Acts 17

Acts 17


After Paul and Silas had passed throughI AmphipolisII and Apollonia,III they cameIV

Notes on verse 1a

I “passed through” = diodeuo. 2x in NT. From dia (through, for the sake of, across, thoroughly) + hodeuo (to travel or journey); {from hodos (way, road, path, journey)}. This is to travel through, go around, go on.
II “Amphipolis” = Amphipolis. 1x in NT. From the same as amphoteroi (both, all); {from ampho (around, both sides)} + polis (a city or its inhabitants; is a town of variable size, but one that has walls); probably from the same as polemos (war, quarrel, strife; battle, whether one time or on-going); {from pelomai (to bustle) or from polus (much, many, abundant)}. This is Amphipolis, a Macedonian city, which means “surrounded city” or “encircled city” as there is a river around it. See
III “Apollonia” = Apollonia. Related to “Amphipolis” in v1. 1x in NT. From Apollon (the Greek god Apollo, who was god of “light, music, medicine, poetry, prophecy, dance, manly beauty”); possibly from Pre-Greek (to drive away) OR from Greek apollumi (to destroy) OR apolouon (washing) OR apoluon (delivering) OR haploun (simple) OR aeiballon (always shooting) OR a (not) + polus (see note II above). This is Apollonia. See
IV “came” = erchomai. This is to come or go.

to Thessalonica,V where there wasVI a JewishVII synagogue.VIII 

Notes on verse 1b

V “Thessalonica” = Thessalonike. 5x in NT. Perhaps from thessalos (Thessalian); {from thessalia (Thessaly); from thessalos (Thessalus)} + nike (victory, conquest; figurative for what makes one successful)}. This is Thessalonica, a Macedonian city. Philip II named his daughter Thessalonica when he conquered Thessaly. Later, her husband renamed the city after her. The exact meaning of Thessaly is not known. See
VI “was” = eimi. This is to be, exist.
VII “Jewish” = Ioudaios. From Ioudas (Judah, Judas); from Hebrew Yehudah (Judah, son of Jacob, his tribal descendants, a name for the southern kingdom. Literally, it means praised); probably from yadah (to throw one’s hands into the air in a gesture of praise); from yad (hand). This is Jewish, a Jew, or Judea.
VIII “synagogue” = sunagoge. From sun (with, together with, closely associated) + ago (to lead, bring, carry, guide, go, drive). Literally, this is a bringing together, a place of assembly. The term can be used for the people or for the place where they assemble. It is also sometimes used of Christian churches in the New Testament. So, this is synagogue, assembly, congregation, or church. This is where the word “synagogue” comes from.

And PaulIX went in,X as was his custom,XI

Notes on verse 2a

IX “Paul” = Paulos. From Latin Paulus (small, little). This is Paul or Paulos, meaning little.
X “went in” = eiserchomai. Related to “came” in v1. From eis (to, into, for, among) + erchomai (see note IV above). This is to go in in a literal or figurative sense.
XI “custom” = etho. 4x in NT– 1x of Pilate’s custom of releasing a prisoner for the crowd, 1x of Jesus’s custom of teaching the crowds, 2x of the custom of going to the synagogue. This is a custom, what is customary – doing something habitually.

and on threeXII Sabbath daysXIII arguedXIV with them from the scriptures,XV 

Notes on verse 2b

XII “three” = treis. This is three.
XIII “Sabbath days” = sabbaton. From Hebrew shabbath (sabbath); from shabath (to rest, stop, repose, cease working; by implication, to celebrate). This is the sabbath. It can also be used as shorthand for a week i.e. the time between two sabbaths.
XIV “argued” = dialegomai. 13x in NT. From dia (through, across to the other side, thoroughly) + lego (to speak, tell, mention)}. This is to discuss, preach, reason, argue, address, lecture.
XV “scriptures” = graphe. From grapho (to write). This is literally writing, a document. In the New Testament, this is always used for scripture.

explainingXVI and provingXVII that it was necessaryXVIII

Notes on verse 3a

XVI “explaining” = dianoigo. 8x in NT. From dia (through, because of, across, thoroughly) + anoigo (to open or open up in a literal or figurative sense; to speak freely); {from ana (up, back, again, among, between, anew) + oigo (to open)}. This is to open fully. It can mean to open the womb as a firstborn does or figuratively to explain or expound.
XVII “proving” = paratithemi. 19x in NT. From para (by, beside, in the presence of) + tithemi (to put, place, set, fix, establish in a literal or figurative sense; properly, this is placing something in a passive or horizontal position). This is properly, to set beside or place before. So, it can mean to set or serve a meal, to deposit something with someone, to set forth an argument. It can also mean to entrust, commend, or tell a parable (as setting forth information).
XVIII “was necessary” = dei. From deo (to tie, bind, compel; declare unlawful). This is what is necessary or proper. It is what is needed or what one should do – a duty or something inevitable. This refers to something absolutely necessary.

for the MessiahXIX to sufferXX and to riseXXI

Notes on verse 3b

XIX “Messiah” = Christos. From chrio (consecrate by anointing with oil; often done for prophets, priests, or kings). Literally, the anointed one, Christ. The Greek word for Messiah.
XX “suffer” = pascho. Akin to penthos (mourning, sorrow). This is to be acted on for good or ill. It is often used for negative treatment. Properly, it means feeling strong emotions – especially suffering. It can also be the ability to feel suffering.
XXI “rise” = anistemi. From ana (upwards, up, again, back, anew) + histemi (to make to stand, place, set up, establish, appoint, stand by, stand still, stand ready, stand firm, be steadfast). This is to raise up, rise, appear. It is to stand up literally or figuratively. Can also mean to resurrect.

from the deadXXII and saying, “This is the Messiah, JesusXXIII whom I am proclaimingXXIV to you.” 

Notes on verse 3c

XXII “dead” = nekros. Perhaps from nekus (corpse). This is dead or lifeless, mortal, corpse. It can also be used figuratively for powerless or ineffective. It is where the word “necrotic” comes from.
XXIII “Jesus” = Iesous. From Hebrew Yehoshua (Joshua, the Lord is salvation); {from YHVH (proper name of the God of Israel; the self-existent and eternal one); {from havah (to become) or from hayah (to come to pass, become, be)} + yasha (to deliver, defend, help, preserve, rescue; properly, to be open, wide or free, which implies being safe. So, in a causative sense, this is to free someone)}. This is Jesus or Joshua in Greek – the Lord saves or the Lord is salvation.
XXIV “proclaiming” = kataggello. Related to “synagogue” in v1. 18x in NT. From kata (down, against, according to, throughout, among, daily) + aggello (to announce, report) {from aggelos (angel, messenger – supernatural or human envoy of God); probably from ago (see note VIII above)}. This is to proclaim openly and confidently a very specific message. It can also be celebrate, preach, or teach.

Some of them were persuadedXXV and joinedXXVI Paul and Silas,XXVII

Notes on verse 4a

XXV “were persuaded” = peitho. This is to have confidence, to urge, be persuaded, agree, assure, believe, have confidence, trust. It is the root from which the Greek word for faith is drawn (pistis).
XXVI “joined” = proskleroo. 1x in NT. From pros (at, to, toward, with, among) + kleroo (to assign a share, give an inheritance, allot); {from kleros (lot, portion, heritage; that share assigned to you; also a lot used to determine something by fate, chance, or divine will); probably from klao (to break in pieces as one breaks bread)}. This is to allot, join, associate with.
XXVII “Silas” = Silas. 13x in NT. From Aramaic She’ila (Silas; related to “Saul,” meaning “asked of the Lord”); {from shaal (to ask, borrow); related to Hebrew shaal (to ask, inquire, beg, borrow, desire, request; can also mean demand)} OR from Silouanos (Silvanus, meaning either “asked of the Lord” or “forest”); {from Latin Silvanus (Silvanus, god of forests, sylvan); {from silva (forest, grove); from Proto-Indo-European *sel- or *swell- (board, threshold)}. This is Silas, either a form of Saul, meaning “asked of the Lord,” or of Silvanus, meaning “forest.” See &

as did a greatXXVIII manyXXIX of the devoutXXX GreeksXXXI

Notes on verse 4b

XXVIII “great” = polus. Related to “Amphipolis” and “Apollonia” in v1. See note II above.
XXIX “many” = plethos. From pletho (to fill, accomplish, supply; to fill to maximum capacity). This is fullness, multitude, great number.
XXX “devout” = sebo. 10x in NT. This is to worship, revere, adore, be devout. Properly this is personally placing a high value on someone or something, showing respect.
XXXI “Greeks” = Hellen. From Hellas (Hellas, what Greeks called themselves); perhaps from helane (torch) OR from selene (moon). This is Greek, but was used for Gentiles, broader populations that spoke Greek and were a part of Greek culture regardless of their heritage. See

and not a fewXXXII of the leadingXXXIII women.XXXIV 

Notes on verse 4c

XXXII “few” = oligos. This is few or small – it can be a short time or extent, low light, amount, or worth.
XXXIII “leading” = protos. From pro (before, first, in front of, earlier). This is what is first, which could be the most important, the first in order, the main one, the chief.
XXXIV “women” = gune. Perhaps from ginomai (to come into being, to happen, become, be born; to emerge from one state or condition to another; this is coming into being with the sense of movement or growth). This is woman, wife, or bride. This is where the word “gynecologist” comes from.

But the JewsXXXV became jealous,XXXVI and with the helpXXXVII

Notes on verse 5a

XXXV “Jews” = Ioudaios. Same as “Jewish” in v1. See note VII above.
XXXVI “became jealous” = zeloo. 12x in NT. From zelos (eagerness or zeal on the one hand or rivalry and jealousy on the other; burning anger or burning love) perhaps from zeo (to boil, be hot, ferment, bubble, boil, or glow; used figuratively for being fervent or earnest). This is jealous, eager for, burning with zeal, deeply committed, envy.
XXXVII “with the help” = proslambano. 12x in NT. From pros (at, to, toward, with) + lambano (active acceptance/taking of what is available or what has been offered; emphasizes the choice and action of the individual). This is to take aside, accept, receive, or welcome. It can be to take in a friendly or hospitable sense or to eat (i.e. take food).

of some ruffians in the marketplacesXXXVIII they formed a mobXXXIX and set the cityXL

Notes on verse 5b

XXXVIII “ruffians in the marketplaces” = agoraios + aner + tis + poneros. Agoraios is 2x in NT. From agora (assembly, forum, marketplace, town square, thoroughfare); {from ageiro (to gather)}. This is related to the marketplace. So, it could be a ruffian or someone who loiters in the marketplace. It could also be related to the courts. Aner is man, male, husband, or fellow. It can also refer to an individual. Poneros is from poneo (to toil); related to ponos (pain, trouble, labor, distress, suffering; toil, which implies anguish); from the base of penes (a laborer, poor person, starving or indigent person; someone who works for their living); from pernomai (working for a living; laborer, poor person; to work for daily bread); from peno (to toil to survive day by day). This is bad, evil, wicked, malicious, grievous, or toilsome. Properly, it is something that bears pain – it emphasizes the miseries and pains that come with evil. By contrast, the Greek kakos refers to evil as part of someone’s core character. Also contrasting the Greek sapros, which deals with falling away from a previously embodied virtue. This word can mean ill, diseased, morally culpable, derelict, vicious, malicious, or guilt. It can also refer to the devil or sinners.
XXXIX “formed a mob” = ochlopoieo. 1x in NT. From ochlos (a crowd, the common people, a rabble; figuratively, a riot); {perhaps from echo (to have, hold, possess)} + poieo (to make, do, construct, cause). This is to make a crowd or mob. It can also refer to a riot.
XL “city” = polis. Related to “Amphipolis” in v1. See note II above.

in an uproar.XLI While they were searchingXLII for Paul and Silas to bring them outXLIII to the assembly,XLIV

Notes on verse 5c

XLI “set…in an uproar” = thorubeo. 5x in NT. From thorubos (an uproar, noise, outcry, riot, disturbance, trouble; figuratively, a very emotional wailing or hysteria; a commotion that leads to panic or terror); from the same as thoreo (to be troubled, agitated, alarmed, be unsettled, be frightened); from throos (clamor, noise) or from threomai (to wail). This is to disturb, agitate, cause tumult, trouble, create panic.
XLII “searching” = zeteo. This is to seek, search for, desire. It is searching for something by inquiring or investigation. It can be seek in a literal or figurative sense. There is a Hebrew figure of speech “to seek God’s face” so it can also mean to worship God. Alternately, you could seek someone’s life i.e. plot to kill them.
XLIII “bring…out” = proago. Related to “synagogue” in v1 & “proclaiming” in v3. From pro (before, first, in front of, earlier) + ago (see note VIII above). This is to lead, go before, bring forward, walk ahead. It can be before in location or in time.
XLIV “assembly” = demos. Related to “was necessary” in v3. 4x in NT. From deo (see note XVIII above). This is district, multitude, rabble, assembly. It refers to Greeks bound by similar laws or customs.

they attackedXLV Jason’sXLVI house.XLVII 

Notes on verse 5d

XLV “attacked” = ephistemi. Related to “rise” in v3. From epi (on, upon, what is fitting) + histemi (see note XXI above). This is to stand upon, happen, be present. Usually, it is used in a literal sense.
XLVI “Jason’s” = Iason. Related to “Jesus” in v3. 5x in NT. Perhaps from iamoai (to heal, particularly from a physical illness, or a spiritual difficulty; to cure or make whole in a literal or figurative sense) OR from Yah (the shortened form of the name of the God of Israel; God, Lord); {from YHVH (see note XXIII above)} + yasha (see note XXIII  above). This is Jason, perhaps meaning “about to cure” or “healer” or “he will heal” or “the Lord will save” or “the Lord saves.” See
XLVII “house” = oikia. From oikos (house – the building, the household, the family, descendants; the temple). This is a house, household, goods, property, family, or means.

When they could not findXLVIII them, they draggedXLIX Jason and some brothersL and sisters before the city authorities,LI

Notes on verse 6a

XLVIII “find” = heurisko. This is to find, learn, or obtain. It is to discover something, which generally implies a period of searching for it. This is to find in a literal or figurative sense. This is where the word “heuristic” comes from.
XLIX “dragged” = suro. 5x in NT. Perhaps from haireomai (to take, choose, or prefer); perhaps related to airo (raise, take up, lift, remove). This is to drag, sweep away.
L “brothers” = adelphos. From a (with, community, fellowship) + delphus (womb). This is a brother in a literal or figurative sense. It is also used of another member of the Church.
LI “city authorities” = politarches. Related to “Amphipolis” in v1 & “city” in v5 & to “Amphipolis” and “Apollonia” in v1 & “great” in v4. 2x in NT – both in Acts 17. From polis (see note II above) + archo (to rule, begin, have first rank or have political power). This is a city magistrate, ruler, or officer.

shouting,LII “These people who have been turning the worldLIII upside downLIV have comeLV here also, 

Notes on verse 6b

LII “shouting” = boao. 12x in NT. From boe (a cry or shout). This is cry out, make a distress call, ask for desperately need assistance.
LIII “world” = oikoumene. Related to “house” in v5. 15x in NT. From oikeo (to settle or be established somewhere in a permanent way, to make a home or live at home); from oikos (see note XLVII above). This is the world – the part where people live. It was used specifically for the Roman world. It is the root of the word “ecumenic.”
LIV “turning…upside down” = anastatoo. Related to “rise” in v3 & “attacked” in v5. 3x in NT. From anastatos (forced from home) OR from anistemi (see note XXI above). This is to stir up (as a rebellion). It can also be to turn upside down, unsettle, cause an uproar or confusion.
LV “come” = pareimi. Related to “was” in v1. From para (from beside, by, in the presence of) + eimi (see note VI above). This is to be near, to be there, to come.

and Jason has entertainedLVI them as guests. They are allLVII actingLVIII

Notes on verse 7a

LVI “entertained” = hupodechomai. 4x in NT– including Martha and Zacchaeus welcoming Jesus into their homes in Luke 10:38 & Luke 19:6. From hupo (by, under, about, subordinate to) + dechomai (to warmly receive, be ready for what is offered, take, accept, or welcome; to receive in a literal or figurative sense).  This is to welcome someone as a guest, to entertain them, to have someone in your personal care.
LVII “all” = pas. This is all or every.
LVIII “acting” = prasso. This is to do or practice – something done on an on-going basis or by habit. It can also mean to accomplish, attend, or commit.

contrary to the decreesLIX of the emperor,LX sayingLXI that there is anotherLXII kingLXIII named Jesus.” 

Notes on verse 7b

LIX “decrees” = dogma. 5x in NT. From dokeo (to have an opinion, seem, appear, suppose; a personal judgment; to think); {from dokos (opinion). This is opinion, ordinance, or decree. It could be civil or religious. It is where the word “dogma” comes from.
LX “emperor” = Kaisar. From Latin (Caesar); perhaps from Punic caesai (elephant) OR from Latin a cesiis oculis (because of the blue eyes) OR from Latin a caesarie (because of the hair) OR from Latin a caeso matris utero (born by Caesarean section) OR from Latin caedo (to cut). This is Caesar, at first a last name, then taken as a title by Roman emperors. See
LXI “saying” = lego. Related to “argued” in v2. See note XIV above.
LXII “another” = heteros. This is other, another, different, strange. It is another of a different kind in contrast to the Greek word allos, which is another of the same kind. This could be a different quality, type, or group.
LXIII “king” = basileus. Probably from basis (step, hence foot; a pace); from baino (to walk, to go). This is king, emperor, or sovereign.

The peopleLXIV and the city officials were disturbedLXV when they heardLXVI this, and after they had takenLXVII bailLXVIII from Jason and the others,LXIX they let them go.LXX

Notes on verses 8-9

LXIV “people” = ochlos. Related to “formed a mob” in v5. See note XXXIX above.
LXV “disturbed” = tarasso. 18x in NT. This is trouble, agitate, stir up. It is motion back and forth, creating inner turmoil or confusion, roiling water.
LXVI “heard” = akouo. This is hear or listen, but it also means to understand by hearing. This is where the word “acoustics” comes from.
LXVII “taken” = lambano. Related to “with the help” in v5. See note XXXVII above.
LXVIII “bail” = hikanos. From hikneomai (to reach, come to, attain). This is sufficient, suitable, adequate, competent, ample.
LXIX “others” = loipos. From leipo (to leave behind, be lacking). This is the rest, remained, remnant, other, residue.
LXX “let…go” = apoluo. From apo (from, away from) + luo (to loose, release, untie; figuratively, to break, destroy, or annul; releasing what had been withheld). This is letting go, setting free, or releasing. So, it can be to discharge, dismiss, divorce, pardon, or set at liberty.

10 That veryLXXI nightLXXII the brothers and sisters sent Paul and Silas offLXXIII to

Notes on verse 10a

LXXI “that very” = eutheos. Related to “proving” in v3. From euthus (immediately, upright, straight and not crooked); {perhaps from eu (good, well, well done, rightly) + tithemi (see note XVII above)}. This is directly, soon, at once.
LXXII “night” = nux. This is night in a literal or figurative sense.
LXXIII “sent…off” = ekpempo. 2x in NT. From ek (from, from out of) + pempo (to send, put forth, or dispatch; often a temporary errand; sending someone with a focus on the place they departed from). This is to send out, send forth.

Beroea,LXXIV and when they arrivedLXXV they wentLXXVI to the Jewish synagogue. 

Notes on verse 10b

LXXIV “Beroea” = Beroia. 2x in NT. Perhaps from peran (Peroea, “region beyond the coastline”); akin to pera (on the far side); perhaps from peiro (to pierce). This is Berea, a city in Macedonia.
LXXV “arrived” = paraginomai. Related to “women” in v4. From para (from beside, by) + ginomai (see note XXXIV above). This is to arrive, appear, reach. It implies appearing publicly.
LXXVI “went” = apeimi. 1x in NT. From apo (from, away from) + eimi (to go). This is to go from, depart.

11 These Jews were more receptiveLXXVII than those in Thessalonica, for they welcomedLXXVIII the messageLXXIX very eagerlyLXXX

Notes on verse 11a

LXXVII “more receptive” = eugenes. Related to “women” in v4 & “arrived” in v10 & to “that very” in v10. 3x in NT. From eu (see note LXXI above) + ginomai (see note XXXIV above). This is noble or high status birth. It can literally refer to a higher rank or it can be used to speak of a noble nature, which is to say, generous.
LXXVIII “welcomed” = dechomai. Related to “entertained” in v7. See note LVI above.
LXXIX “message” = logos. Related to “argued” in v2 & “saying” in v7. From lego (see note XIV above). This is word, statement, speech, analogy. It is a word that carries an idea or expresses a thought, a saying. It could refer to a person with a message or reasoning laid out in words. By implication, this could be a topic, line of reasoning, or a motive. It can be used for a divine utterance or as Word – Christ.
LXXX “very eagerly” = meta + pas + prothumia. Literally, “with all eagerness.” Pas is the same as “all” in v7. See note LVII above. Prothumia is 5x in NT. From prothumos (willing, eager, ready, enthusiastic, free from resistance; predisposed, willing, or generous from one’s own impulse); {from pro (before, ahead, earlier than, above) + thumos (passion, actions that stem from passion or impulse; can be rage, indignation); {from thuo (to breathe violently, seethe, rage; properly, to rush as breathing heavy; so smoke as in offering an animal sacrifice by fire; by extension, killing or slaying in general)}}. This is eagerness, readiness – already inclined to do something, promptness.

and examinedLXXXI the scriptures every dayLXXXII to see whether these things wereLXXXIII so. 

Notes on verse 11b

LXXXI “examined” = anakrino. 16x in NT. From ana (up, again, back, among, anew) + krino (to judge, decide, think good, condemn, determine, pass judgment, stand trial, sue; judging whether in court or in a private setting; properly, mentally separating or distinguishing an issue – to come to a choice or decision, to judge positively or negatively in seeking what is right or wrong, who is innocent or guilty; can imply trying, condemning, punishing, or avenging). 16x in NT. This is to scrutinize, examine, investigate, judge, or discern. Properly, it refers to very thorough investigation or careful study. It was used to talk about investigating crimes in the ancient world. It can also be used to talk about interrogation that uses torture.
LXXXII “day” = hemera. Perhaps from hemai (to sit). This is day, time, or daybreak.
LXXXIII “were” = echo. Related to “formed a mob” in v5 & “people” in v8. See note XXXIX above.

12 ManyLXXXIV, LXXXV of them therefore believed,LXXXVI

Notes on verse 12a

LXXXIV “many” = polus. Same as “great” in v4. See note XXVIII above.
LXXXV {untranslated} = men. This is truly, indeed, even, in fact. Often, it is not translated, but used to emphasize affirmation.
LXXXVI “believed” = pisteuo. Related to “were persuaded” in v4. From pistis (faith, faithfulness, belief, trust, confidence; to be persuaded or come to trust); from peitho (see note XXV above). This is to believe, entrust, have faith it, affirm, have confidence in. This is less to do with a series of beliefs or doctrines that one believes and more to do with faithfulness, loyalty, and fidelity. It is trusting and then acting based on that trust.

including not a few GreekLXXXVII women and menLXXXVIII of high standing.LXXXIX 

Notes on verse 12b

LXXXVII “Greek” = Hellenis. Related to “Greeks” in v4. 2x in NT. From Hellen (see note XXXI above). This is a female Greek, i.e. a Gentile.
LXXXVIII “men” = aner. Same as “ruffians in the marketplaces” in v5. See note XXXVIII above.
LXXXIX “high standing” = euschemon. Related to “formed a mob” in v5 & “people” in v8 & “were” in v11 & to “that very” in v10 & “more receptive” in v11. 5x in NT. From eu (see note LXXI above) + schema (figure, appearance, form – outer shape; figuratively, can be external condition); {from echo (see note XXXIX above)}. This is presentable, seemly, prominent, noble, appropriate, desirable, well-formed.

13 But when the Jews of Thessalonica learnedXC that the wordXCI of GodXCII had been proclaimed by Paul in Beroea as well, they cameXCIII there, too, to stir upXCIV and inciteXCV the crowds.XCVI 

Notes on verse 13

XC “learned” = ginosko. This is to know, recognize, realize, perceive, learn. It is knowledge gained through personal experience.
XCI “word” = logos. Same as “message” in v11. See note LXXIX above.
XCII “God” = Theos. From Proto-Indo-European origins, meaning do, put, place. This is God or a god in general.
XCIII “came” = erchomai. Same as “came” in v1. See note IV above.
XCIV “stir up” = saleuo. 15x in NT. From salos (tossing, agitation, rolling – like the sea swells). This is to agitate or shake up. It can mean to disturb, topple, incite, or destroy.
XCV “incite” = tarasso. Same as “disturbed” in v8. See note LXV above.
XCVI “crowds” = ochlos. Same as “people” in v8. See note LXIV above.

14 Then the brothers and sisters immediatelyXCVII sent Paul awayXCVIII XCIXto

Notes on verse 14a

XCVII “immediately” = eutheos. Same as “that very” in v10. See note LXXI above.
XCVIII “sent…away” = exapostello. Related to “rise” in v3 & “attacked” in v5 & “turning…upside down” in v6. 13x in NT. From ek (from, from out of) + apostello (to send, send away, send forth as a messenger, to commission); {from apo (from, away from) + stello (to set, arrange, prepare, provide for); {from histemi (see note XXI above)}}. This is to send away, dismiss, send someone for a mission.
XCIX {untranslated} = poreuomai. From poros (ford, passageway). This is to go, travel, journey, or die. It refers to transporting things from one place to another and focuses on the personal significance of the destination.

the coast,C but Silas and TimothyCI remainedCII behind. 

Notes on verse 14b

C “coast” = thalassa. Perhaps from hals (sea, salt, a boy of saltwater) or halas (salt; can be figurative for prudence). This is the sea, a lake, or seashore.
CI “Timothy” = Timoutheou. Related to “God” in v13. From time (worth or something’s perceived value; literally, price, but figuratively, the honor or value one sees in someone or something else; can be esteem or dignity; precious or valuables); {from tino (to pay, be punished, pay a penalty or fine because of a crime); from tio (to pay respect, value)} + Theos (see note XCII above). This is Timothy, literally “dear to God.”
CII “remained” = hupomeno. 17x in NT. From hupo (by, under, about, subordinate to) + meno (to stay, remain, wait, await, continue, abide). This is properly to remain behind or remain under. It implies endurance, patience, steadfastness, enduring trials, and waiting in hope.

15 Those who conductedCIII Paul broughtCIV him as far as Athens,CV

Notes on verse 15a

CIII “conducted” = kathistemi. Related to “rise” in v3 & “attacked” in v5 & “turning…upside down” in v6 & “sent…away” in v14. From kata (down, against, throughout, among) + histemi (see note XXI above). This is to appoint, set in order or set in place, constitute, give standing or authority, put in charge, designate.
CIV “brought” = ago. Related to “synagogue” in v1 & “proclaiming” in v3 & “bring…out” in v5. See note VIII above.
CV “Athens” = Athenai. 4x in NT. From Athene (Athena; Greek goddess of wisdom). This is Athens, said to be founded by Athena.

and, after receivingCVI instructionsCVII to have Silas and Timothy joinCVIII him as soon as possible,CIX they leftCX him.

Notes on verse 15b

CVI “receiving” = lambano. Same as “taken” in v9. See note LXVII above.
CVII “instructions” = entole. From entellomai (to charge, command, give orders or instructions) {from en (in, on, at, by, with) + tellomai (to accomplish); {from telos (an end, aim, purpose, completion, end goal, consummation, tax; going through the steps to complete a stage or phase and then moving on to the next one)}}. This is an order, command, ordinance, or law. It focuses on the purpose of the command and its end result.
CVIII “join” = erchomai. Same as “came” in v1. See note IV above.
CIX “soon as possible” = tachista. 1x in NT. From tachus (quickly, promptly; without unreasonable delay). This is most quickly, with all haste.
CX “left” = exeimi. Related to “went” in v10. 4x in NT – all in Acts. From ek (from, from out of) + eimi (see note LXXVI above). This is to go forth, leave, get a ship to land.

16 While Paul was waiting forCXI them in Athens, he was deeply distressedCXII to seeCXIII that the city was full of idols.CXIV 

Notes on verse 16

CXI “waiting for” = ekdechomai. Related to “entertained” in v7 & to “welcomed” in v11. 7x in NT. From ek (from, from out of) + dechomai (see note LVI above)}. This is to take or receive, expect, await; to welcome someone from your heart; focusing on the goal of waiting or the outcome.
CXII “was deeply distressed” = paroxuno + ho + pneuma + autos + en + autos. Literally, “his spirit was provoked in him.” Paroxuno is 2x in NT. from para (from beside, by, close alongside) + oxuno (to sharpen) or oxus (sharp edge, swift, eager, rapid); {from akmen (even now, still yet); from the same as akmazo (ripe, to be vigorous); from acme (point, edge); related to ake (a point)}. This is to sharpen. In a figurative sense, it is to stimulate, provoke, anger, irritate. It is to jab someone to get their emotions up so that they will act or to exasperate someone.  Pneuma is from pneo (to blow, breathe, breathe hard). This is wind, breath, or ghost. A breeze or a blast or air, a breath. Figuratively used for a spirit, the human soul or part of us that is rational. It is also used supernaturally for angels, demons, God, and the Holy Spirit. This is where pneumonia comes from.
CXIII “see” = theoreo. From theaomai (to behold, look upon, see, contemplate, visit); from thaomai (to gaze at a spectacle; to look at or contemplate as a spectator; to interpret something in efforts to grasp its significance); from theoros (a spectator or envoy). This is gazing, beholding, experiencing, discerning. It is looking at something to analyze it and concentrate on what it means. This is the root of the word “theatre” in that people concentrate on the action of the play to understand its meaning.
CXIV “full of idols” = kateidolos. 1x in NT. From kata (down, against, throughout, among) + eidolon (image, idol, worship or an idol); {from eidos (form, shape, sight, appearance); from eido (to be aware, see, know, remember, appreciate)}. This is full of idols or thoroughly committed to idolatry.

17 So he arguedCXV in the synagogue with the Jews and the devout persons and also in the marketplaceCXVI everyCXVII day with those who happened to be there.CXVIII 

Notes on verse 17

CXV {untranslated} = men. Same as {untranslated} in v12. See note LXXXV above.
CXVI “marketplace” = agora. Related to “ruffians in the marketplaces” in v5. 11x in NT. From ageiro (see note XXXVIII above). This is assembly, forum, marketplace, town square, thoroughfare. This is where “agoraphobia” comes from.
CXVII “every” = pas. Same as “all” in v7. See note LVII above.
CXVIII “happened to be there” = paratugchano. 1x in NT. From para (beside, by, in the presence of) + tugchano (root means to become ready; to hit, meet, happen, obtain, chance, perhaps; properly, to hit the mark or be spot on; the opposite of the Greek word for sin hamartano, which literally means to miss the mark); {perhaps from tucho (to make ready, bring about)}.  This is to happen by chance, to come upon, meet with.

18 Also some EpicureanCXIX and StoicCXX philosophersCXXI

Notes on verse 18a

CXIX “Epicurean” = Epikoureios. 1x in NT. From Epikoureios (Epikoureios); from epikouros (assisting, defending); {from epi (on, upon, among, what is fitting) + kers (maybe akin to Latin curro (to run))}. This is Epicurean – a follower of Epicurus. See
CXX “Stoic” = Stoikos. Related to “rise” in v3 & “attacked” in v5 & “turning…upside down” in v6 & “sent…away” in v14 & “conducted” in v15. 1x in NT. From Stoikos (Stoic); from stoa (a portico, colonnade, or piazza); probably from histemi (see note XXI above). This is Stoic – someone who spends time at the Stoic’s porch in Athens.
CXXI “philosophers” = philosophos. 1x in NT. From philos (dear, beloved, a friend, an associate; friendship with personal affection, a trusted confidante; love from personal experience with another person) + sophos (wise, clever, skilled, learned, cultivated); related to saphes (clear). This is a philosopher – one who loves wisdom. It is where “philosopher” comes from.

debatedCXXII with him. Some said, “What does this pretentious babblerCXXIII wantCXXIV to say?”

Notes on verse 18b

CXXII “debated” = sumballo. 6x in NT. From sun (with, together with, joined closely) + ballo (to throw, cast, rush, place, put, drop; to throw in a more or less intense/violent way). This is properly to throw together. So, it can mean happening upon someone or something with or without hostile motives. In the sense of combining, it can mean to speak, consult, or dispute. Mentally, it can mean to consider something as throwing multiple ideas together to ponder and weigh them. It can imply coming to someone’s aid, joining them, or attacking.
CXXIII “babbler” = spermologos. Related to “argued” in v2 & “saying” in v7 & “message” in v11. 1x in NT. From sperma (something sown so it could be seed or offspring and descendants); {from speiro (to sow seed, spread, scatter); perhaps from spao (to pull, to draw a sword)} + lego (see note XIV above). This is one who picks seeds like a bird. It could be a gossiper, a loafer, a sponger.
CXXIV “want” = thelo. This is to wish, desire, will, or intend. It is to choose or prefer in a literal or figurative sense. It can also mean inclined toward or take delight in. It can have a sense of being ready to act on the impulse in question.

OthersCXXV said, “He seemsCXXVI to be a proclaimerCXXVII

Notes on verse 18c

CXXV “others” = ho. Literally, “the [ones].”
CXXVI “seems” = dokeo. Related to “decrees” in v7. See note LIX above.
CXXVII “proclaimer” = kataggeleus. Related to “synagogue” in v1 & “proclaiming” in v3 & “bring…out” in v5 & “brought” in v15. 1x in NT. From kataggello (see note XXIV above). This is a reporter or herald – one who sets forth.

of foreignCXXVIII divinities.”CXXIX (This was because he was telling the good newsCXXX about Jesus and the resurrection.)CXXXI 

Notes on verse 18d

CXXVIII “foreign” = xenos. 14x in NT– including 5x in Matthew 25 of the judgment of the nations “I was a stranger and you welcomed me.” This is foreign or foreigner, an alien or guest. It could also be something new, novel, or strange. This is where the word “xenophobia” comes from.
CXXIX “divinities” = daimonion. From daimon (evil spirit, demon, fallen angel); perhaps from daio (giving out destinies). This is demon, evil spirit, god of another religion, or fallen angel.
CXXX “was telling the good news” = euaggelizo. Related to “synagogue” in v1 & “proclaiming” in v3 & “bring…out” in v5 & “brought” in v15 & “proclaimer” in v18 & to “that very” in v10 & “more receptive” in v11 & “high standing” in v12. From eu (see note LXXI above) + aggelos (see note XXIV above). This is evangelize – literally to preach the good news. It can be those who hear the news, the news, or a way to say gospel.
CXXXI “resurrection” = anastasis. Related to “rise” in v3 & “attacked” in v5 & “turning…upside down” in v6 & “sent…away” in v14 & “conducted” in v15 & “Stoic” in v18. From anistemi (see note XXI above). This is literally standing up or standing again. It is used figuratively for recovering a spiritual truth. It can be raising up, rising, or resurrection.

19 So they tookCXXXII him and broughtCXXXIII him to the AreopagusCXXXIV

Notes on verse 19a

CXXXII “took” = epilambanomai. Related to “with the help” in v5 & “taken” in v9. 19x in NT. From epi (on, upon, against, what is fitting) + lambano (see note XXXVII above). This is to take hold of, catch, or seize. It can also mean to help. It focuses on the intentionality and resolve of the one doing the catching.
CXXXIII “brought” = ago. Same as “brought” in v15. See note CIV above.
CXXXIV “Areopagus” = Areios pagos. 2x in NT. From ares (Ares, Greek god of war; also called Mars); {from Ionic are (bane, ruin) OR from aros (use, profit, help)} + pagos (hill, mountain peak, frost); {perhaps from pegnumi (to build, fasten, fix)}. This is Areopagus, literally “the Hill of Ares” or “Mars’ Hill.” See

and askedCXXXV him, “MayCXXXVI we knowCXXXVII what this newCXXXVIII teachingCXXXIX is that you are presenting?CXL 

Notes on verse 19b

CXXXV “asked” = lego. Same as “saying” in v7. See note LXI above.
CXXXVI “may” = dunamai. This is to be able, or something that is possible. It can also be empowered or being powerful. The Greek word for “miracle” (dunamis) comes from this root.
CXXXVII “know” = ginosko. Same as “learned” in v13. See note XC above.
CXXXVIII “new” = kainos. This is not new as in new versus old. This is new in the sense of novel, innovative, or fresh.
CXXXIX “teaching” = didache. From didasko (to teach, direct, instruct, or impart knowledge; in the New Testament, almost always used for teaching scripture); from dao (to learn). This is teaching or doctrine.
CXL “presenting” = laleo. From lalos (talkative). This is to talk, say, or preach.

20 It soundsCXLI rather strangeCXLII to us, so we would likeCXLIII to know what it means.”CXLIV 

Notes on verse 20

CXLI “sounds” = eisphero + eis + ho + akoe + ego. Literally, “you are bringing to our ears.” Eisphero is 8x in NT. From eis (to, into, for, among) + phero (to bear, bring, lead, make known publicly; to carry in a literal or figurative sense)}. This is to carry in, lead into, or announce. It can be literal or figurative. Akoe is related to “heard” in v8. From akouo (see note LXVI above). This is hearing, ear, audience, fame, report, rumor.
CXLII “strange” = xenizo. Related to “foreign” in v18. 10x in NT. From xenos (see note CXXVIII above). This is to receive as a guest or act as a host – to give or receive lodging. It could also be surprise, bewilder, or entertain. Also, it can be to think something it strange.
CXLIII “would like” = boulomai. This is to wish, desire, intend. Also, to plan with great determination.
CXLIV “means” = thelo + houtos + eimi. Literally, “these things wish to be.” Thelo is the same as “want” in v18. See note CXXIV above. Eimi is the same as “was” in v1. See note VI above.

21 Now all the AtheniansCXLV and the foreignersCXLVI living thereCXLVII

Notes on verse 21a

CXLV “Athenians” = Athenaios. Related to “Athens” in v15. 2x in NT. From Athenai (see note CV above). This is Athenian.
CXLVI “foreigners” = xenos. Same as “foreign” in v18. See note CXXVIII above.
CXLVII “living there” = epidemeo. Related to “was necessary” in v3 & “assembly” in v5. 2x in NT. From epi (on, upon, among, what is fitting) + demos (see note XLIV above). This is to be at home, visit a foreign place on a temporary basis, stranger.

would spend their timeCXLVIII in nothing butCXLIX tellingCL or hearing something new.

Notes on verse 21b

CXLVIII “spend…time” = eukaireo. Related to “that very” in v10 & “more receptive” in v11 & “high standing” in v12 & “was telling the good news” in v18. 3x in NT. From eukairos (timely, suitable, strategic, well-timed, opportune, festival); {from eu (see note LXXI above) + kairos (season, opportunity, occasion; spiritually significant time – the right time or appointed time)}. This is to have a good opportunity, to spend free time at something, to have a good time.
CXLIX {untranslated} = heteros. Same as “another” in v7. See note LXII above.
CL “telling” = lego. Same as “saying” in v7. See note LXI above.

22 Then Paul stoodCLI in front of the Areopagus and said,CLIICLIIIAthenians, I see how extremely spiritualCLIV you are in every way.CLV 

Notes on verse 22

CLI “stood” = histemi. Related to “rise” in v3 & “attacked” in v5 & “turning…upside down” in v6 & “sent…away” in v14 & “conducted” in v15 & “Stoic” and “resurrection” in v18. See note XXI above.
CLII “said” = phemi. From phao (to shine). This is to declare, say, or use contrasts in speaking to shed light on one point of view.
CLIII {untranslated} = aner. Same as “ruffians in the marketplaces” in v5. See note XXXVIII above.
CLIV “extremely spiritual” = deisidaimonesteros. Related to “divinities” in v18. 1x in NT. From deisidaimon (fearing the gods); {from deido (to fear) + daimon (see note CXXIX above)}. This is literally fearing the gods or respecting the spiritual world. So, it is religious, devout, or superstitious.
CLV “every way” = pas. Same as “all” in v7. See note LVII above.

23 For as I went throughCLVI the city and looked carefullyCLVII at the objects of your worship,CLVIII

Notes on verse 23a

CLVI “went through” = dierchomai. Related to “came” in v1 & “went in” in v2. From dia (through, across to the other side, thoroughly) + erchomai (see note IV above). This is to go through, come, depart, pierce, travel, traverse.
CLVII “looked carefully” = anatheoreo. Related to “see” in v16. 2x in NT. From ana (up, again, back, among, anew) + theoreo (see note CXIII above). This is to gaze at, examine, behold with care or attention. This is to thoroughly consider, dote, pay attention to grasp something more fully.
CLVIII “objects of…worship” = sebasma. Related to “devout” in v4. 2x in NT. From sebazomai (to fear, be in awe, worship, adore); from sebo (see note XXX above). This is object worship or devotion. For example, it could refer to a god or an altar.

I found among them an altarCLIX with the inscription,CLX ‘To an unknownCLXI

Notes on verse 23b

CLIX “altar” = bomos. Related to “king” in v7. 1x in NT. From the same as basis (see note LXIII above). This is a place that is elevated, a stand. It can be a platform or an altar.
CLX “inscription” = epigrapho. Related to “scriptures” in v2. 5x in NT. From epi (on, upon, to, against, what is fitting) + grapho (see note XV above). This is to write on, inscribe, read. It can be a literal inscription or a mental one.
CLXI “unknown” = agnostos. Related to “learned” in v13. 1x in NT. From a (not, without) + ginosko (see note XC above). This is unknown or unknowable.

god.’CLXII What therefore you worshipCLXIII as unknown,CLXIV this I proclaim to you. 

Notes on verse 23c

CLXII “god” = theos. Same as “God” in v13. See note XCII above.
CLXIII “worship” = eusebeo. Related to “devout” in v4 & “objects of…worship” in v23 & to “that very” in v10 & “more receptive” in v11 & “high standing” in v12 & “was telling the good news” in v18 & “spend…time” in v21. 2x in NT. From eusebes (pious, devout, God-fearing, respectful); {from eu (see note LXXI above) + sebo (see note XXX above)}. This is to worship, be pious, revere, be dutiful. It can be following duty to one’s parents as respecting or supporting. It can be duty towards God as piety or devotion.
CLXIV “unknown” = agnoeo. Related to “learned” in v13 & “unknown” in v23. From a (not) + noieo (to perceive, think, understand); {from nous (mind, understanding, reasoning faculty, intellect, capacity to reflect); from noos (mind); probably from the base as ginosko (see note XC above)}. This is unaware not to know. Sometimes it is willful ignorance, but other times it is simply not knowing.

24 The God who madeCLXV the worldCLXVI and everythingCLXVII in it,

Notes on verse 24a

CLXV “made” = poieo. Related to “formed a mob” in v5. See note XXXIX above.
CLXVI “world” = kosmos. Perhaps from the base of komizo (to carry, convey, recover); from komeo (to take care of). This is order, the world, the universe, including its inhabitants. Literally, this is something that is ordered so it can refer to all creation. It can also refer to decoration in the sense that something is better ordered and, thus, made more beautiful. This is where “cosmos” and “cosmetics” come from.
CLXVII “everything” = pas. Same as “all” in v7. See note LVII above.

he who isCLXVIII LordCLXIX of heavenCLXX and earth,CLXXI

Notes on verse 24b

CLXVIII “is” = huparcho. Related to “city authorities” in v6. From hupo (by, under, about, subordinate to) + archo (see note LI above). This is to begin or be ready, to exist or possess. It is what one already has or possesses.
CLXIX “Lord” = Kurios. From kuros (authority, supremacy). This is a respectful address meaning master or sir. It refers to one who has control or power greater than one’s own. So, it was also applied to God and Jesus as Master or Lord.
CLXX “heaven” = ouranos. Related to “dragged” in v6. May be related to oros (mountain, hill); probably related to airo (see note XLIX above). This is the air, the sky, the atmosphere, and heaven. It is the sky that is visible and the spiritual heaven where God dwells. Heaven implies happiness, power, and eternity.
CLXXI “earth” = ge. This is earth, land, soil, region, country, the inhabitants of an area.

does not liveCLXXII in shrinesCLXXIII made by human hands,CLXXIV 

Notes on verse 24c

CLXXII “live” = katoikeo. Related to “house” in v5 & “world” in v6. From kata (down, against, throughout, among) + oikeo (see note LIII above). This is to live or settle on a permanent basis.
CLXXIII “shrines” = naos. From naio (to dwell, inhabit). This is a place for God (or a god) to live – a sanctuary, shrine, or temple. It is a place for God or a god to manifest. For the Jewish Temple, it is used of the Temple itself and the two inner chambers.
CLXXIV “made by human hands” = cheiropoietos. Related to “formed a mob” in v5 & “made” in v24. 6x in NT. From cheir (hand in a literal sense; figuratively, the means a person uses to accomplish things so it can mean power, means, or instrument); {perhaps from cheimon (winter, storm – winter as the rainy season); related to the base of chasma (chasm, gap, gulf); from chasko (to yawn)} + poieo (see note XXXIX above). This is literally made by hand, i.e. artificial. It can also mean to perform.

25 nor is he servedCLXXV by humanCLXXVI hands,CLXXVII

Notes on verse 25a

CLXXV “served” = therapeuo. From therapon (servant, attendant, minister); perhaps from theros (properly heat and so used for summer); from thero (to heat). This is to serve, care, attend, heal, or cure. Since it means to attend to, it can be used for doctors, but also for those who serve God. So, it can mean worship. This is where the word “therapy” comes from.
CLXXVI “human” = anthropinos. Related to “ruffians in the marketplaces” in v5. 7x in NT. From anthropos (human, humankind; used for all genders); {probably from aner (see note XXXVIII above) + ops (eye, face)}. This is human, in human terms, belonging to humans. It is used to contrast human and vine things.
CLXXVII “hands” = cheir. Related to “made by human hands” in v24. See note CLXXIV above.

as though he neededCLXXVIII anything, since he himself givesCLXXIX to all mortals lifeCLXXX and breathCLXXXI and all things. 

Notes on verse 25b

CLXXVIII “needed” = prosdeomai. Related to “was necessary” in v3 & “assembly” in v5 & “living there” in v21. 1x in NT. From pros (at, to, toward, with) + deomai (having an urgent need because one is missing or needing something so it is an earnest appeal or pressing request); {from deo (see note XVIII above)}. This is to need, to want more.
CLXXIX “gives” = didomi. To give, offer, place, bestow, deliver. This is give in a literal or figurative sense.
CLXXX “life” = zoe. From zao (to live, be alive). This is life including the vitality of humans, plants, and animals – it is life physical and spiritual and life everlasting.
CLXXXI “breath” = pnoe. Related to “was deeply distressed” in v16. 2x in NT. From pneo (see note CXII above). This is blowing, breath, wind, or breeze.

26 From oneCLXXXII ancestor he madeCLXXXIII allCLXXXIV peoplesCLXXXV

Notes on verse 26a

CLXXXII “one” = heis. This is one, a person, only, some.
CLXXXIII “made” = poieo. Same as “made” in v24. See note CLXV above.
CLXXXIV {untranslated} = ethnos. Related to “custom” in v2. Probably from etho (see note XI above). This is people who are united by having similar customs or culture. Generally, it is used to refer to Gentiles. This is a tribe, race, nation, or Gentiles in general. This is where the term “ethnicity” comes from.
CLXXXV “peoples” = anthropos. Related to “ruffians in the marketplaces” in v5 & “human” in v25 & to “human” in v25. See note CLXXVI above.

to inhabitCLXXXVI the wholeCLXXXVII, CLXXXVIII earth, and he allottedCLXXXIX

Notes on verse 26b

CLXXXVI “inhabit” = katoikeo. Same as “live” in v24. See note CLXXII above.
CLXXXVII “whole” = pas. Same as “all” in v7. See note LVII above.
CLXXXVIII {untranslated} = prosopon. Related to “human” in v25 & “peoples” in v26. From pros (at, towards, with) + ops (see note CLXXVI above). This is the face, surface, or front. It can imply presence more generally.
CLXXXIX “allotted” = horizo. 8x in NT. From the same as horion (boundary, territory); from horos (limit, boundary). This is to determine, set boundaries, appoint, designate, pre-determined. Literally, this is setting horizons.

the timesCXC of their existenceCXCI and the boundariesCXCII of the places where they would live,CXCIII 

Notes on verse 26c

CXC “times” = kairos. Related to “spend…time” in v21. See note CXLVIII above.
CXCI “existence” = prostasso. 7x in NT. From pros (at, to, toward, with) + tasso (to arrange, appoint, determine). This is to allot, place, appoint, or instruct. This is allotting with a focus on the one who is making the allotment decisions. Figuratively, this can also mean to enjoin.
CXCII “boundaries” = horothesia. Related to “proving” in v3 & “that very” in v10 & to “allotted” in v26. 1x in NT. From the same as horion (see note CLXXXIX above) + tithemi (see note XVII above). This is setting limits or boundaries ahead of time or a concrete boundary line.
CXCIII “places where…live” = katoikia. Related to “house” in v5 & “world” in v6 & “live” in v24. 1x in NT. From kata (down, against, according to, throughout, among, daily) + oikos (see note XLVII above). This is dwelling or settlement. It is the act of settling or the place of settlement itself.

27 so that they would search for God and perhapsCXCIV fumble aboutCXCV for him and find him—though indeed he isCXCVI not farCXCVII from eachCXCVIII one of us. 

Notes on verse 27

CXCIV “perhaps” = ara. Related to “dragged” in v6 & “heaven” in v24. 18x in NT. From ara (then, since); {perhaps related to aro (to join) or from airo (see note XLIX above)}. This is a word that cannot be translated. However, it implies a question made from one who is worried or impatient. It can also be surprise or an urgent need for an answer.
CXCV “fumble about” = pselaphao. 4x in NT. Probably from psallo (to twang, play, sing psalms, pluck a stringed instrument such as a harp); {from psao (to rub)} + hapha (to handle). This is to touch, feel, or grope about. It is a light touch to explore, discover, or confirm something with physical contact. It can also figuratively mean search for.
CXCVI “is” = huparcho. Same as “is” in v24. See note CLXVIII above.
CXCVII “far” = makran. 9x in NT. From makros (long, long lasting); from mekos (length); probably related to megas (great or large). This is far off, remote, far away in a literal or figurative sense.
CXCVIII “each” = hekastos. Perhaps from hekas (separate). This is each one, any, every. It is every individual as a distinct entity as opposed to those counted as a group in small sets.

28 For ‘In him we liveCXCIX and moveCC and have our being’;CCI

Notes on verse 28a

CXCIX “live” = zao. Related to “life” in v25. See note CLXXX above.
CC “move” = kineo. Related to “went” in v10 & “left” in v15. 8x in NT. Perhaps from kio (to be, go); from eimi (see note LXXVI above). This is to move, excite, or provoke. It is to stir in a literal or figurative sense. This is where the word “kinetic” comes from.
CCI “have our being” = eimi. Same as “was” in v1. See note VI above.

as even some of your own poetsCCII have said,CCIII

‘For we, too, are his offspring.’CCIV

Notes on verse 28b

CCII “poets” = poietes. Related to “formed a mob” in v5 & “made” and “made by human hands” in v24. 6x in NT. From poieo (see note XXXIX above). This is a maker or doer. It can also mean poet, author, or performer. This is where the word “poet” comes from.
CCIII “said” = ereo. Perhaps from rheo (to say, speak of, command). This is to say, tell, speak, mean, command.
CCIV “offspring” = genos. Related to “women” in v4 & “arrived” in v10 & “more receptive” in v11. From ginomai (see note XXXIV above). This is family, offspring, kin – in a literal or figurative sense.

29 “Since we areCCV God’s offspring, we oughtCCVI not to thinkCCVII

Notes on verse 29a

CCV “are” = huparcho. Same as “is” in v24. See note CLXVIII above.
CCVI “ought” = opheilo. Perhaps from the base of ophelos (advantage, gain, profit); from ophello (heaped together, accumulate, increase). This is to be indebted morally or legally – having an obligation one must meet. This term came from the legal world, but was then adopted in reference to morality. In the New Testament it is used for humanity’s ethical responsibility.
CCVII “think” = nomizo. 15x in NT. From nomos (what is assigned – usage, law, custom, principle; used for the law in general or of God’s law; sometimes used to refer to the first five books of the Bible or the entire Old Testament; also used to refer to theology or the practice and tradition of interpreting and implementing the law of God); from nemo (to parcel out, assign). This is to practice, think, consider, suppose, hold by custom. This is thinking that something applies given precedent and practice – to do by law.

that the deityCCVIII is likeCCIX goldCCX or silverCCXI or stone,CCXII

Notes on verse 29b

CCVIII “deity” = theios. Related to “God” in v13 & “Timothy” in v14. 3x in NT. From theos (see note XCII above). This is the deity or divine, godlike.
CCIX “like” = homoios. From the same as homou (together); from homos (the same). This is similar to, resembling, like.
CCX “gold” = chrusos. 10x in NT. Perhaps from chraomai (to use, make use of, give what is needed, act in a specific way, request). This is gold or something made of gold. It is symbolic of purchasing power.
CCXI “silver” = arguros. 5x in NT. From argos (shining). This is silver, whether the metal itself or things made from silver.
CCXII “stone” = lithos. This is stone in a literal or figurative sense.

an image formedCCXIII by the artCCXIV and imaginationCCXV of mortals.CCXVI 

Notes on verse 29c

CCXIII “image formed” = charagma. 8x in NT. From charasso (to engrave or sharpen) OR from the same as charax (pointed stake, barricade, rampart, trench); from charasso (see above). This is an engraving, stamp, sculpture, or brand mark. It is a mark that shows ownership identification or the mark on a coin or seal.
CCXIV “art” = techne. Related to “Timothy” in v14. 3x in NT. From tekton (craftsman; particularly one who works with wood); from the base of timoria (penalty, punishment, vengeance); from timoreo (to punish, protect honor); {perhaps from time (see note CI above)} + the base of tikto (to produce, bring forth, beget). This is art, craft, skill, or trade.
CCXV “imagination” = enthumesis. Related to “very eagerly” in v11. 4x in NT. From enthumeomai (to think, reflect on, ponder, meditate on; also, passionate mindset, inspirited, moved by a strong impulse); {from en (in, on, at, by, with) + thumos (see note LXXX above)}. This is pondering, thoughts, reflection, or deliberation. It focuses on a passionate impulse that impels the thought process.
CCXVI “mortals” = anthropos. Same as “peoples” in v26. See note CLXXXV above.

30 While God has overlookedCCXVII the timesCCXVIII of human ignorance,CCXIX

Notes on verse 30a

CCXVII “overlooked” = hupereidon. Related to “full of idols” in v16. 1x in NT. From huper (by, under, over, above, under the authority of another) + eidos (see note CXIV above). This is to disregard, not notice, wink at.
CCXVIII “times” = chronos. Time in the chronological sense, quantitative time or a duration of time.
CCXIX “ignorance” = agnoia. Related to “learned” in v13 & “unknown” and “unknown” in v23. 4x in NT. From agnoeo (see note CLXIV above). This is ignorance, whether inadvertent or willful blindness.

now he commandsCCXX all peopleCCXXI everywhereCCXXII to repent,CCXXIII 

Notes on verse 30b

CCXX “commands” = paraggello. Related to “synagogue” in v1 & “proclaiming” in v3 & “bring…out” in v5 & “brought” in v15 & “proclaimer” and “was telling the good news” in v18. From para (from beside, by) + aggello (see note XXIV above). This is to send a message, order, notify, command. It is a charge – a proper command as a military term that has followed proper channels. It can also mean to entreat solemnly.
CCXXI “people” = anthropos. Same as “peoples” in v26. See note CLXXXV above.
CCXXII “everywhere” = pantachou. Related to “all” in v7. 8x in NT. From pas (see LVII above). This is in all places.
CCXXIII “repent” = metanoeo. Related to “learned” in v13 & “unknown” and “unknown” in v23 & “ignorance” in v30. From meta (with, among, after, beyond) + noieo (see note CLXIV above). This is to change how one thinks, to reconsider, to repent. It refers to a change of thinking, which means a change of purpose and behavior.

31 because he has fixedCCXXIV a day on which he will haveCCXXV the worldCCXXVI

Notes on verse 31a

CCXXIV “fixed” = histemi. Same as “stood” in v22. See note CLI above.
CCXXV “will have” = mello. Perhaps from melo (something that one is worried or concerned about, something one pays attention to or thinks about). Properly, this is ready, about to happen, to intend, delay, or linger. This is just on the point of acting.
CCXXVI “world” = oikoumene. Same as “world” in v6. See note LIII above.

judgedCCXXVII in righteousnessCCXXVIII by a man whom he has appointed,CCXXIX

Notes on verse 31b

CCXXVII “judged” = krino. Related to “examined” in v11. See note LXXXI above.
CCXXVIII “righteousness” = dikaiosune. From dikaios (correct, righteous – implies innocent; this is that which conforms to God’s notion of justice, uprightness); from dike (the principle of justice; that which is right in a way that is very clear; a decision or the execution of that decision; originally, this word was for custom or usage; evolved to include the process of law, judicial hearing, execution of sentence, penalty, and even vengeance; more commonly, it refers to what is right); may be from deiknumi (to show, point out, exhibit; figurative for teach, demonstrate, make known). This is judicial or divine approval of character or action. This is righteousness, justice, justness, divine righteousness.
CCXXIX “appointed” = horizo. Same as “allotted” in v26. See note CLXXXIX above.

and of this he has givenCCXXX assuranceCCXXXI to all by raisingCCXXXII him from the dead.”

Notes on verse 31c

CCXXX “given” = parecho. Related to “formed a mob” in v5 & “people” in v8 & “were” in v11 & “high standing” in v12. 16x in NT– including Luke 6:29: “if anyone strikes you on the cheek, offer the other also.” From para (beside, by, in the presence of) + echo (see note XXXIX above). This is present, to show, bring, give, offer to hold near.
CCXXXI “assurance” = pistis. Related to “were persuaded” in v4 & “believed” in v12. See note LXXXVI above.
CCXXXII “raising” = anistemi. Same as “rise” in v3. See note XXI above.

32 When they heard of the resurrection of the dead, someCCXXXIII scoffed,CCXXXIV but othersCCXXXV said, “We will hear you again about this.” 

33 At that point Paul leftCCXXXVI them. 34 But some of themCCXXXVII joinedCCXXXVIII him

Notes on verses 32-34a

CCXXXIII {untranslated} = men. Same as {untranslated} in v12. See note LXXXV above.
CCXXXIV “scoffed” = chleuazo. 2x in NT – both in Acts. From chleue (joke) OR related to cheilos (lip, mouth, shore, language). This is to scoff, joke, sneer, ridicule, mock.
CCXXXV “others” = ho. Literally, “the [ones].”
CCXXXVI “left” = exerchomai. Related to “came” in v1 & “went in” in v2 & “went through” in v23. From ek (from, from out of) + erchomai (see note IX above). This is to go out, depart, escape, proceed from, spread news abroad.
CCXXXVII “them” = aner. Same as “ruffians in the marketplaces” in v5. See note XXXVIII above.
CCXXXVIII “joined” = kollao. 12x in NT. From kolla (glue). This is to glue together. So it is joining, spending time with, or being intimately connected to. It can be used for marriage, joining the church, clinging, or adhering to something. It was also used medically for uniting wounds.

and became believers,CCXXXIX including DionysiusCCXL the AreopagiteCCXLI and a woman namedCCXLII DamarisCCXLIII and othersCCXLIV with them.

Notes on verse 34b

CCXXXIX “became believers” = pisteuo. Same as “believed” in v12. See note LXXXVI above.
CCXL “Dionysius” = Dionusios. 1x in NT. From Dionusos (Dionysus, Greek god of revelry); from Mycenaean Greek dio-wo-nu-so (Dionysus); {from di-wo (Zeus) + nusos (perhaps related to Mount Nysa) or nusa (tree) or Thracian nuse (nymph) or nusos (son)}. This is Dionysius, meaning “reveler” or “belonging to the light of the tree.” See &
CCXLI “Areopagite” = Areopagites. Related to “Areopagus” in v19. 1x in NT. From Areios Pagos (see note CXXXIV above). This is Areopagite, which would refer to a member of the court at Areopagus or Mars’ Hill.
CCXLII “named” = onoma. Related to “learned” in v13 & “unknown” and “unknown” in v23 & “ignorance” and “repent” in v30. May be from ginosko (see note XC above). This is a name, authority, cause, character, fame, reputation. The name was thought to include something of the essence of the person so it was not thought to be separate from the person.
CCXLIII “Damaris” = Damaris. 1x in NT. From damar (wife) OR from damazo (to tame, subdue). This is Damaris, meaning “gentle” or “wife” or “domesticated.”
CCXLIV “others” = heteros. Same as “another” in v7. See note LXII above.

Image credit: Ivory plaque of Saint Paul from the Byzantine East, 6th or early 7th century.

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