,XI ManaenXII

Notes on verse 1d

X “Lucius” = Loukious. 2x in NT. From Latin lux (light, day). This is Lucius, meaning “illuminative” or “of light” or “of the day.” See
XI “Cyrene” = Kurenaios. 6x in NT. From Kurene (Cyrene, a Greek mythological figure; perhaps meaning sovereign queen). This is from Cyrene. See
XII “Manaen” = Manaen. 1x in NT. Perhaps a Greek version of the Aramaic name Menahem (Menahem); related to the Hebrew name Menachem (Menahem); from nacham (a strong breath or sigh; to be sorry, to pity, console, comfort, or repent; also to comfort oneself with thoughts of vengeance). This is Manaen, meaning “comforter” or “consoling.”

a childhood friendXIII of HerodXIV the ruler,XV and Saul.XVI 

Notes on verse 1e

XIII “childhood friend” = suntrophos. 1x in NT. From sun (with, together with) + trepho (to bring up, rear, nourish, fatten, nurse; properly, to enlarge through proper nourishment). This is a person one is raised with, a close friend from childhood.
XIV “Herod” = Herodes. Perhaps from heros (hero, warrior) + oide (song, ode, legend, tale); {from aoide (song, ode, legend, tale); {from aeido (to sing) + e (this is added to verbs to make them nouns)}} OR from hera (Hera) + oide (same as above). This is Herod, perhaps “hero’s song,” “Hera’s song,” or “heroic.” See
XV “ruler” = tetrarches. 4x in NT– all referring to Herod. From tetraarches (tetrarch; governor with power over a fourth of an area); {from tessares (four; figuratively, total coverage) + archo (to rule, begin, have first rank or have political power)}. This is tetrarch, who governs a fourth of a region.
XVI “Saul” = Saulos. 15x in NT. From Saoul (Saul); from Hebrew shaal (to ask, inquire, beg, borrow, desire, request; can also mean demand). This is Saul or Shaul, meaning “asked of the Lord.”

While they were worshipingXVII the LordXVIII and fasting,XIX

Notes on verse 2a

XVII “worshiping” = leitourgeo. 3x in NT. From leitourgos (minister, servant; used for a public official or for one who works in a temple; broadly, it is one in public service, whether civic or religious); {from laos (people or crowd – often used for the chosen people) + ergon (work, task, action, employment); {from erdo (to do)}}. This is to minister or serve the public in an authorized capacity. It can also be to act in a charitable capacity.
XVIII “Lord” = Kurios. From kuros (authority, supremacy). This is a respectful address meaning master or sir. It refers to one who has control or power greater than one’s own. So, it was also applied to God and Jesus as Master or Lord.
XIX “fasting” = nesteuo. From a (not, without) + esthio (to eat or figuratively to devour or consume like rust). This is to fast, not eat food, to make a religious fast.

the HolyXX SpiritXXI said, “Set apartXXII for me Barnabas and Saul for the workXXIII to which I have calledXXIV them.” 

Notes on verse 2b

XX “Holy” = Hagios. From hagnos (holy, sacred, pure ethically, ritually, or ceremonially; prepared for worship, chaste, unadulterated, pure to the core; undefiled by sin; figurative for innocent, modest, perfect). God is totally different from humanity and thus set apart. That which is consecrated to worship God (elements of worship) or to serve God (as the saints) are holy because they are now set apart for God’s purposes. Holy because important to God. This is sacred physically, pure. It can be morally blameless or ceremonially consecrated.
XXI “Spirit” = Pneuma. From pneo (to blow, breathe, breathe hard). This is wind, breath, or ghost. A breeze or a blast or air, a breath. Figuratively used for a spirit, the human soul or part of us that is rational. It is also used supernaturally for angels, demons, God, and the Holy Spirit. This is where pneumonia comes from.
XXII “set apart” = aphorizo. 10x in NT. From apo (from, away from) + horizo (to determine, set boundaries, appoint, designate, pre-determined; literally, this is setting horizons); {from the same as horion (boundary, territory); from horos (limit, boundary)}. This is to set off by a boundary – to divide, separate, exclude. It can also mean ostracize or keep aloof.
XXIII “work” = ergon. Related to “worshiping” in v2. See note XVII above.
XXIV “called” = proskaleo. Related to “church” and “called” in v1. From pros (at, to, toward, with) + kaleo (see note I above). This is to call to oneself, summon.

Then after fasting and prayingXXV they laidXXVI their handsXXVII on them and sent them off.XXVIII

Notes on verse 3

XXV “praying” = proseuchomai. From pros (advantageous for, at, toward) + euchomai (to wish, make a request, pray). This is to pray or pray for, to worship or supplicate. It is more literally exchanging one’s own wishes for God’s.
XXVI “laid” = epitithemi. From epi (on, upon, what is fitting) + tithemi (to put, place, set, fix, establish in a literal or figurative sense; properly, this is placing something in a passive or horizontal position). This is to lay on or place on, whether in a friendly or aggressive way.
XXVII “hands” = cheir. This is the hand in a literal sense. Figuratively, the hand is the means a person uses to accomplish things so it can also mean power, means, or instrument.
XXVIII “sent…off” = apoluo. From apo (from, away from) + luo (to loose, release, untie; figuratively, to break, destroy, or annul; releasing what had been withheld). This is letting go, setting free, or releasing. So, it can be to discharge, dismiss, divorce, pardon, or set at liberty.

So,XXIX being sent outXXX by the Holy Spirit, they went downXXXI

Notes on verse 4a

XXIX {untranslated} = men. This is truly, indeed, even, in fact. Often, it is not translated, but used to emphasize affirmation.
XXX “sent out” = ekpempo. 2x in NT. From ek (from, from out of) + pempo (to send, put forth, or dispatch; often a temporary errand; sending someone with a focus on the place they departed from). This is to send out, send forth.
XXXI “went down” = katerchomai. 16x in NT. From kata (down, against, according to) + erchomai (to come, go). This is to come down, descend. It can also refer to landing from the sky or from the sea.

to Seleucia,XXXII and from there they sailedXXXIII to Cyprus.XXXIV 

Notes on verse 4b

XXXII “Seleucia” = Seleukeia. 1x in NT. From Seleukos (Seleucus, a king of Syria); {probably from Aeolian zaleukos (white) or leukos (white)}. This is Seleucia, meaning “whitened” or “place of whitening;” see &
XXXIII “sailed” = apopleo. 4x in NT – all in Acts. From apo (from, away from) + pleo (to sail, voyage); {perhaps from pluno (to plunge – so to wash); from pluo (to flow)}. This is to sail, sail away.
XXXIV “Cyprus” = Kupros. 5x in NT – all in Acts. Perhaps from kaphar (to appease, cover, pacify, cancel) or from kuparissos (cypress tree) or from kupros (henna tree) or from Sumerian zubar (copper) or from Sumerian kubar (bronze). This is Cyprus, meaning “enclave” or “redeemed” or “fortified settlement” or “atoned from. See;

When they arrivedXXXV at Salamis,XXXVI they proclaimedXXXVII

Notes on verse 5a

XXXV “arrived” = ginomai. This is to come into being, to happen, become, be born. It can be to emerge from one state or condition to another or is coming into being with the sense of movement or growth.
XXXVI “Salamis” = Salamis. 1x in NT. Perhaps related to salos (tossing, agitation, rolling – like the sea swells) OR from Latin sal (salt) + Greek mesos (middle) OR from shalam (to make amends, to be complete or sound). This is Salamis, meaning “nucleus of salt” or “heart of the sea” or “place of wholeness” or “in the middle of salt” or “heart of salt.” See
XXXVII “proclaimed” = kataggello. 18x in NT. From kata (down, against, according to, throughout, among, daily) + aggello (to announce, report) {from aggelos (angel, messenger – supernatural or human envoy of God); probably from ago (lead, bring, drive, carry, guide, go)}. This is to proclaim openly and confidently a very specific message. It can also be celebrate, preach, or teach.

the wordXXXVIII of GodXXXIX in the JewishXL synagogues.XLI

Notes on verse 5b

XXXVIII “word” = logos. From lego (to speak, tell, mention). This is word, statement, speech, analogy. It is a word that carries an idea or expresses a thought, a saying. It could refer to a person with a message or reasoning laid out in words. By implication, this could be a topic, line of reasoning, or a motive. It can be used for a divine utterance or as Word – Christ.
XXXIX “God” = Theos. From Proto-Indo-European origins, meaning do, put, place. This is God or a god in general.
XL “Jewish” = Ioudaios. From Ioudas (Judah, Judas); from Hebrew Yehudah (Judah, son of Jacob, his tribal descendants, a name for the southern kingdom. Literally, it means praised); probably from yadah (to throw one’s hands into the air in a gesture of praise); from yad (hand). This is Jewish, a Jew, or Judea.
XLI “synagogues” = sunagoge. Related to “proclaimed” in v5. From sun (with, together with, closely associated) + ago (see note XXXVII above). Literally, this is a bringing together, a place of assembly. The term can be used for the people or for the place where they assemble. It is also sometimes used of Christian churches in the New Testament. So, this is synagogue, assembly, congregation, or church. This is where the word “synagogue” comes from.

And they hadXLII JohnXLIII also to assistXLIV them. 

Notes on verse 5c

XLII “had” = echo. Related to “Antioch” in v1. See note II above.
XLIII “John” = Ioannes. From Hebrew yochanan (Johanan); from Yehochanan (“the Lord has been gracious”); {from YHVH (proper name of the God of Israel); {from havah (to become); from hayah (to be, exist, happen)} + chanan (beseech, show favor, be gracious; properly, to bend in kindness to someone with less status). This is John, meaning “the Lord has been gracious.”
XLIV “assist” = huperetes. From huper (by, under, subordinate to another) + eresso (to row). This is originally a rower or someone who crewed a boat on the lower deck. It came to mean underling, servant, or attendant. It is also used in the New Testament of disciples under the gospel.

When they had gone throughXLV the wholeXLVI islandXLVII as far as Paphos,XLVIII

Notes on verse 6a

XLV “gone through” = dierchomai. Related to “went down” in v4. From dia (through, across to the other side, thoroughly) + erchomai (see note XXXI above). This is to go through, come, depart, pierce, travel, traverse.
XLVI “whole” = holos. This is whole, complete, or entire. It is a state where every member is present and functioning in concert. This is the root of the word “whole.”
XLVII “island” = nesos. 9x in NT– all in Acts & Revelation. Perhaps from naus (a ship); from nao (to float). This is an island.
XLVIII “Paphos” = Paphos. 2x in NT – both in Acts 13. Perhaps from aphros (foam). This is Paphos, which may mean “foam.” See

they metXLIX aL certain magician,LI

Notes on verse 6b

XLIX “met” = heurisko. This is to find, learn, or obtain. It is to discover something, which generally implies a period of searching for it. This is to find in a literal or figurative sense. This is where the word “heuristic” comes from.
L {untranslated} = aner. This is man, male, husband, or fellow. It can also refer to an individual.
LI “magician” = magos. 6x in NT. Perhaps related to Old Persian mayu; related to Proto-Indo-European meh-g (“to be able to, to help; power, sorcerer”). This is magi, magician, or astrologer. See

a Jewish false prophet,LII namedLIII Bar-Jesus.LIV 

Notes on verse 6c

LII “false prophet” = pseudoprophetes. Related to “prophets” in v1. 11x in NT. From pseudes (false, lying, wicked); {from pseudomai (to lie, deceive, falsify)} + prophetes (see note IV above). This is false prophet – one who pretends they are prophesying from God or who teaches something that is false, but still attributes it to God.
LIII “named” = onoma. May be from ginosko (know, recognize, learn from firsthand experience). This is a name, authority, cause, character, fame, reputation. The name was thought to include something of the essence of the person so it was not thought to be separate from the person.
LIV “Bar-Jesus” = Bariesous. Related to “Barnabas” in v1 & to “John” in v5. 1x in NT. From Aramaic bar (son literal or figurative, age); {corresponding to Hebrew ben (see note VI above)} + Yehoshua (Joshua, the Lord is salvation); {from YHVH (see note XLIII above) + yasha (to deliver, defend, help, preserve, rescue; properly, to be open, wide or free, which implies being safe. So, in a causative sense, this is to free someone)}. This is Bar-Jesus, meaning “son of Joshua” or “son of Jesus.”

He was with the proconsul,LV SergiusLVI Paulus,LVII

Notes on verse 7a

LV “proconsul” = anthupatos. 5x in NT. From anti (opposite, instead of, against) + hupatos (highest); {from huper (by, under, over, above, under the authority of another)}. This is a proconsul, a deputy.
LVI “Sergius” = Sergios. 1x in NT. From Latin Sergius (Sergius); {probably from Etruscan (servant)} OR from Hebrew sarig (branch); {from sarag (to be intertwined)}. This is Sergius, meaning “branch man” or “man of intertwining.” See &
LVII “Paulus” = Paulos. From Latin Paulus (small, little). This is Paul or Paulos, meaning little.

an intelligentLVIII manLIX who summonedLX Barnabas and Saul and wantedLXI to hearLXII the word of God. 

Notes on verse 7b

LVIII “intelligent” = sunetos. 4x in NT. From suniemi (to put together facts or ideas into a logical whole; understanding or being wise through a process of logic and discernment; implies acting piously); {from sun (with, together with) + hiemi (to send, put)}. This is intelligent, wise, discerning, clever. It is finding understanding within one’s own frame of reference by connecting facts and concepts. Focuses on the mental process of putting things together – being prudent or wise.
LIX “man” = aner. Same as {untranslated} in v6. See note L above.
LX “summoned” = proskaleo. Same as “called” in v2. See note XXIV above.
LXI “wanted” = epizeteo. 13x in NT. From epi (on, upon, against, what is fitting) + zeteo (to seek, search for, desire. searching for something by inquiring or investigation; to seek in a literal or figurative sense; to worship God). This is to desire, search for, seek, or want. It is following through on a personal goal by seeking.
LXII “hear” = akouo. This is hear or listen, but it also means to understand by hearing. This is where the word “acoustics” comes from.

But the magician ElymasLXIII (for that is the translationLXIV of his name)LXV

Notes on verse 8a

LXIII “Elymas” = Elumas. Related to “Bar-Jesus” in v6. 1x in NT. From El (God) + maaz (to be enraged) or from ma’as (to reject, hate) or mush (depart, remove) or Mesha (Mesha); {from Yasha (see note LIV above)} or Elam (Elam) or Elim (Elim, “teerebinths” or “palm-tree” or “large trees” or “grove of oaks” or “portruder”); {from ayil (terebinth, oak); {from the same as ulam (porch, hall); from the same as ul (mighty, strength, body, belly; root may mean to twist and that implies strength and power)} OR from alal (to stick out, protrude)} OR Arabic alim (learned, wise). This is Elymas, meaning “wise” or “sage” or “God of rage” or “God is arranged” or “God despises” or “God rejects” or “God removes” or “God is saving” or “if only he could save” or “hidden” or “eternity” or “young man” or “big trees.” See & &
LXIV “is the translation” = methermeneuo. 8x in NT. From meta (with, among, beyond) + hermeneuo (to interpret, translate, explain the meaning of); {perhaps from Hermes, the god of language and a proper name}. This is to explain beyond i.e. to translate or interpret.
LXV “name” = onoma. Same as “named” in v6. See note LIII above.

opposedLXVI them and triedLXVII to turn the proconsul awayLXVIII from the faith.LXIX 

Notes on verse 8b

LXVI “opposed” = anthistemi. 14x in NT. From anti (opposite, instead of, against) + histemi (to stand, place, establish, appoint, stand ready, be steadfast). This is to stand against, to take an entirely opposite stance, resist, oppose, or withstand. Figuratively, it is publicly holding your ground. It has its roots as a military term for resisting one’s enemy.
LXVII “tried” = zeteo. Related to “wanted” in v7. See note LXI above.
LXVIII “turn…away” = diastrepho. 7x in NT. From dia (through, because of, across, thoroughly) + strepho (to turn, change, turn back, be converted; to turn around completely to take the opposite path or a completely different one); {from trope (turning, shifting, a revolution; figuratively, a variation); from trepo (to turn)}. This is to distort, pervert, to twist something into a different shape than it is meant to be. So, figuratively, it can refer to moral corruption.
LXIX “faith” = pistis. From peitho (to have confidence, urge, be persuaded, agree, assure, believe, have confidence, trust). This is less about knowing, believing, and repeating a list of doctrines then it is about trusting God. Faith means listening to God and seeking to live a holy life even (and especially) when we don’t understand how everything works or fits together. Faith is about being faithful (trusting and doing) rather than being all knowing.

But Saul, also known as Paul, filledLXX with the Holy Spirit, looked intentlyLXXI at him 10 and said, “LXXIIYou sonLXXIII of the devil,LXXIV

Notes on verses 9-10a

LXX “filled” = pleitho. This is to fill to the highest level possible – to accomplish, supply, or complete.
LXXI “looked intently” = atenizo. 14x in NT. From a (has an intensive sense) + teino (to stretch, extend, strain). This is to gaze or look steadily at with one’s full attention and fascination.
LXXII {untranslated} = o. 17x in NT. This is O or oh – used to speak to someone or express a strong feeling.
LXXIII “son” = huios. This is son, descendant – a son whether natural born or adopted. It can be used figuratively for other forms of kinship.
LXXIV “devil” = diabolos. From diaballo (laying a charge against someone, generally with hostility; literally, to thrust through or cast back and forth– used for slandering, accusing, or gossiping; whether or not the sentiment is true, it is spread with negative intention); {from dia (through, across, because of, thoroughly) + ballo (to throw, cast, place, put, drop)}. This is a properly a slanderer or someone who accuses falsely – criticizing unfairly with the intent to cause harm or damage character. This can also mean backbiter or malicious gossip. Also, the Slanderer, the Devil.

you enemyLXXV of all righteousness,LXXVI fullLXXVII of

Notes on verse 10b

LXXV “enemy” = echthros. From echthos (hatred). This is an openly hostile person so an enemy, a foe, or a hated person. This speaks of irreconcilable hostility. It can also mean adversary and/or refer to Satan.
LXXVI “righteousness” = dikaiosune. From dikaios (correct, righteous – implies innocent; this is that which conforms to God’s notion of justice, uprightness); from dike (the principle of justice; that which is right in a way that is very clear; a decision or the execution of that decision; originally, this word was for custom or usage; evolved to include the process of law, judicial hearing, execution of sentence, penalty, and even vengeance; more commonly, it refers to what is right); may be from deiknumi (to show, point out, exhibit; figurative for teach, demonstrate, make known). This is judicial or divine approval of character or action. This is righteousness, justice, justness, divine righteousness.
LXXVII “full” = pleres. 16x in NT. From pletho (to fill, accomplish, supply; to fill to maximum capacity). This is to be full, complete, abounding in, or occupied with.

allLXXVIII deceitLXXIX andLXXX villainy,LXXXI

Notes on verse 10c

LXXVIII “all” = pas. This is all or every.
LXXIX “deceit” = dolos. 11x in NT. From dello (probably to decoy). This is literally bait, but used figuratively for treachery, stealth, guile, or deceit.
LXXX {untranslated} = pas. Same as “all” in v10. See note LXXVIII above.
LXXXI “villainy” = rhadiourgia. Related to “worshiping” and “work” in v2. 1x in NT. Related to rhadiourgema (crime, careless behavior, lewdness); {from rhadios (easy, reckless) + ergon (see note XVII above)}. This is laziness, recklessness, mischief, villainy.

will you not stopLXXXII making crookedLXXXIII the straightLXXXIV pathsLXXXV of the Lord? 

Notes on verse 10d

LXXXII “stop” = pauo. 15x in NT. To stop, refrain, pause, restrain, quit, or come to an end.
LXXXIII “making crooked” = diastrepho. Same as “turn…away” in v8. See note LXVIII above.
LXXXIV “straight” = euthus. Related to “laid” in v3. 8x in NT. Perhaps from eu (good, well, well done, rightly) + tithemi (see note XXVI above). This is immediately, upright, straight and not crooked.
LXXXV “paths” = hodos. This is way, road, path, or journey. It can imply progress along a route.

11 And now listenLXXXVI—the hand of the Lord is against you, and you will be blindLXXXVII for a while,LXXXVIII unable to seeLXXXIX the sun.”XC

Notes on verse 11a

LXXXVI “listen” = idou. From eido (to be aware, see, know, remember, appreciate). This is see! Lo! Behold! Look! Used to express surprise and or draw attention to the statement.
LXXXVII “blind” = tuphlos. Derivation unclear. Perhaps from tuphoo (to be conceited, foolish, puffed up, haughty; properly, to blow smoke; figuratively being muddled or cloudy in mind; poor judgment that harms spiritual clarity; also, being covered with smoke – so filled with pride); from tuphos (smoke, vanity, arrogance); from tupho (to raise smoke, smolder, slowly consume without flame). This is blind or a blind person – perhaps in the sense of smoke making things opaque and impossible to see. This is blind literally or figuratively.
LXXXVIII “while” = kairos. This is season, opportunity, occasion. The word chronos is used for chronological time. Kairos is used for spiritually significant time – the right time or appointed time.
LXXXIX “see” = blepo. This is literally to see – it is primarily used in the physical sense. However, figuratively it can be seeing, which includes attention and so to watchfulness, being observant, perceiving, and acting on the visual information. It can also mean beware.
XC “sun” = helios. This is sun, which would imply light in general or the east.

ImmediatelyXCI mistXCII and darknessXCIII

Notes on verse 11b

XCI “immediately” = parachrema. 18x in NT. From para (beside, by, in the presence of) + chrema (something needed or useful– money, possessions, price); {from chraomai (to use, make use of, give what is needed, act in a specific way, request); related to chre (what is proper, fitting, or necessary)}. This is immediately or soon.
XCII “mist” = achlus. 2x in NT. This is a mist, dimness, or cataract.
XCIII “darkness” = skotos. Perhaps from the base of skia (shadow, thick darkness, outline; figurative for a spiritual situation that is good or bad). This is darkness literal or figurative – as moral or spiritual darkness, sin and what comes from it. This can also mean obscurity.

cameXCIV over him, and he fumbled aboutXCV for someone to lead him by the hand.XCVI 

Notes on verse 11c

XCIV “came” = pipto. This is to fall literally or figuratively.
XCV “fumbled about” = periago + zeteo. Periago is related to “proclaimed” and “synagogues” in v5. 6x in NT. From peri (about, concerning, all around, encompassing) + ago (see note XXXVII above). This is to lead around, compass, go about. Zeteo is the same as “tried” in v8. See note LXVII above.
XCVI “someone to lead…by the hand” = cheiragogos. Related to “hands” in v3 & “immediately” in v11 & to “proclaimed” and “synagogues” in v5 & “fumbled about” in v11. 1x in NT. From cheir (see note XXVII above) + ago (see note XXXVII above). This is someone who leads by the hand. It is someone who personally leads another who is helpless or blind.

12 When the proconsul sawXCVII what had happened,XCVIII he believed,XCIX for he was astonishedC at the teachingCI about the Lord.

Notes on verse 12

XCVII “saw” = horao. To see, perceive, attend to, look upon, experience. Properly, to stare at and so implying clear discernment. This, by extension, would indicate attending to what was seen and learned. This is to see, often with a metaphorical sense. Can include inward spiritual seeing.
XCVIII “happened” = ginomai. Same as “arrived” in v5. See note XXXV above.
XCIX “believed” = pisteuo. Related to “faith” in v8. From pistis (see note LXIX above). This is to believe, entrust, have faith it, affirm, have confidence in. This is less to do with a series of beliefs or doctrines that one believes and more to do with faithfulness, loyalty, and fidelity. It is trusting and then acting based on that trust.
C “was astonished” = ekplesso. 13x in NT. From ek (out, out of) + plesso (to pound, strike, flatten; figuratively, cause a calamity). This is to strike with panic, astonish shock. It is a moment that shakes someone from their senses and leaves them dumbfounded or at a loss.
CI “teaching” = didache. Related to “teachers” in v1. From didasko (see note V above). This is teaching or doctrine.

13 Then Paul and his companionsCII set sailCIII from Paphos and cameCIV to PergaCV

Notes on verse 13a

CII “companions” = ho + peri. Literally, “those around.”
CIII “set sail” = anago. Related to “proclaimed” and “synagogues” in v5 & “fumbled about” and “someone to lead…by the hand” in v11. From ana (up, again, back, among, anew) + ago (see note XXXVII above). This is to lead up, offer, set sail, bring out, depart, loose.
CIV “came” = erchomai. Related to “went down” in v4 & “gone through” in v6. See note XXXI above.
CV “Perga” = Perge. 3x in NT – 2x in Acts 13 & 1x in Acts 14. Probably related to Pergamos (Pergamum; “fortified,” “capital,” “citadel,” “of first class courage); {from purgos (a tower or other kind of structure that is fortified) or from Pergamon (citadel, acropolis); from Priamos (similar to or from Priam, king of Troy); perhaps from Luwian Priya-muwa (“first-class courage)}. This is Perge or Perga, a city meaning “tower” or “capital” or “citadel” or “of first class courage.” See &

in Pamphylia.CVI John, however, leftCVII them and returnedCVIII to Jerusalem,CIX 

Notes on verse 13b

CVI “Pamphylia” = Pamphulia. Related to “all” in v10. 5x in NT. From pas (see note LXXVIII above) + phule (clan, tribe, lineage); {from phuo (to produce, spring up, grow, germinate; perhaps originally meaning puff or blow)}. This is Pamphylia, meaning every tribe. It is a province on the southern coast of Asia Minor
CVII “left” = apochoreo. 3x in NT. From apo (from, away from) + choreo (to make space, receive, have room for, progress, depart so as to make room; figuratively, living open-heartedly); {from choros (a particular space or place)}. This is to depart or withdraw.
CVIII “returned” = hupostrepho. Related to “turn…away” in v8. From hupo (by, under, about) + strepho (see note LXVIII above). This is to turn back or behind in a literal or figurative sense.
CIX “Jerusalem” = Hierosoluma. Related to “Salamis” in v5. From Hebrew Yerushalaim (probably foundation of peace); {from yarah (to throw, shoot, be stunned; to flow as water so figuratively to instruct or teach) + shalam (see note XXXVI above)}. This is Jerusalem, dwelling of peace.

14 but they went onCX from Perga and cameCXI to Antioch in Pisidia.CXII

Notes on verse 14a

CX “went on” = dierchomai. Same as “gone through” in v6. See note XLV above.
CXI “came” = paraginomai. Related to “arrived” in v5. From para (from beside, by) + ginomai (see note XXXV above). This is to arrive, appear, reach. It implies appearing publicly.
CXII “Pisidia” = Pisidia. 2x in NT – in Acts 13 & 14. Perhaps from pisos (meadow). This is Pisidia or Pisidian, which man mean “meadow.” See

And on the SabbathCXIII dayCXIV they wentCXV into the synagogue and sat down.CXVI 

Notes on verse 14b

CXIII “Sabbath” = sabbaton. From Hebrew shabbath (sabbath); from shabath (to rest, stop, repose, cease working; by implication, to celebrate). This is the sabbath. It can also be used as shorthand for a week i.e. the time between two sabbaths.
CXIV “day” = hemera. Perhaps from hemai (to sit). This is day, time, or daybreak.
CXV “went” = eiserchomai. Related to “went down” in v4 & “gone through” in v6 & “came” in v13. From eis (to, into, for, among) + erchomai (see note XXXI above). This is to go in in a literal or figurative sense.
CXVI “sat down” = kathizo. From kathezomai (to sit down, be seated); {from kata (down, against, according to, among) + hezomai (to sit); {from aphedron (a seat, a base)}}. This is to sit, set, appoint, stay, rest.

15 After the readingCXVII of the LawCXVIII and the Prophets, the officials of the synagogueCXIX

Notes on verse 15a

CXVII “reading” = anagnosis. Related to “named” in v6. 3x in NT. From anaginosko (literally to know again – to recognize, read, or discern); {from ana (upwards, up, again, back, anew) + ginosko (see note LIII above)}. This is reading aloud in public, particularly in the context of worship.
CXVIII “Law” = nomos. From nemo (to parcel out). Literally, this is that which is assigned. It can be usage, custom, or law. This word can be used for human or divine law. It can be used specifically for the law of Moses or as a name for the Torah (the first five books of the Bible). Sometimes it is used for scripture as a whole, used of the Gospel, or of any theology. It is also used for the “tradition of the elders,” which would be the oral Torah – the tradition of the laws plus their interpretations as they were passed down over time. We must carefully consider which meaning of “law” is meant when we interpret passages the word is found in.
CXIX “officials of the synagogue” = archisunagogos. Related to “ruler” in v1 & to “proclaimed” and “synagogues” in v5 & “fumbled about” and “someone to lead…by the hand” in v11 & “set sail” in v13. 9x in NT. From archo (see note XV above) + sunagoge (see note XLI above). This is ruler or leader of a synagogue who presided over worship.

sentCXX them a message, saying,CXXI “Brothers,CXXII if you haveCXXIII

Notes on verse 15b

CXX “sent” = apostello. Related to “opposed” in v8. From apo (from, away from) + stello (to send, set, arrange, prepare, gather up); {probably from histemi (see note LXVI above)}. This is to send forth, send away, dismiss, send as a messenger. It implies one that is sent for a particular mission or purpose rather than a quick errand. This is where “apostle” comes from.
CXXI “saying” = lego. Related to “word” in v5. See note XXXVIII above.
CXXII “brothers” = adelphos. From a (with, community, fellowship) + delphus (womb). This is a brother in a literal or figurative sense. It is also used of another member of the Church.
CXXIII “have” = eimi. Same as “were” in v1. See note III above.

any word of exhortationCXXIV for the people,CXXV giveCXXVI it.” 16 So Paul stood upCXXVII and with a gestureCXXVIII began to speak:

Notes on verses 15c-16a

CXXIV “exhortation” = paraklesis. Related to “church” and “called” in v1 & “called” in v2. From parakaleo (to call to, summon, invite, request, or beg; to exhort or admonish; to encourage, comfort, or console; has legal overtones and is used of one’s advocate in a courtroom); {from para (beside, by, in the presence of) + kaleo (see note I above). This is calling someone for help, a personal exhortation, comfort, encouragement, joy, entreaty, urging. This word comes from a legal setting – as bringing evidence to advocate for another in court. This word is related to the word “Advocate” or paraclete used for the Holy Spirit.
CXXV “people” = laos. Related to “worshiping” in v2. See note XVII above.
CXXVI “give” = lego. Same as “saying” in v15. See note CXXI above.
CXXVII “stood up” = anistemi. Related to “opposed” in v8 & “sent” in v15. From ana (upwards, up, again, back, anew) + histemi (see note LXVI above). This is to raise up, rise, appear. It is to stand up literally or figuratively. Can also mean to resurrect.
CXXVIII “with a gesture” = kataseio + ho + cheir. Literally, “having made a sign with the hand.”  Kataseio is 4x in NT– all in Acts. From kata (down, against, according to) + seio (to shake, vibrate; figuratively to agitate or show fear). This is to shake in order to call for quiet, to motion or signal. Cheir is the same as “hands” in v3. See note XXVII above.

“FellowCXXIX IsraelitesCXXX and others who fearCXXXI God, listen.CXXXII 

Notes on verse 16b

CXXIX “fellow” = aner. Same as {untranslated} in v6. See note L above.
CXXX “Israelites” = Israelites. Related to “Elymas” in v8. 9x in NT. From Israel (Israel, the people and land); from Hebrew Yisrael (God strives or one who strives with God; new name for Jacob and for his offspring); {from sarah (to persist, exert oneself, contend, persevere, wrestle, prevail) + El (see note LXIII above)}. This is Israel the people and the land. This is Israelite in a literal or figurative sense.
CXXXI “fear” = phobeo. From phobos (panic flight, fear, fear being caused, terror, alarm, that which causes fear, reverence, respect); from phebomai (to flee, withdraw, be put to flight). This is also to put to flight, terrify, frighten, dread, reverence, to withdraw or avoid. It is sometimes used in a positive sense to mean the fear of the Lord, echoing Old Testament language. More commonly, it is fear of following God’s path. This is where the word phobia comes from.
CXXXII “listen” = akouo. Same as “hear” in v7. See note LXII above.

17 The God of this people IsraelCXXXIII choseCXXXIV our ancestorsCXXXV and made the people greatCXXXVI

Notes on verse 17a

CXXXIII “Israel” = Israel. Related to “Elymas” in v8 & “Israelites” in v16. See note CXXX above.
CXXXIV “chose” = eklego. Related to “word” in v5 & “saying” in v15. From ek (from, from out of) + lego (see note XXXVIII above). This is to choose, select.
CXXXV “ancestors” = pater. This is father in a literal or figurative sense. Could be elder, senior, ancestor, originator, or patriarch.
CXXXVI “made…great” = hupsoo. From hupsos (height, high position, heaven, dignity, eminence; elevation, altitude; to be exalted); from hupsi (on high, aloft); from huper (over, above, beyond). This is to elevate in a literal or figurative sense. So it could be to raise up or set something in a high place or to exalt or make something great.

during their stayCXXXVII in the landCXXXVIII of Egypt,CXXXIX

Notes on verse 17b

CXXXVII “stay” = paroikia. 2x in NT. From paroikos (a stranger, foreigner; literally, someone who lives nearby temporarily; one who is not a citizen and does not have full rights or identification); {from para (by, beside, in the presence of) + oikos (house – the building, the household, the family, descendants; the temple)}. This is sojourning, living in a foreign land.
CXXXVIII “land” = ge. This is earth, land, soil, region, country, the inhabitants of an area.
CXXXIX “Egypt” = Aiguptos. From Egyptian ḥwt-kꜣ-ptḥ (Egypt; literally “the temple of the ka of Ptah in Memphis, Egypt”); from ḥwt (hut, large structure, palace, temple, estate) + ka (“a spiritual part of the soul in Egyptian mythology, which survived after death”; “something like ‘life-force’; the part of the soul which the living have and the dead do not…goodwill – especially of the king) + ptah (“a god of creativity and craftsmen, sometimes also identified with gods of death and the birth of the sun”; “Ptah, creator god and patron of craftsmen, worshipped at Memphis”). This is Egypt, meaning “the temple of the ka of Ptah.” See

and with upliftedCXL armCXLI he ledCXLII them out of it. 

Notes on verse 17c

CXL “uplifted” = hupselos. Related to “made…great” in v17. 12x in NT– in Matthew’s and Luke’s Temptation story as well as Matthew and Mark’s Transfiguration accounts. From hupsos (see note CXXXVI above). This is high, lofty, or exalted. It can be lofty in elevation or in character.
CXLI “arm” = brachion. 3x in NT. From brachus (little, few, a short time). This is arm, which can metaphorically refer to strength. It shares a root with the “brachial” artery.
CXLII “led” = exago. Related to “proclaimed” and “synagogues” in v5 & “fumbled about” and “someone to lead…by the hand” in v11 & “set sail” in v13 & “officials of the synagogue” in v15. 12x in NT. From ek (from, from out of) + ago (see note XXXVII above). This is to lead out or forth. It can be one being led to their death.

18 For about forty yearsCXLIII, CXLIV he put up withCXLV them in the wilderness.CXLVI 

Notes on verse 18

CXLIII “forty years” = tessarakontaetes. Related to “ruler” in v1. 2x in NT. Similar to tesserakontaetes (related to forty years); {from tesserakonta (forty); {from tessares (see note XV above) + deka (ten or -teen) + etos (year, age)}}. This is a forty year span of time.
CXLIV {untranslated} = chronos. Time in the chronological sense, quantitative time or a duration of time.
CXLV “put up with” = tropophoreo. Related to “turn…away” in v8. 1x in NT. From tropos (turning and taking on a new direction or manner; way, fashion, style, or character); {from the same as trope (see note LXVIII above)} + phoreo (to bear constantly or habitually or repeatedly; it can mean to wear or carry a burden); {from phero (to bear, bring, lead, make known publicly; to carry in a literal or figurative sense)}. This is to endure someone else’s ways or manners.
CXLVI “wilderness” = eremos. Properly, a place that is not settled or farmed, not populated. It could be a deserted area or a desert place. It could be seen as secluded, solitary, or lonesome. Any kind of vegetation is sparse, but so are people generally.

19 After he had destroyedCXLVII sevenCXLVIII peoplesCXLIX in the land of Canaan,CL he gave them their land as an inheritanceCLI 

Notes on verse 19

CXLVII “destroyed” = kathaireo. 9x in NT. From kata (down, against, throughout, among) + haireo (to take, choose, or prefer) {probably related to airo (raise, take up, lift, remove)}. This is to take down, destroy, depose, forcibly yank. It is to lower violently, whether literally or figuratively.
CXLVIII “seven” = hepta. This is seven or seventh. Figuratively, seven is the number of completeness or perfection.
CXLIX “peoples” = ethnos. Probably from etho (a custom or culture). This is people who are united by having similar customs or culture. Generally, it is used to refer to Gentiles. This is a tribe, race, nation, or Gentiles in general. This is where the term “ethnicity” comes from.
CL “Canaan” = Chanaan. 2x in NT– both in Acts. From Hebrew Kna’an (Canaan, his descendants, and the land where they settled; perhaps meaning lowlands, describing their land or subjugated in reference to being conquered by Egypt); from kana (to be humble, subdue; properly, bend the knee). This is Canaan or Chanaan, perhaps meaning lowlands. See
CLI “gave…as an inheritance” = katakleronomeo. Related to “Law” “in v15. 1x in NT. From kata (down, against, according to, among) + kleronomeo (to acquire or get by inheriting); {from kleronomos (heir); {from kleros (lot, portion, heritage; that share assigned to you; also a lot used to determine something by fate, chance, or divine will); {perhaps from klero (casting a lot) or from klao (to break in pieces as one breaks bread)} + the same as nomos (see note CXVIII above)}. This is to apportion according to lots, particularly an estate or inheritance.

20 for about four hundredCLII fiftyCLIII years.CLIV

Notes on verse 20a

CLII “four hundred” = tetrakosioi. Related to “ruler” in v1 & “forty years” in v18. 4x in NT– 3x in Acts & 1x in Galatians. From tessares (see note XV above) + hekaton (100). This is four hundred, which might imply universality.
CLIII “fifty” = pentekonta. Related to “forty years” in v18. 7x in NT. From pente (five; perhaps symbolically linked with the Temple or redemption) + deka (see note CXLIII above). This is fifty.
CLIV “years” = etos. Related to “forty years” in v18. See note CXLIII above.

After that he gaveCLV them judgesCLVI until the time of the prophet Samuel.CLVII 

Notes on verse 20b

CLV “gave” = didomi. To give, offer, place, bestow, deliver. This is give in a literal or figurative sense.
CLVI “judges” = krites. 19x in NT. From krino (to judge, decide, think good, condemn, determine, pass judgment, stand trial, sue; judging whether in court or in a private setting; properly, mentally separating or distinguishing an issue – to come to a choice or decision, to judge positively or negatively in seeking what is right or wrong, who is innocent or guilty; can imply trying, condemning, punishing, or avenging). This is judge or ruler.
CLVII “Samuel” = Samouel. Related to “Simoen” in v1 & to “Elymas” in v8 & “Israelites” in v16 & “Israel” in v17. 3x in NT. From Hebrew Shemuel (Samuel, “name of God” or “heard of God”); {from shem (name, fame, renown; indicating something essential about a person; honor, authority, or character); {may be from sum (to put, place, set)} + El (see note LXIII above) OR from shama (see note VII above) + El (see note LXIII above)}. This is Samuel, meaning “name of God” or “heard of God.”

21 Then they asked forCLVIII a king,CLIX and God gaveCLX them Saul son of Kish,CLXI

Notes on verse 21a

CLVIII “asked for” = aiteo. This is to ask, demand, beg, desire.
CLIX “king” = basileus. Probably from basis (step, hence foot; a pace); from baino (to walk, to go). This is king, emperor, or sovereign.
CLX “gave” = didomi. Same as “gave” in v20. See note CLV above.
CLXI “Kish” = Kis. 1x in NT. From Hebrew Qish (Kish or Qish, meaning “a bow” or “snaring” or “bird catcher”); perhaps from qush (to set a trap, lure, ensnare); perhaps from yaqosh (to set a snare in a literal or figurative sense; a fowler). This is Kish, meaning “snaring” or “bird catcher” or “bow.” See

a man of the tribeCLXII of Benjamin,CLXIII who reigned for fortyCLXIV years. 

Notes on verse 21b

CLXII “tribe” = phule. Related to “Pamphylia” in v13. See note CVI above.
CLXIII “Benjamin” = Beniamin. Related to “Barnabas” in v1 & “Bar-Jesus” in v6. 4x in NT. From Hebrew Binyamin (Benjamin; meaning “son of the right hand”; Jacob’s son, his descendants, and their territory); {from ben (see note VI above) + from yamin (right hand or side; that which is stronger or more agile; the south); {perhaps yamam (to go or choose the right, use the right hand; to be physically fit or firm)}}. This is Benjamin, meaning “son of the right hand.” It is Benjamin or his tribe.
CLXIV “forty” = tessarakonta. Related to “ruler” in v1 & “forty years” in v18 & “four hundred” in v20. See note CXLIII above.

22 When he had removedCLXV him, he madeCLXVI DavidCLXVII their king.

Notes on verse 22a

CLXV “removed” = methistemi. Related to “opposed” in v8 & “sent” in v15 & “stood up” in v16. 5x in NT. From meta (with, among, after, beyond) + histemi (see note LXVI above). This is to change, remove, transfer, dismiss, carry away, seduce.
CLXVI “made” = egeiro. This is to awake, raise up or lift up. It can be to get up from sitting or lying down, to get up from sleeping, to rise from a disease or from death. Figuratively, it can be rising from inactivity or from ruins.
CLXVII “David” = Dauid. From Hebrew David (David); from the same as dod (beloved, love, uncle); the root may mean to boil, which is used figuratively to describe love. So, this implies someone you love such as a friend, a lover, or a close family member like an uncle. David’s name likely means something like “beloved one.”

In his testimonyCLXVIII about him he said, ‘I have foundCLXIX David, son of Jesse,CLXX

Notes on verse 22b

CLXVIII “testimony” = martureo. From martus (a witness whether having heard or seen something; witness literally, judicially, or figuratively; by analogy, a martyr). This is to bear witness, testify, give evidence. It is to testify in a literal or figurative sense.
CLXIX “found” = heurisko. Same as “met” in v6. Same as “met” in v6. See note XLIX above.
CLXX “Jesse” = Iessai. 5x in NT. From Hebrew yishay (Jesse); perhaps from the same as yesh (being, existence, substance). This is Jesse, perhaps meaning “God exists.” See

to be a man after my heart,CLXXI who will carry outCLXXII all my wishes.’CLXXIII 

Notes on verse 22c

CLXXI “heart” = kardia. Literally the heart, but figuratively mind, character, inner self, will, intention, thoughts, feelings. Also, the center of something. The word heart is only used figuratively in the Old and New Testaments. This is where “cardiac” comes from.
CLXXII “carry out” = poieo. This is to make, do, act, construct, abide, or cause.
CLXXIII “wishes” = thelema. From thelo (to desire, wise, will, intend). This is the act of will, choice, purpose, or decree.

23 Of this man’s posterityCLXXIV God has broughtCLXXV to Israel a Savior,CLXXVI

Notes on verse 23a

CLXXIV “posterity” = sperma. From speiro (to sow seed, spread, scatter); perhaps from spao (to pull, to draw a sword). This is something sown so it could be seed or offspring and descendants. This is where the word “sperm” comes from.
CLXXV “brought” = ago. Related to “proclaimed” and “synagogues” in v5 & “fumbled about” and “someone to lead…by the hand” in v11 & “set sail” in v13 & “officials of the synagogue” in v15 & “led” in v17 & “promised” in v23. See note XXXVII above.
CLXXVI “Savior” = Soter. From sozo (to save, heal, preserve, or rescue. Properly, this is taking someone from danger to safety. It can be delivering or protecting literally or figuratively); from sos (safe, rescued, well). This is savior, deliverer, preserver.

Jesus,CLXXVII as he promised;CLXXVIII 24 beforeCLXXIX his comingCLXXX

Notes on verses 23b-24a

CLXXVII “Jesus” = Iesous. Related to “John” in v5 & “Bar-Jesus” in v6 & to “Bar-Jesus” in v6 & “Elymas” in v8. From Hebrew Yehoshua (see note LIV above). This is Jesus or Joshua in Greek – the Lord saves or the Lord is salvation.
CLXXVIII “promised” = epaggelia. Related to “proclaimed” and “synagogues” in v5 & “fumbled about” and “someone to lead…by the hand” in v11 & “set sail” in v13 & “officials of the synagogue” in v15 & “led” in v17. From epi (on, upon, against, what is fitting) + aggello (see note XXXVII above). This is a summons, promise, or message. It is a formal promise that is officially sanctioned. In the New Testament, this usually refers to a promise made in the Old Testament.
CLXXIX {untranslated} = prosopon. Related to “saw” in v12. From pros (at, towards, with) + ops (eye, face); {from optanomai (to appear, be seen); perhaps from horao (see note XCVII above)}. This is the face, surface, or front. It can imply presence more generally.
CLXXX “coming” = eisodos. Related to “paths” in v10. 5x in NT. From eis (to, into, towards, among) + hodos (see note LXXXV above). This is an entrance or reception in a literal of figurative sense.

John had already proclaimedCLXXXI a baptismCLXXXII of repentanceCLXXXIII to all the peopleCLXXXIV of Israel. 

Notes on verse 24b

CLXXXI “before…already proclaimed” = prokerusso. 1x in NT. From pro (before, in front of, earlier than) + kerusso (proclaim, preach, publish; properly, to act as a herald – announcing something publicly with confidence and/or to persuade). This is to announce in advance.
CLXXXII “baptism” = baptisma. From baptizo (to submerge, wash, or immerse; used specially for baptism); from bapto (to dip or dye; to entirely cover with liquid, to stain). This is dipping or sinking. Also, the rite of baptism.
CLXXXIII “repentance” = metanoia. Related to “named” in v6 & “reading” in v15. From meta (with, among, after, beyond) + noieo (to perceive, think, understand); {from nous (mind, understanding, reasoning faculty, intellect, capacity to reflect); from ginosko (see note LIII above)}. This is literally to change one’s mind – to choose to think differently and so to act differently because of a moral compunction. It is an intentional change to the inner self. This word shares a root with the English “paranoia.”
CLXXXIV “people” = laos. Same as “people” in v15. See note CXXV above.

25 And as John was finishingCLXXXV his work,CLXXXVI he said, ‘What do you supposeCLXXXVII that I am? I am not he.

Notes on verse 25a

CLXXXV “finishing” = pleroo. Related to “full” in v10. From pleres (see note LXXVII above). This is to fill, make full or complete. Properly, this is filling something up to the maximum extent that it can be filled – an appropriate amount for its individual capacity. So, this is used figuratively for furnish, influence, satisfy, finish, preach, perfect, and fulfill.
CLXXXVI “work” = dromos. 3x in NT. From dramein (to run) OR from trecho (to run, make progress, rush; running like an athlete in a race; figuratively, to work quickly towards a goal in a focused way). This is a course, race, or career. It is a track for those who run on foot in a competitive game. Figuratively, it can refer to a career or other course of life. It is part of the word “hippodrome.”
CLXXXVII “suppose” = huponoeo. Related to “named” in v6 & “reading” in v15 & “repentance” in v24. 3x in NT – all in Acts. From hupo (by, under, about, subordinate to) + noieo (see note CLXXXIII above). This is to conjecture, think, expect.

No, butCLXXXVIII one is comingCLXXXIX after me; I am not worthyCXC

Notes on verse 25b

CLXXXVIII {untranslated} = idou. Same as “listen” in v11. See note LXXXVI above.
CLXXXIX “coming” = erchomai. Same as “came” in v13. See note CIV above.
CXC “worthy” = axios. Related to “proclaimed” and “synagogues” in v5 & “fumbled about” and “someone to lead…by the hand” in v11 & “set sail” in v13 & “officials of the synagogue” in v15 & “led” in v17 & “promised” and “brought” in v23. From ago (see note XXXVII above). This is related to weight or worth – deserving, suitable, corresponding, due reward.

to untieCXCI the strap of the sandalsCXCII on his feet.’CXCIII

Notes on verse 25c

CXCI “untie” = luo. Related to “sent…off” in v3. See note XXVIII above.
CXCII “sandals” = hupodema. 10x in NT. From hupodeo (to bind under wear on the feet); {from hupo (by, under, about, subordinate to) + deo (to tie, bind, fasten, impel, compel; to declare something against the law or prohibited)}. This is a sandal – something bound under the sole.
CXCIII “feet” = pous. This is foot in a literal or figurative sense.

26 “Brothers and sisters, you descendantsCXCIV of Abraham’sCXCV familyCXCVI and others who fear God, to us the messageCXCVII of this salvationCXCVIII has been sent.CXCIX 

Notes on verse 26

CXCIV “descendants” = huios. Same as “son” in v10. See note LXXIII above.
CXCV “Abraham’s” = Abraam. From Hebrew Abraham (exalted father); from the same as Abiram (exalted father, a high father – lofty) {from ab (father literal or figurative) + rum (rise, bring up, being high, extol, exalt, haughty; to raise in a literal or figurative sense)}. This is Abraham, father of many nations or father of a multitude.
CXCVI “family” = genos. Related to “arrived” in v5 & “came” in v14. From ginomai (see note XXXV above). This is family, offspring, kin – in a literal or figurative sense.
CXCVII “message” = logos. Same as “word” in v5. See note XXXVIII above.
CXCVIII “salvation” = soteria. Related to “Savior” in v23. From soter (see note CLXXVI above). This is deliverance, salvation, preservation, welfare, prosperity, safety.
CXCIX “sent” = exapostello. Related to “opposed” in v8 & “sent” in v15 & “stood up” in v16 & “removed” in v22. 13x in NT. From ek (from, from out of) + apostello (see note CXX above). This is to send away, dismiss, send someone for a mission.

27 Because the residentsCC of Jerusalem and their leadersCCI did not recognizeCCII him

Notes on verse 27a

CC “residents” = katoikeo. Related to “stay” in v17. From kata (down, against, throughout, among) + oikeo (to settle or be established somewhere in a permanent way, to make a home or live at home); {from oikos (see note CXXXVII above)}. This is to live or settle on a permanent basis.
CCI “leaders” = archon. Related to “ruler” in v1 & “officials of the synagogue” in v15. From archo (see note XV above). This is ruler, leader, magistrate, official, prince, chief.
CCII “not recognize” = agnoeo. Related to “named” in v6 & “reading” in v15 & “repentance” in v24 & “suppose” in v25. From a (not) + noieo (see note CLXXXIII above). This is unaware not to know. Sometimes it is willful ignorance, but other times it is simply not knowing.

or understand the wordsCCIII of the prophets that are readCCIV everyCCV Sabbath, they fulfilledCCVI those words by condemningCCVII him. 

Notes on verse 27b

CCIII “words” = phone. Related to “prophets” in v1 & “false prophet” in v6. Probably from phemi (see note IV above); {from phao (see note IV above) or phaino (see note IV above). This is a voice, sound, tone or noise. It can also be a language or dialect.
CCIV “read” = anaginosko. Related to “named” in v6 & “reading” in v15 & “repentance” in v24 & “suppose” in v25 & “not recognize” in v27. See note CXVII above.
CCV “every” = pas. This is “all” in v10. See note LXXVIII above.
CCVI “fulfilled” = pleroo. Same as “finishing” in v25. See note CLXXXV above.
CCVII “condemning” = krino. Related to “judges” in v20. See note CLVI above.

28 Even though they found no causeCCVIII for a sentence of death,CCIX they asked PilateCCX to have him killed.CCXI 

Notes on verse 28

CCVIII “cause” = aitia. Related to “asked for” in v21. From aiteo (see note CLVIII above). This is a cause or reason. It can also be a legal crime, accusation, guilt, or case.
CCIX “death” = thanatos. From thnesko (to die, be dead). This is death, whether literal or spiritual. It can also refer to something that is fatal.
CCX “Pilate” = Pilatos. From Latin Pilatus (may mean one who has skill with a javelin); perhaps from pilum (javelin) OR perhaps from pileus (a soft cap made of felt that was brimless and was associated with people who were freedmen). This is Pilate. See
CCXI “have…killed” = anaireo. Related to “destroyed” in v19. From ana (up, back, among, again, anew) + haireo (see note CXLVII above). This is to take up or away, which implies taking with violence. So, this is used for murdering, executing, and slaying.

29 When they had carried outCCXII everythingCCXIII that was writtenCCXIV about him,

Notes on verse 29a

CCXII “carried out” = teleo. From telos (an end, aim, purpose, completion, end goal, consummation, tax; going through the steps to complete a stage or phase and then moving on to the next one). This is to complete, fulfill, accomplish, end.
CCXIII “everything” = pas. This is “all” in v10. See note LXXVIII above.
CCXIV “written” = grapho. This is to write or describe. It is where the word “graphic” comes from.

they took him downCCXV from the treeCCXVI and laidCCXVII him in a tomb.CCXVIII 

Notes on verse 29b

CCXV “took…down” = kathaireo. Same as “destroyed” in v19. See note CXLVII above.
CCXVI “tree” = xulon. This refers to things made of wood such as a tree trunk, club, staff, or cross. It can also refer to timber used as fuel for a fire.
CCXVII “laid” = tithemi. Related to “laid” in v3 & “straight” in v10. See note XXVI above.
CCXVIII “tomb” = mnemeion. From mousikos (to remember); from mneme (memory or mention); from mnaomai (to remember; by implication give reward or consequence); perhaps from meno (to stay, abide, wait, endure). This is properly a memorial – a tomb, grave, monument.

30 But God raisedCCXIX him from the dead,CCXX 31 and for manyCCXXI days he appearedCCXXII

Notes on verses 30-31a

CCXIX “raised” = egeiro. Same as “made” in v22. See note CLXVI above.
CCXX “dead” = nekros. Perhaps from nekus (corpse). This is dead or lifeless, mortal, corpse. It can also be used figuratively for powerless or ineffective. It is where the word “necrotic” comes from.
CCXXI “many” = pleion. From polus (much, many, abundant). This is many, more, great, having a greater value, more excellent.
CCXXII “appeared” = horao. Same as “saw” in v12. See note XCVII above.

to those who came up withCCXXIII him from GalileeCCXXIV to Jerusalem, and they are now his witnessesCCXXV to the people.CCXXVI 

Notes on verse 31b

CCXXIII “came up with” = sunanabaino. Related to “king” in v21. 2x in NT. From sun (with, together with) + anabaino (to come up in a literal or figurative sense – ascent, rise, climb, enter); {from ana (up, back, among, again, anew) + baino (see note CLIX above)}. This is to ascend together with, come up with.
CCXXIV “Galilee” = Galilaia. From Hebrew galil (cylinder, circuit, district); from galal (to roll in a literal or figurative sense, roll away, roll down, wallow, remove, trust). This is Galilee, meaning perhaps region or cylinder.
CCXXV “witnesses” = martus. Related to “testimony” in v22. See note CLXVIII above.
CCXXVI “people” = laos. Same as “people” in v15. See note CXXV above.

32 And we bring you the good newsCCXXVII that what God promisedCCXXVIII to our ancestors 33 he has fulfilledCCXXIX for us, their children,CCXXX 

Notes on verses 32-33a

CCXXVII “bring…the good news” = euaggelizo. Related to “straight” in v10 & to “proclaimed” and “synagogues” in v5 & “fumbled about” and “someone to lead…by the hand” in v11 & “set sail” in v13 & “officials of the synagogue” in v15 & “led” in v17 & “promised” and “brought” in v23 & “worthy” in v25. From eu (see note LXXXIV above) + aggelos (see note XXXVII above)}. This is evangelize – literally to preach the good news. It can be those who hear the news, the news, or a way to say gospel.
CCXXVIII {untranslated} = ginomai. Same as “arrived” in v5. See note XXXV above.
CCXXIX “fulfilled” = ekpleroo. Related to “full” in v10 & “finishing” in v25. 1x in NT. From ek (from, from out of) + pleroo (see note CLXXXV above). This is to fill completely, accomplish, fulfill completely.
CCXXX “children” = teknon. From tikto (to beget, bring forth, produce). This is a child, descendant, or inhabitant.

by raisingCCXXXI Jesus; as also it is written in the secondCCXXXII psalm,CCXXXIII

‘You are my Son;
    todayCCXXXIV I have begottenCCXXXV you.’

Notes on verse 33b

CCXXXI “raising” = anistemi. Same as “stood up” in v16. See note CXXVII above.
CCXXXII “second” = deuteros. From duo (two, both). This is second, twice, again. It is part of where “Deuteronomy” comes from, which means “second law” or “a repetition of the law.” See
CCXXXIII “psalm” = psalmos. 7x in NT. From psallo (to twang, play, sing psalms, pluck a stringed instrument such as a harp); {from psao (to rub)}. This is a psalm, a song sung of praise – generally accompanied by a harp or other stringed instrument. It can also refer to the book of Psalms.
CCXXXIV “today” = semeron. Related to “day” in v14. From hemera (see note CXIV above). This is today, now, at present.
CCXXXV “begotten” = gennao. Related to “arrived” in v5 & “came” in v14 & “family” in v26. From genna (descent, birth); from genos (see note CXCVI above). This is to beget, give birth to, or bring forth. Properly, it refers to procreation by the father, but was used of the mother by extension. Figuratively, this can mean to regenerate.

34 “As to his raisingCCXXXVI him from the dead, no more toCCXXXVII return to corruption,CCXXXVIII he has spokenCCXXXIX in this way,

Notes on verse 34a

CCXXXVI “raising” = anistemi. Same as “stood up” in v16. See note CXXVII above.
CCXXXVII “to” = mello. Perhaps from melo (something that one is worried or concerned about, something one pays attention to or thinks about). Properly, this is ready, about to happen, to intend, delay, or linger. This is just on the point of acting.
CCXXXVIII “corruption” = diaphthora. 6x in NT. From diaphtheiro (to destroy, spoil, corrupt, disintegrate, decay; it can refer to the effect of moral or spiritual impurity); {from dia (through, across to the other side, thoroughly) + from phtheiro (to destroy, corrupt, ruin, deteriorate, wither; also used of moral corruption); {from phthio (perish, waste away)}}. This is destruction, corruption, or decay.
CCXXXIX “spoken” = ereo. Perhaps from rheo (to say, speak of, command). This is to say, tell, speak, mean, command.

‘I will giveCCXL you the holyCCXLI promisesCCXLII made to David.’

Notes on verse 34b

CCXL “give” = didomi. Same as “gave” in v20. See note CLV above.
CCXLI “holy” = hosios. 8x in NT. This is righteous, pious, holy, devout, or Holy One. This refers to what is worthy or respect or reverence because it corresponds to a higher law, particularly God’s law. It can be contrasted with dikaios (just according to law and statue) & hieros (formally consecrated) & hagios (pure, sacred, free from ritual defilement).
CCXLII “promises” = pistos. Related to “faith” in v8 & “believed” in v12. From peitho (see note LXIX above). This is faithful, trustworthy, reliable, sure, or true. It is a fullness of faith. This is the same root as the word “faith” in Greek.

35 “Therefore he has also said in anotherCCXLIII psalm,

‘You will not letCCXLIV your Holy OneCCXLV experienceCCXLVI corruption.’

Notes on verse 35

CCXLIII “another” = heteros. This is other, another, different, strange. It is another of a different kind in contrast to the Greek word allos, which is another of the same kind. This could be a different quality, type, or group.
CCXLIV “let” = didomi. Same as “gave” in v20. See note CLV above.
CCXLV “Holy One” = Hosios. Same as “holy” in v34. See note CCXLII above.
CCXLVI “experience” = horao. Same as “saw” in v12. See note XCVII above.

36 “For David, after he had servedCCXLVII the purposeCCXLVIII of God in his ownCCXLIX

Notes on verse 36a

CCXLVII “served” = hupereteo. Related to “assist” in v5. 3x in NT. From huperetes (see note XLIV above). This is to work as a rower. So, it means to work under someone’s immediate authority. Figuratively, it means to minister to, take care of, or serve.
CCXLVIII “purpose” = boule. 12x in NT. From boulomai (to wish, desire, intend; to plan with great determination). This is counsel, plan, purpose, decision. It refers to wisdom that comes from deliberation.
CCXLIX “his own” = idios. This is something that belongs to you or that is personal, private, apart. It indicates a stronger sense of possession than a simple possessive pronoun. This is where “idiot” comes from (denoting someone who hasn’t had formal training or education and so they rely on their own understanding).

generation,CCL died,CCLI was laidCCLII beside his ancestors, and experienced corruption, 

Notes on verse 36b

CCL “generation” = genea. Related to “arrived” in v5 & “came” in v14 & “family” in v26 & “begotten” in v33. From genos (see note CXCVI above). This is family, generation, kind, or nation. As generation, it implies an age as a period of time. It can also mean infinity. This is the root of the word “generation.
CCLI “died” = koimao. 18x in NT. From keimai (to lie, recline, set, be appointed, be destined). This is to sleep or put to sleep. Figuratively, it can mean to die. In the New Testament, it is used 15x for death and 3x for sleep.
CCLII “laid” = prosithemi. Related to “laid” in v3 & “straight” in v10 & “laid” in v29. 18x in NT. From pros (at, to, toward, with) + tithemi (see note XXVI above). This is to add, place to, bring together for a reason, or add up.

37 but he whom God raised upCCLIII experienced no corruption. 38 Let it be knownCCLIV to you therefore, brothers and sisters, that through this man forgivenessCCLV of sinsCCLVI is proclaimed to you; 

Notes on verses 37-38

CCLIII “raised up” = egeiro. Same as “made” in v22. See note CLXVI above.
CCLIV “known” = gnostos. Related to “named” in v6 & “reading” in v15 & “repentance” in v24 & “suppose” in v25 & “not recognize” in v27 and “read” in v27. 15x in NT. From ginosko (see note LIII above). This is known or acquaintance.
CCLV “forgiveness” = aphesis. Related to “intelligent” in v7. 17x in NT. From aphiemi (to send away, release, abandon, lay aside, forgive); {from apo (from, away from) + hiemi (see note LVIII above)}. This is sending away – a release or letting go. So, it can be releasing someone from debt, slavery, or some other obligation – thus, freedom or liberty. Figuratively it can mean to pardon as releasing from the debt of sin.
CCLVI “sins” = hamartia. From hamartano (to miss the mark, do wrong, make a mistake, sin); {from a (not) + meros (a part or share)}. Literally, this means not having one’s share or portion – like not receiving inheritance or what was allotted to you. This word means missing the mark so it is used for guilt, fault, and acts of sin.

39 by this Jesus everyoneCCLVII who believes is set freeCCLVIII from all those sins from which you couldCCLIX not be freedCCLX by the law of Moses.CCLXI 

Notes on verse 39

CCLVII “everyone” = pas. This is “all” in v10. See note LXXVIII above.
CCLVIII “set free” = dikaioo. Same as “freed” in v39. See note CCLXI below. From dikaios (see note LXXVI above). This is to be righteous, plead the cause of, justify, acquit. Properly, it is being approved, particularly carrying the weight of a legal judgment. It is upright, render just, or innocent.
CCLIX “could” = dunamai. This is to be able, or something that is possible. It can also be empowered or being powerful. The Greek word for “miracle” (dunamis) comes from this root.
CCLX “freed” = dikaioo. Same as “set free” in v39. See note CCLVIII above.
CCLXI “Moses” = Mouses. From Hebrew Mosheh (Moses); from mashah (to pull out in a literal or figurative sense, to draw out) OR from Egyptian mes or mesu (child, son i.e. child of…). This is Moses – the one drawn out from the water, which is to say, rescued. If derived from the Egyptian, his name would share a root with Rameses and Thutmose.

40 Beware,CCLXII therefore, that what the prophets saidCCLXIII does not happenCCLXIV to you:

Notes on verse 40

CCLXII “beware” = blepo. Same as “see” in v11. See note LXXXIX above.
CCLXIII “said” = ereo. Same as “spoken” in v34. See note CCXL above.
CCLXIV “happen” = eperchomai. Related to “went down” in v4 & “gone through” in v6 & “came” in v13 & “went” in v14. 10x in NT. From epi (on, upon, to, against, what is fitting) + erchomai (see note XXXI above). This is to come upon, arrive, occur. It focuses on the impact or influence beyond the initial coming.

41 ‘Look,CCLXV you scoffers!CCLXVI
    Be amazedCCLXVII and perish,CCLXVIII

Notes on verse 41a

CCLXV “look” = horao. Same as “saw” in v12. See note XCVII above.
CCLXVI “scoffers” = kataphrontes. 1x in NT. From kataphroneo (to disregard despise look down, think little of; active scorn or a generally hostile view; disregarding or ignoring something because it is considered of little importance.; thinking someone unworthy and hating them; to think against something); {from kata (down, against, among, according to) + phroneo (to think, judge, use one’s mind, have an opinion, shape one’s opinion through action); {from phren (diaphragm, heart, intellect, understanding; figurative for personal opinion or inner mindset; thought regulating action; sympathy, feelings, cognition); perhaps from phrao (to rein in or curb)}}. This is a despiser or scorner. It is one who considers something else worthless, insignificant, or unimportant.
CCLXVII “be amazed” = thaumazo. From thauma (a wonder or marvel; used abstractly for wonderment or amazement; something that evokes emotional astonishment); may be from theaomai (to behold, look upon, see, contemplate, visit); from thaomai (to gaze at a spectacle; to look at or contemplate as a spectator; to interpret something in efforts to grasp its significance). This is to marvel, wonder, or admire. To be amazed out of one’s senses or be awestruck. Being astonished and starting to contemplate what was beheld. This root is where the word “theatre” comes from.
CCLXVIII “perish” = aphanizo. Related to “prophets” in v1 & “false prophet” in v6 & “words” in v27. 5x in NT. From aphanes (unseen, invibile, hidden); {from ai (not, without) + phaino (see note IV above)}. This is making something unseen. So, it can be hide, remove, destroy, corrupt.

for in your days I am doingCCLXIX a work,CCLXX
    a workCCLXXI that you will never believe, even if someone tellsCCLXXII you.’”

Notes on verse 41b

CCLXIX “doing” = ergazomai. Related to “worshiping” and “work” in v2 & “villainy” in v10. From ergon (see note XVII above). This is to work, labor, perform, toil.
CCLXX “work” = ergon. Same as “work” in v2. See note XXIII above.
CCLXXI “work” = ergon. Same as “work” in v2. See note XXIII above.
CCLXXII “tells” = ekdiegeomai. Related to “proclaimed” and “synagogues” in v5 & “fumbled about” and “someone to lead…by the hand” in v11 & “set sail” in v13 & “officials of the synagogue” in v15 & “led” in v17 & “promised” and “brought” in v23 & “worthy” in v25 & “bring…the good news” in v32. 2x in NT– both in Acts. From ek (from, from out of) + diegeomai (to describe fully, narrate, declare, tell something clearly so that one knows what is most important); {from dia (through, because of, across, thoroughly) + hegeomai (to think, suppose, have an opinion; to lead the way, what comes in front or first, initial thought, high esteem or authority; one who commands in an official capacity); {from ago (see note XXXVII above)}}. This is to report or describe fully – the reporter having thorough knowledge of the issue at hand.

42 As Paul and Barnabas were going out,CCLXXIII the people urgedCCLXXIV them to speakCCLXXV about these thingsCCLXXVI again the next Sabbath. 

Notes on verse 42

CCLXXIII “going out” = exeimi. 4x in NT. From ek (from, from out of) + eimi (to go). This is to go out, make it to land, leave.
CCLXXIV “urged” = parakaleo. Related to “church” and “called” in v1 & “called” in v2 & “exhortation” in v15. See note CXXIV above.
CCLXXV “speak” = laleo. From lalos (talkative). This is to talk, say, or preach.
CCLXXVI “things” = rhema. Related to “spoken” in v34. From rheo (see note CCXXXIX above). This is word, which implies a matter or thing spoken, a command, report, promise, thing, or business. Often used for narration, commands, or disputes.

43 When the meeting of the synagogue broke up,CCLXXVII manyCCLXXVIII Jews and devoutCCLXXIX convertsCCLXXX to Judaism

Notes on verse 43a

CCLXXVII “broke up” = luo. Same as “untie” in v25. See note CXCI above.
CCLXXVIII “many” = polus. Related to “many” in v31. See note CCXXI above.
CCLXXIX “devout” = sebo. 10x in NT. This is to worship, revere, adore, be devout. Properly this is personally placing a high value on someone or something, showing respect.
CCLXXX “converts” = proselutos. Related to “went down” in v4 & “gone through” in v6 & “came” in v13 & “went” in v14 & “happen” in v40. 4x in NT. From proserchomai (to approach, draw near, come up to; figuratively to worship); {from pros (for, at, towards) + erchomai (see note XXXI above)}. This is a proselyte as a newcomer to Judaism. A convert to Judaism would have been circumcised and begun to follow the Law. It could also be a foreigner.

followedCCLXXXI Paul and Barnabas, who spokeCCLXXXII to them and urgedCCLXXXIII them to continueCCLXXXIV in the graceCCLXXXV of God.

Notes on verse 43b

CCLXXXI “followed” = akoloutheo. From a (with, fellowship, union) + keleuthos (road, way). This is to accompany or follow someone, especially the way a disciple does.
CCLXXXII “spoke” = proslaleo. Related to “speak” in v42. 2x in NT. From pros (at, to, toward, with) + laleo (see note CCLXXV above). This is to talk to or speak with.
CCLXXXIII “urged” = peitho. Related to “faith” in v8 & “believed” in v12 & “promises” in v34. See note LXIX above.
CCLXXXIV “continue” = prosmeno. Related to “tomb” in v29. 7x in NT. From pros (at, to, toward, with) + meno (see note CCXVIII above). This is to remain, adhere to continue, remain together in a place or with someone. Figuratively, to persevere in something.
CCLXXXV “grace” = charis. From chairo (to rejoice, be glad; used to say hello; properly, delighting in the grace of God or experiencing God’s favor); from char– (to extend favor, lean towards, be inclined to be favorable towards). This is grace, kindness, favor, gratitude, thanks. It is the sense of being inclined to or favorable towards – leaning towards someone to share some good or benefit. This can be literal, figurative, or spiritual. It is grace as abstract concept, manner, or action.

44 The nextCCLXXXVI Sabbath almostCCLXXXVII the wholeCCLXXXVIII cityCCLXXXIX gatheredCCXC to hear the wordCCXCI of the Lord. 

Notes on verse 44

CCLXXXVI “next” = erchomai. Same as “came” in v13. See note CIV above.
CCLXXXVII “almost” = schedon. Related to “Antioch” in v1 & “had” in v5. 3x in NT. From echo (see note II above). This is near, nearly, or almost.
CCLXXXVIII “whole” = pas. This is “all” in v10. See note LXXVIII above.
CCLXXXIX “city” = polis. This is a city or its inhabitants. It is a town of variable size, but one that has walls. This is where “metropolis” and “police” come from.
CCXC “gathered” = sunago. Related to “proclaimed” and “synagogues” in v5 & “fumbled about” and “someone to lead…by the hand” in v11 & “set sail” in v13 & “officials of the synagogue” in v15 & “led” in v17 & “promised” and “brought” in v23 & “worthy” in v25 & “bring…the good news” in v32 & “tells” in v41. From sun (with, together with, closely associated) + ago (see note XXXVII above). This is to lead together and so to assemble, bring together, welcome with hospitality, or entertain. In the sense of assembly, this is the root of the word “synagogue.”
CCXCI “word” = logos. Same as “word” in v5. See note XXXVIII above.

45 But when the Jews sawCCXCII the crowds,CCXCIII they were filled with jealousy,CCXCIV

Notes on verse 45a

CCXCII “saw” = horao. Same as “saw” in v12. See note XCVII above.
CCXCIII “crowds” = ochlos. Related to “Antioch” in v1 & “had” in v5 & “almost” in v44. Perhaps from echo (see note II above). This is a crowd, the common people, a rabble. Figuratively, it can refer to a riot.
CCXCIV “jealousy” = zelos. 16x in NT– 6x in a positive sense (zeal for God) & 10x in a negative sense (jealousy/strife). Perhaps from zeo (to boil, be hot, ferment, bubble, boil, or glow; used figuratively for being fervent or earnest). This is eagerness or zeal on the one hand or rivalry and jealousy on the other. The verb is meant to echo the sound of boiling water and so it depicts burning emotion that bubbles over. So, burning anger or burning love.

and blaspheming,CCXCV they contradictedCCXCVI what was spokenCCXCVII by Paul. 

Notes on verse 45b

CCXCV “blaspheming” = blasphemeo. Related to “prophets” in v1 & “false prophet” in v6 & “words” in v27 & “perish” in v41. From blasphemos (blasphemer, reviler, reviling; speaking slander or evil); {from perhaps blapto (to harm or to hinder) + pheme (saying, news, rumor, fame) {from phemi (see note IV above)}. This is to slander, malign, hurl abuse, speak against, blaspheme, or defame. It is speaking evil or abusive language – not acknowledging what is good or worth reverence/respect.
CCXCVI “contradicted” = antilego. Related to “word” in v5 & “saying” in v15 & “chose” in v17. 11x in NT. From anti (opposite, instead of, against) + lego (see note XXXVIII above). This is literally to speak against – so, to contradict, oppose, resist. It is being argumentative, especially with a hostile bent through opposition. It can indicate attempts to thwart.
CCXCVII “spoken” = laleo. Same as “speak” in v42. See note CCLXXVI above.

46 Then both Paul and Barnabas spoke out boldly,CCXCVIII saying, “It was necessaryCCXCIX that the wordCCC of God

Notes on verse 46a

CCXCVIII “spoke out boldly” = parresiazomai. Related to “all” in v10 & “Pamphylia” in v13 & to “spoken” in v34 & “things” in v42. 9x in NT– 7 in the book of Acts. From parresia (confidence, openness, boldness, outspokenness; can imply assurance – free speech); {from pas (see note LXXVIII above) + rhesis (speech); {from rheo (see note CCXXXIX above)}}. This is to be confident, speak freely or with boldness. It can also refer to a confident spirit or manner.
CCXCIX “necessary” = anagkaios. 8x in NT. From anagke (necessity – something that happens that requires an immediate response; associated with pain or distress); {from ana (up, again, back, among, anew) + agcho (to press tightly or compress)} OR ana (see above) + agkale (the arm, particularly one that is bent to carry a load); {from agkos (a bend)}. This is necessary, essential, proper, intimate. It can be used to refer to close relatives.
CCC “word” = logos. Same as “word” in v5. See note XXXVIII above.

should be spokenCCCI firstCCCII to you. Since you rejectCCCIII it and judgeCCCIV yourselves

Notes on verse 46b

CCCI “spoken” = laleo. Same as “speak” in v42. See note CCLXXVI above.
CCCII “first” = proton. From protos (what is first, which could be the most important, the first in order, the main one, the chief); from pro (before, first, in front of, earlier). This is firstly, before, in the beginning, formerly.
CCCIII “reject” = apotheo. 6x in NT. From apo (from, away from) + otheo (to push away, show). This is to push away or cast away. Figuratively, it can mean to repulse, reject, or refuse.
CCCIV “judge” = krino. Same as “condemning” in v27. See note CCVIII above.

to be unworthy of eternalCCCV life,CCCVI CCCVIIwe are now turningCCCVIII to the gentiles.CCCIX 

Notes on verse 46c

CCCV “eternal” = aionios. From aion (an age, length of time); from the same as aei (ever, always, unceasingly, perpetually; on every occasion). This is age-long, forever, everlasting. Properly, that which lasts for an age. This is where eon comes from.
CCCVI “life” = zoe. From zao (to live, be alive). This is life including the vitality of humans, plants, and animals – it is life physical and spiritual and life everlasting.
CCCVII {untranslated} = idou. Same as “listen” in v11. See note LXXXVI above.
CCCVIII “turning” = strepho. Related to “turn…away” in v8 & “returned” in v13 & “put up with” in v18. See note LXVIII above.
CCCIX “gentiles” = ethnos. Same as “peoples” in v19. See note CXLIX above.

47 For so the Lord has commandedCCCX us, saying,

‘I have setCCCXI you to be a lightCCCXII for the gentiles,
    so that you may bring salvation to the endsCCCXIII of the earth.’”CCCXIV

Notes on verse 47

CCCX “commanded” = entellomai. Related to “carried out” in v29. 15x in NT. From en (in, on, at, by, with) + tellomai (to accomplish); {related to telos (see note CCXII above)}. This is to charge or command – focuses on the final objective. So, this is looking at the final outcome of the command – how things will end up.
CCCXI “set” = tithemi. Same as “laid” in v29. See note CCXVIII above.
CCCXII “light” = phos. Related to “prophets” in v1 & “false prophet” in v6 & “words” in v27 & “perish” in v41 & “blaspheming” in v45. From phao (see note IV above); from the same as phaino (see note IV above). This is light, a source of light, fire, or radiance. This is light with specific reference to what it reveals. It is luminousness whether natural or artificial, abstract or concrete, literal or figurative.
CCCXIII “ends” = eschatos. Related to “Antioch” in v1 & “had” in v5 & “almost” in v44 & “crowds” in v45. Related to eschaton (end, last); perhaps from echo (see note II above). This is last, end, extreme, final. It is often used to discuss the end times, prophecies of the future, and the afterlife. The branch of theology focusing on all these topics is called “eschatology.”
CCCXIV “earth” = ge. Same as “land” in v17. See note CXXXVIII above.

48 When the gentiles heard this, they were gladCCCXV and praisedCCCXVI the wordCCCXVII of the Lord, and as many as had been destinedCCCXVIII for eternal life became believers.CCCXIX 

Notes on verse 48

CCCXV “were glad” = chairo. Related to “grace” in v43. See note CCLXXXV above.
CCCXVI “praised” = doxazo. From doxa (glory, opinion, praise, honor, renown; particularly used as a quality of God or manifestation of God – splendor); from dokeo (to have an opinion, seem, appear, suppose; a personal judgment; to think); from dokos (opinion). This is to render or hold something as glorious, to glorify, honor, magnify, or celebrate. This is ascribing weight to something by recognizing its true value or essence.
CCCXVII “word” = logos. Same as “word” in v5. See note XXXVIII above.
CCCXVIII “destined” = tasso. 9x in NT. This word was common in military settings to mean appoint or commission to a certain status. It referred to arranging in a specified order, setting in place, or sending to a specific task.
CCCXIX “became believers” = pisteuo. Same as “believed” in v12. See note XCIX above.

49 Thus the wordCCCXX of the Lord spreadCCCXXI throughoutCCCXXII the region.CCCXXIII 

Notes on verse 49

CCCXX “word” = logos. Same as “word” in v5. See note XXXVIII above.
CCCXXI “spread” = diaphero. Related to “put up with” in v18. 13x in NT. From dia (through, because of, across, thoroughly) + phero (see note CXLV above). This is to carry through as in all the way to the end. It is differing or fully distinguishing – separating by comparison. Literally, it means transport – figuratively it can mean report or surpass.
CCCXXII “throughout” = dia + holos. Same as “whole” in v6. See note XLVI above.
CCCXXIII “region” = chora. From chasma (gap, gulf, chasm, open space); from chasko (to gape, yawn). This is space, land, region, fields, open area – the countryside in contrast to the town.

50 But the Jews incitedCCCXXIV the devout womenCCCXXV of high standingCCCXXVI and the leading menCCCXXVII of the city

Notes on verse 50a

CCCXXIV “incited” = parotruno. 1x in NT. From para (beside, by, in the presence of) + otruno (to spur). This is to urge along, incite, provoke.
CCCXXV “women” = gune. Related to “arrived” in v5 & “came” in v14 & “family” in v26 & “begotten” in v33 & “generation” in v36. Perhaps from ginomai (see note XXXV above). This is woman, wife, or bride. This is where the word “gynecologist” comes from.
CCCXXVI “of high standing” = euschemon. Related to “straight” in v10 & “bring…the good news” in v32 & to “Antioch” in v1 & “had” in v5 & “almost” in v44 & “crowds” in v45 & “ends” in v47. 5x in NT. From eu (see note LXXXIV above) + schema (figure, appearance, form – outer shape; figuratively, can be external condition); {from echo (see note II above)}. This is presentable, seemly, prominent, noble, appropriate, desirable, well-formed.
CCCXXVII “leading men” = protos. Related to “first” in v46. See note CCCII above.

and stirred upCCCXXVIII persecutionCCCXXIX against Paul and Barnabas and drove them outCCCXXX of their region.CCCXXXI 

Notes on verse 50b

CCCXXVIII “stirred up” = epegeiro. Related to “made” in v22. 2x in NT. From epi (on, upon, among, what is fitting) + egeiro (see note CLXVI above). This is to stimulate, instigate, rouse against.
CCCXXIX “persecution” = diogmos. 10x in NT. From dioko to chase after, put to flight; by implication, to persecute or to purse like a hunter after its prey; this can be earnestly pursue or zealously persecute) {related to dio (put to flight). This is chase, pursuit, or persecution. It is hunting someone like an animal.
CCCXXX “drove…out” = ekballo. Related to “devil” in v10. From ek (from, from out of) + ballo (see note LXXIV above). This is to throw, put out, produce, expel, banish. It is eject in a literal or figurative sense.
CCCXXXI “region” = horion. Related to “set apart” in v2. 12x in NT. See note XXII above.

51 So they shook the dustCCCXXXII offCCCXXXIII their feet in protest against them and wentCCCXXXIV to Iconium.CCCXXXV 

Notes on verse 51

CCCXXXII “dust” = koniortos. 5x in NT. From the same as koniao (to whitewash, plaster); {from konia (dust, lime) + ornumi (to stir up)}. This is dust or powder as blown around.
CCCXXXIII “shook…off” = ektinasso. From ek (from, from out of) + tinasso (to swing). This is to shake off or out.
CCCXXXIV “went” = erchomai. Same as “came” in v13. See note CIV above.
CCCXXXV “Iconium” = Ikonion. 6x in NT – 5x in Acts & 1x in 2 Timothy 3. Perhaps from eikon (a likeness such as an image, statue, or other representation; a prototype that is being mirrored – a replication rather than a shadow; an image in a figurative sense); {from eiko (resemble, be like) OR perhaps related to eiko (to submit, give way, be weak, yield)}. This is Iconium, which may mean “image-like” or “city of the image.” See

52 And the disciplesCCCXXXVI were filledCCCXXXVII with joyCCCXXXVIII and with the Holy”CCCXXXIX Spirit.

Notes on verse 52

CCCXXXVI “disciples” = mathetes. From matheteuo (to make a disciple of); from manthano (to learn key facts, gain knowledge from experience; generally implies reflection as part of the learning process); from math– (thinking things through). This is a disciple, learner, or student. It is where we get “mathematics” from.
CCCXXXVII “filled” = pleroo. Same as “finishing” in v25. See note CLXXXV above.
CCCXXXVIII “joy” = chara. Related to “grace” in v43 & “were glad” in v48. From chairo (see note CCLXXXV above). This is joy, delight, gladness. Can be understood as the feeling you get when you are aware of grace.
CCCXXXIX Holy” = Hagios. Same as “Holy” in v2. See note XX above.

Image credit: “Paul in Cyprus” by John Paul Stanley of YoMinistry.

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