Acts 17:16-31

Acts 17:16-31
Narrative Lectionary 443


16 While PaulI was waiting forII them in Athens,III he was deeply distressedIV

Notes on verse 16a

I “Paul” = Paulos. From Latin Paulus (small, little). This is Paul or Paulos, meaning little.
II “waiting for” = ekdechomai. 7x in NT. From ek (from, from out of) + dechomai (to warmly receive, be ready for what is offered, take, accept, or welcome; to receive in a literal or figurative sense)}. This is to take or receive, expect, await; to welcome someone from your heart; focusing on the goal of waiting or the outcome.
III “Athens” = Athenai. 4x in NT. From Athene (Athena; Greek goddess of wisdom). This is Athens, said to be founded by Athena.
IV “was deeply distressed” = paroxuno + ho + pneuma + autos + en + autos. Literally, “his spirit was provoked in him.” Paroxuno is 2x in NT. From para (from beside, by, close alongside) + oxuno  (to sharpen) or oxus (sharp edge, swift, eager, rapid); {from akmen (even now, still yet); from the same as akmazo (ripe, to be vigorous); from akme (point, edge); related to ake (a point)}}. This is to sharpen. In a figurative sense, it is to stimulate, provoke, anger, irritate. This is to cult close to, to jab someone to get their emotions up so that they will act. Figuratively, it can mean to exasperate someone. Pneuma is from pneo (to blow, breathe, breathe hard). This is wind, breath, or ghost. A breeze or a blast or air, a breath. Figuratively used for a spirit, the human soul or part of us that is rational. It is also used supernaturally for angels, demons, God, and the Holy Spirit. This is where pneumonia comes from.

to seeV that the cityVI wasVII full of idols.VIII 

Notes on verse 16b

V “see” = theoreo. From theaomai (to behold, look upon, see, contemplate, visit); from thaomai (to gaze at a spectacle; to look at or contemplate as a spectator; to interpret something in efforts to grasp its significance); from theoros (a spectator or envoy). This is gazing, beholding, experiencing, discerning. It is looking at something to analyze it and concentrate on what it means. This is the root of the word “theatre” in that people concentrate on the action of the play to understand its meaning.
VI “city” = polis. This is a city or its inhabitants. It is a town of variable size, but one that has walls. This is where “metropolis” and “police” come from.
VII “was” = eimi. This is to be or exist.
VIII “full of idols” = kateidolos. 1x in NT. From kata (down, against, throughout, among) + eidolon (image, idol, worship or an idol); {from eidos (form, shape, sight, appearance); from eido (to be aware, see, know, remember, appreciate)}. This is full of idols or thoroughly committed to idolatry.

17 So he arguedIX, X in the synagogueXI with the JewsXII and the devout persons,XIII

Notes on verse 17a

IX “argued” = dialegomai. 13x in NT. From dia (through, across to the other side, thoroughly) + lego (to speak, tell, mention)}. This is to discuss, preach, reason, argue, address, lecture.
X {untranslated} = men. This is truly, indeed, even, in fact. Often, it is not translated, but used to emphasize affirmation.
XI “synagogue” = sunagoge. From sun (with, together with, closely associated) + ago (to lead, bring, carry, guide, go, drive). Literally, this is a bringing together, a place of assembly. The term can be used for the people or for the place where they assemble. It is also sometimes used of Christian churches in the New Testament. So, this is synagogue, assembly, congregation, or church. This is where the word “synagogue” comes from.
XII “Jews” = Ioudaios. From Ioudas (Judah, Judas); from Hebrew Yehudah (Judah, son of Jacob, his tribal descendants, a name for the southern kingdom. Literally, it means praised); probably from yadah (to throw one’s hands into the air in a gesture of praise); from yad (hand). This is Jewish, a Jew, or Judea.
XIII “devout persons” = sebo. 10x in NT. This is to worship, revere, adore, be devout. Properly this is personally placing a high value on someone or something, showing respect.

and also in the marketplaceXIV everyXV dayXVI with those who happened to be there.XVII 

Notes on verse 17b

XIV “marketplace” = agora. 11x in NT. From ageiro (to gather). This is assembly, forum, marketplace, town square, thoroughfare. This is where “agoraphobia” comes from.
XV “every” = pas. This is all or every.
XVI “day” = hemera. Perhaps from hemai (to sit). This is day, time, or daybreak.
XVII “happened to be there” = paratugchano. 1x in NT. From para (beside, by, in the presence of) + tugchano (root means to become ready; to hit, meet, happen, obtain, chance, perhaps; properly, to hit the mark or be spot on; the opposite of the Greek word for sin hamartano, which literally means to miss the mark); {perhaps from tucho (to make ready, bring about)}.  This is to happen by chance, to come upon, meet with.

18 Also some EpicureanXVIII and StoicXIX philosophersXX debatedXXI with him.

Notes on verse 18a

XVIII “Epicurean” = Epikoureios. 1x in NT. From Epikoureios (Epikoureios); from epikouros (assisting, defending); {from epi (on, upon, among, what is fitting) + kers (maybe akin to Latin curro (to run)}. This is Epicurean – a follower of Epicurus. See
XIX “Stoic” = Stoikos. 1x in NT. From Stoikos (Stoic); from stoa (a portico, colonnade, or piazza); probably from histemi (to stand, place, set up, establish, stand firm). This is Stoic – someone who spends time at the Stoic’s porch in Athens.
XX “philosopher’s” = philosophos. 1x in NT. From philos (dear, beloved, a friend, an associate; friendship with personal affection, a trusted confidante; love from personal experience with another person) + sophos (wise, clever, skilled, learned, cultivated); related to saphes (clear). This is a philosopher – one who loves wisdom. It is where “philosopher” comes from.
XXI “debated” = sumballo. 6x in NT. From sun (with, together with, joined closely) + ballo (to throw, cast, rush, place, put, drop; to throw in a more or less intense/violent way). This is properly to throw together. So, it can mean happening upon someone or something with or without hostile motives. In the sense of combining, it can mean to speak, consult, or dispute. Mentally, it can mean to consider something as throwing multiple ideas together to ponder and weigh them. It can imply coming to someone’s aid, joining them, or attacking.

Some said, “What does this babblerXXII wantXXIII to say?”XXIV

Notes on verse 18b

XXII “babbler” = spermologos. Related to “argued” in v17. 1x in NT. From sperma (something sown so it could be seed or offspring and descendants); {from speiro (to sow seed, spread, scatter); perhaps from spao (to pull, to draw a sword)} + lego (see note IX above). This is one who picks seeds like a bird. It could be a gossiper, a loafer, a sponger.
XXIII “want” = thelo. This is to wish, desire, will, or intend. It is to choose or prefer in a literal or figurative sense. It can also mean inclined toward or take delight in. It can have a sense of being ready to act on the impulse in question.
XXIV “say” = lego. Related to “argued” in v17 & “babbler” in v18. See note IX above.

Others said, “He seemsXXV to be a proclaimerXXVI of foreignXXVII divinities.”XXVIII

Notes on verse 18c

XXV “seems” = dokeo. From dokos (opinion). This is to have an opinion, seem, appear, think, suppose. It deals with a personal judgment. This is the root of the word “doxology.”
XXVI “proclaimer” = kataggeleus. Related to “synagogue” in v17. 1x in NT. From kataggello (to proclaim openly and confidently a very specific message; to celebrate, preach, or teach); {from kata (down, against, according to, throughout, among, daily) + aggello (to announce, report) {from aggelos (angel, messenger – supernatural or human envoy of God); probably from ago (see note XI above)}}. This is a reporter or herald – one who sets forth.
XXVII “foreign” = xenos. 14x in NT– including 5x in Matthew 25 of the judgment of the nations “I was a stranger and you welcomed me.” This is foreign or foreigner, an alien or guest. It could also be something new, novel, or strange. This is where the word “xenophobia” comes from.
XXVIII “divinities” = daimonion. From daimon (evil spirit, demon, fallen angel); perhaps from daio (giving out destinies). This is demon, evil spirit, god of another religion, or fallen angel.

(This was because he was telling the good newsXXIX about JesusXXX and the resurrection.)XXXI 

Notes on verse 18d

XXIX “was telling the good news” = euaggelizo. Related to “synagogue” in v17 & “proclaimer” in v18. From eu (well, good, rightly) + aggelos (angel, messenger; a messenger from God bringing news – whether a prophet or an angel) {from aggellos (to bring tidings); probably from ago (see note XI above)}. This is evangelize – literally to preach the good news. It can be those who hear the news, the news, or a way to say gospel.
XXX “Jesus” = Iesous. From Hebrew Yehoshua (Joshua, the Lord is salvation); {from YHVH (proper name of the God of Israel; the self-existent and eternal one); {from havah (to become) or from hayah (to come to pass, become, be)} + yasha (to deliver, defend, help, preserve, rescue; properly, to be open, wide or free, which implies being safe. So, in a causative sense, this is to free someone)}. This is Jesus or Joshua in Greek – the Lord saves or the Lord is salvation.
XXXI “resurrection” = anastasis. Related to “Stoic” in v18. From anistemi (to raise up, rise, appear; to stand up literally or figuratively. Can also mean to resurrect); from ana (upwards, up, again, back, anew) + histemi (see note XIX above). This is literally standing up or standing again. It is used figuratively for recovering a spiritual truth. It can be raising up, rising, or resurrection.

19 So they tookXXXII him and broughtXXXIII him to the AreopagusXXXIV

Notes on verse 19a

XXXII “took” = epilambanomai. 19x in NT. From epi (on, upon, against, what is fitting) + lambano (active acceptance/taking of what is available or what has been offered; emphasizes the choice and action of the individual). This is to take hold of, catch, or seize. It can also mean to help. It focuses on the intentionality and resolve of the one doing the catching.
XXXIII “brought” = ago. Related to “synagogue” in v17 & “proclaimer” and “was telling the good news” in v18. See note XI above.
XXXIV “Areopagus” = Areios pagos. 2x in NT. From ares (Ares, Greek god of war; also called Mars); {from Ionic are (bane, ruin) OR from aros (use, profit, help)} + pagos (hill, mountain peak, frost); {perhaps from pegnumi (to build, fasten, fix)}. This is Areopagus, literally “the Hill of Ares” or “Mars’ Hill.” See

and asked him, “MayXXXV we knowXXXVI what this newXXXVII teachingXXXVIII is that you are presenting?XXXIX 

Notes on verse 19b

XXXV “may” = dunamai. This is to be able, or something that is possible. It can also be empowered or being powerful. The Greek word for “miracle” (dunamis) comes from this root.
XXXVI “know” = ginosko. This is to know, recognize, realize, perceive, learn. It is knowledge gained through personal experience.
XXXVII “new” = kainos. This is not new as in new versus old. This is new in the sense of novel, innovative, or fresh.
XXXVIII “teaching” = didache. From didasko (to teach, direct, instruct, or impart knowledge; in the New Testament, almost always used for teaching scripture); from dao (to learn). This is teaching or doctrine.
XXXIX “presenting” = laleo. From lalos (talkative). This is to talk, say, or preach.

20 It soundsXL rather strangeXLI to us, so we would likeXLII to know what it means.”XLIII 

Notes on verse 20

XL “sounds” = eisphero + eis + ho + akoe + ego. Literally, “you are bringing to our ears.” Eisphero is 8x in NT. From eis (to, into, for, among) + phero (to bear, bring, lead, make known publicly; to carry in a literal or figurative sense)}. This is to carry in, lead into, or announce. It can be literal or figurative. Akoe is from akouo (listen, hear, understand through hearing). This is hearing, ear, audience, fame, report, rumor.
XLI “strange” = xenizo. Related to “foreign” in v18. 10x in NT. From xenos (see note XXVII above). This is to receive as a guest or act as a host – to give or receive lodging. It could also be surprise, bewilder, or entertain. Also, it can be to think something it strange.
XLII “would like” = boulomai. This is to wish, desire, intend. Also, to plan with great determination.
XLIII “means” = thelo + houtos + eimi. Literally, “these things wish to be.” Thelo is the same as “want” in v18. See note XXIII above. Same as “was” in v16. See note VII above.

21 Now allXLIV the AtheniansXLV and the foreignersXLVI living thereXLVII

Notes on verse 21a

XLIV “all” = pas. Same as “every” in v17. See note XV above.
XLV “Athenian” = Athenaios. Related to “Athens” in v16. 2x in NT. From Athenai (see note III above). This is Athenian.
XLVI “foreigners” = xenos. Same as “foreign” in v18. See note XXVII above.
XLVII “living there” = epidemeo. 2x in NT. From epi (on, upon, among, what is fitting) + demos (district, multitude, rabble, assembly; Greeks bound by similar laws or customs); {from deo (to tie, bind, compel, declare unlawful)}. This is to be at home, visit a foreign place on a temporary basis, stranger.

would spend their timeXLVIII in nothingXLIX but tellingL or hearingLI something new.

Notes on verse 21b

XLVIII “spend…time” = eukaireo. Related to “was telling the good news” in v18. 3x in NT. From eukairos (timely, suitable, strategic, well-timed, opportune, festival); {from eu (see note XXIX above) + kairos (season, opportunity, occasion; spiritually significant time – the right time or appointed time)}. This is to have a good opportunity, to spend free time at something, to have a good time.
XLIX {untranslated} = heteros. This is other, another, different, strange. It is another of a different kind in contrast to the Greek word allos, which is another of the same kind. This could be a different quality, type, or group.
L “telling” = lego. Same as “say” in v18. See note XXIV above.
LI “hearing” = akouo. Related to “sounds” in v20. See note XL above.

22 Then Paul stoodLII in frontLIII of the Areopagus and said,LIVLVAthenians, I see how extremely religiousLVI you are in every way.LVII 

Notes on verse 22

LII “stood” = histemi. Related to “Stoic” and “resurrection” in v18. See note XIX above.
LIII “front” = mesos. Perhaps from meta (with among, behind, beyond; implies a change following contact or action). This is middle, among, center, midst.
LIV “said” = phemi. From phao (to shine). This is to declare, say, or use contrasts in speaking to shed light on one point of view.
LV {untranslated} = aner. This is man, male, husband, or fellow. It can also refer to an individual.
LVI “extremely religious” = deisidaimonesteros. Related to “divinities” in v18. 1x in NT. From deisidaimon (fearing the gods); {from deido (to fear) + daimon (see note XXVIII above)}. This is literally fearing the gods or respecting the spiritual world. So, it is religious, devout, or superstitious.
LVII “every way” = pas. Same as “every” in v17. See note XV above.

23 For as I went throughLVIII the city and looked carefullyLIX at the objects of your worship,LX

Notes on verse 23a

LVIII “went through” = dierchomai. From dia (through, across to the other side, thoroughly) + erchomai (to come, go). This is to go through, come, depart, pierce, travel, traverse.
LIX “looked carefully” = anatheoreo. Related to “see” in v16. 2x in NT. From ana (up, again, back, among, anew) + theoreo (see note V above). This is to gaze at, examine, behold with care or attention. This is to thoroughly consider, dote, pay attention to grasp something more fully.
LX “objects of…worship” = sebasma. Related to “devout persons” in v17. 2x in NT. From sebazomai (to fear, to hold in reverence or awe; to worship, adore); from sebo (see note XIII above). This is a thing that is worshipped or the devotion itself. Objects could include a god or an altar.

I foundLXI among them an altarLXII with the inscription,LXIII ‘To an unknownLXIV god.’LXV

Notes on verse 23b

LXI “found” = heurisko. This is to find, learn, or obtain. It is to discover something, which generally implies a period of searching for it. This is to find in a literal or figurative sense. This is where the word “heuristic” comes from.
LXII “altar” = bomos. 1x in NT. From the same as basis (step, hence foot; a pace); from baino (to walk, to go). This is a place that is elevated, a stand. It can be a platform or an altar.
LXIII “inscription” = epigrapho. 5x in NT. From epi (on, upon, to, against, what is fitting) + grapho (to write, describe). This is to write on, inscribe, read. It can be a literal inscription or a mental one.
LXIV “unknown” = agnostos. Related to “know” in v19. 1x in NT. From a (not, without) + ginosko (see note XXXVI above). This is unknown or unknowable.
LXV “god” = theos. From Proto-Indo-European origins, meaning do, put, place. This is God or a god in general.

What therefore you worshipLXVI as unknown,LXVII this I proclaimLXVIII to you. 

Notes on verse 23c

LXVI “worship” = eusebeo. Related to “devout persons” in v17 & “objects…of worship” in v23 & “was telling the good news” in v18 & “spend…time” in v21. 2x in NT. From eusebes (pious, devout, God-fearing, respectful); {from eu (see note XXIX above) + sebo (see note XIII above)}. This is to worship, be pious, revere, be dutiful. It can be following duty to one’s parents as respecting or supporting. It can be duty towards God as piety or devotion.
LXVII “unknown” = agnoeo. Related to “know” in v19 & “unknown” in v23. From a (not, without) + the same as ginosko (see note XXXVI above). This is unaware not to know. Sometimes it is willful ignorance, but other times it is simply not knowing.
LXVIII “proclaim” = kataggello. Related to “synagogue” in v17 & “proclaimer” and “was telling the good news” in v18 & “brought” in v19. 18x in NT. See note XXVI above.

24 The GodLXIX who madeLXX the worldLXXI and everythingLXXII in it,

Notes on verse 24a

LXIX “God” = Theos. Same as “god” in v23. See note LXV above.
LXX “made” = poieo. This is to make, do, act, construct, abide, or cause.
LXXI “world” = kosmos. Perhaps from the base of komizo (to carry, convey, recover); from komeo (to take care of). This is order, the world, the universe, including its inhabitants. Literally, this is something that is ordered so it can refer to all creation. It can also refer to decoration in the sense that something is better ordered and, thus, made more beautiful. This is where “cosmos” and “cosmetics” come from.
LXXII “everything” = pas. Same as “every” in v17. See note XV above.

he who isLXXIII LordLXXIV of heavenLXXV and earth,LXXVI

Notes on verse 24b

LXXIII “is” = huparcho. From hupo (by, under, about, subordinate to) + archo (to rule, begin, have first rank or have political power). This is to begin or be ready, to exist or possess. It is what one already has or possesses.
LXXIV “Lord” = Kurios. From kuros (authority, supremacy). This is a respectful address meaning master or sir. It refers to one who has control or power greater than one’s own. So, it was also applied to God and Jesus as Master or Lord.
LXXV “heaven” = ouranos. May be related to oros (mountain, hill) with the notion of height. This is the air, the sky, the atmosphere, and heaven. It is the sky that is visible and the spiritual heaven where God dwells. Heaven implies happiness, power, and eternity.
LXXVI “earth” = ge. This is earth, land, soil, region, country, the inhabitants of an area.

does not liveLXXVII in shrinesLXXVIII made by human hands,LXXIX 

Notes on verse 24c

LXXVII “live” = katoikeo. From kata (down, against, throughout, among) + oikeo (to settle or be established somewhere in a permanent way, to make a home or live at home); {from oikos (house – the building, the household, the family, descendants; the temple)}. This is to live or settle on a permanent basis.
LXXVIII “shrines” = naos. From naio (to dwell, inhabit). This is a place for God (or a god) to live – a sanctuary, shrine, or temple. It is a place for God or a god to manifest. For the Jewish Temple, it is used of the Temple itself and the two inner chambers.
LXXIX “made by human hands” = cheiropoietos. Related to “made” in v24. 6x in NT. From cheir (hand in a literal sense; figuratively, the means a person uses to accomplish things so it can mean power, means, or instrument); {perhaps from cheimon (winter, storm – winter as the rainy season); related to the base of chasma (chasm, gap, gulf); from chasko (to yawn)} + poieo (see note LXX above). This is literally made by hand, i.e. artificial. It can also mean to perform.

25 nor is he servedLXXX by humanLXXXI hands,LXXXII

Notes on verse 25a

LXXX “served” = therapeuo. From therapon (servant, attendant, minister); perhaps from theros (properly heat and so used for summer); from thero (to heat). This is to serve, care, attend, heal, or cure. Since it means to attend to, it can be used for doctors, but also for those who serve God. So, it can mean worship. This is where the word “therapy” comes from.
LXXXI “human” = anthropinos. Related to {untranslated} in v22. 7x in NT. From anthropos (human, humankind; used for all genders); {probably from aner (see note LV above) + ops (eye, face); {from optanomai (to appear, be seen); perhaps from horao (become, seem, appear)}}. This is human, in human terms, belonging to humans. It is used to contrast human and vine things.
LXXXII “hands” = cheir. Related to “made by human hands” in v24. See note LXXIX above.

as though he neededLXXXIII anything, since he himself givesLXXXIV to all mortals lifeLXXXV and breathLXXXVI and all things. 

Notes on verse 25b

LXXXIII “needed” = prosdeomai. Related to “living there” in v21. 1x in NT. From pros (at, to, toward, with) + deomai (having an urgent need because one is missing or needing something so it is an earnest appeal or pressing request); {from deo (see note XLVII above)}. This is to need, to want more.
LXXXIV “gives” = didomi. To give, offer, place, bestow, deliver. This is give in a literal or figurative sense.
LXXXV “life” = zoe. From zao (to live, be alive). This is life including the vitality of humans, plants, and animals – it is life physical and spiritual and life everlasting.
LXXXVI “breath” = pnoe. Related to “was deeply distressed” in v16. 2x in NT. From pneo (see note IV above). This is blowing, breath, wind, or breeze.

26 From oneLXXXVII ancestor he made all nationsLXXXVIII, LXXXIX to inhabitXC the whole earth,XCI

Notes on verse 26a

LXXXVII “one” = heis. This is one, a person, only, some.
LXXXVIII “nations” = ethnos. Probably from etho (a custom or culture). This is people who are united by having similar customs or culture. Generally, it is used to refer to Gentiles. This is a tribe, race, nation, or Gentiles in general. This is where the term “ethnicity” comes from.
LXXXIX {untranslated} = anthropos. Related to {untranslated} in v22 & “human” in v25. See note LXXXI above.
XC “inhabit” = katoikeo. Same as “live” in v24. See note LXXVII above.
XCI “the whole earth” = epi + pas + prosopon + ho + ge. Literally, “upon all the face of the earth.” Pas is the same as “every” in v17. See note XV above. Prosopon is related to “human” in v25 & {untranslated} in v26. From pros (at, towards, with) + ops (see note LXXXI above). This is the face, surface, or front. It can imply presence more generally. Ge is the same as “earth” in v24. See note LXXVI above.

and he allottedXCII the timesXCIII of their existenceXCIV and the boundariesXCV of the places where they would live,XCVI 

Notes on verse 26b

XCII “allotted” = horizo. 8x in NT. From the same as horion (boundary, territory); from horos (limit, boundary). This is to determine, set boundaries, appoint, designate, pre-determined. Literally, this is setting horizons.
XCIII “times” = kairos. Related to “spend…time” in v21. See note XLVIII above.
XCIV “existence” = prostasso. 7x in NT. From pros (at, to, toward, with) + tasso (to arrange, appoint, determine). This is to allot, place, appoint, or instruct. This is allotting with a focus on the one who is making the allotment decisions. Figuratively, this can also mean to enjoin.
XCV “boundaries” = horothesia. Related to “allotted” in v26. 1x in NT. From the same as horion (see note XCII above) + tithemi (to put, place, set, fix, establish in a literal or figurative sense; properly, this is placing something in a passive or horizontal position). This is setting limits or boundaries ahead of time or a concrete boundary line.
XCVI “places where…live” = katoikia. Related to “live” in v24. 1x in NT. From kata (down, against, according to, throughout, among, daily) + oikos (see note LXXVII above). This is dwelling or settlement. It is the act of settling or the place of settlement itself.

27 so that they would searchXCVII for God and perhapsXCVIII grope forXCIX him and find him—though indeedC he isCI not farCII from eachCIII one of us. 

Notes on verse 27

XCVII “search” = zeteo. This is to seek, search for, desire. It is searching for something by inquiring or investigation. It can be seek in a literal or figurative sense. There is a Hebrew figure of speech “to seek God’s face” so it can also mean to worship God. Alternately, you could seek someone’s life i.e. plot to kill them.
XCVIII {untranslated} = ge. 16x in NT. This is a particle of emphasis – indeed, besides, doubtless, yet, at least.
XCIX “grope for” = pselaphao. 4x in NT. Probably from psallo (to twang, play, sing psalms, pluck a stringed instrument such as a harp); {from psao (to rub)} + hapha (to handle). This is to touch, feel, or grope about. It is a light touch to explore, discover, or confirm something with physical contact. It can also figuratively mean search for.
C “indeed” = ge. Same as {untranslated} in v27. See note XCVIII above.
CI “is” = huparcho. Same as “is” in v24. See note LXXIII above.
CII “far” = makran. 9x in NT. From makros (long, long lasting); from mekos (length); probably related to megas (great or large). This is far off, remote, far away in a literal or figurative sense.
CIII “each” = hekastos. Perhaps from hekas (separate). This is each one, any, every. It is every individual as a distinct entity as opposed to those counted as a group in small sets.

28 For ‘In him we liveCIV and moveCV and have our being’;CVI as even some of your own poetsCVII have said,

‘For we too are his offspring.’CVIII

Notes on verse 28

CIV “live” = zao. Related to “life” in v25. See note LXXXV above.
CV “move” = kineo. 8x in NT. This is to move, excite, or provoke. It is to stir in a literal or figurative sense. This is where the word “kinetic” comes from.
CVI “have…being” = eimi. Same as “was” in v16. See note VII above.
CVII “poets” = poietes. Related to “made” and “made by human hands” in v24. 6x in NT. From poieo (see note LXX above). This is a maker or doer. It can also mean poet, author, or performer. This is where the word “poet” comes from.
CVIII “offspring” = genos. From ginomai (to come into being, to happen, become, be born; to emerge from one state or condition to another; this is coming into being with the sense of movement or growth). This is family, offspring, kin – in a literal or figurative sense.

29 Since we areCIX God’s offspring, we oughtCX not to thinkCXI that the deityCXII is like gold,CXIII

Notes on verse 29a

CIX “are” = huparcho. Same as “is” in v24. See note LXXIII above.
CX “ought” = opheilo. Perhaps from the base of ophelos (advantage, gain, profit); from ophello (heaped together, accumulate, increase). This is to be indebted morally or legally – having an obligation one must meet. This term came from the legal world, but was then adopted in reference to morality. In the New Testament it is used for humanity’s ethical responsibility.
CXI “think” = nomizo. 15x in NT. From nomos (what is assigned – usage, law, custom, principle; used for the law in general or of God’s law; sometimes used to refer to the first five books of the Bible or the entire Old Testament; also used to refer to theology or the practice and tradition of interpreting and implementing the law of God); from nemo (to parcel out, assign). This is to practice, think, consider, suppose, hold by custom. This is thinking that something applies given precedent and practice – to do by law.
CXII “deity” = theios. Related to “god” in v23. 3x in NT. From theos (see note LXV above). This is the deity or divine, godlike.
CXIII “gold” = chrusos. 10x in NT. Perhaps from chraomai (to use, make use of, give what is needed, act in a specific way, request). This is gold or something made of gold. It is symbolic of purchasing power.

or silver,CXIV or stone,CXV an image formedCXVI

Notes on verse 29b

CXIV “silver” = arguros. 5x in NT. From argos (shining). This is silver, whether the metal itself or things made from silver.
CXV “stone” = lithos. This is stone in a literal or figurative sense.
CXVI “image formed” = charagma. 8x in NT. From charasso (to engrave or sharpen) OR from the same as charax (pointed stake, barricade, rampart, trench); from charasso (see above). This is an engraving, stamp, sculpture, or brand mark. It is a mark that shows ownership identification or the mark on a coin or seal.

by the artCXVII and imaginationCXVIII of mortals.CXIX 

Notes on verse 29c

CXVII “art” = techne. 3x in NT. From tekton (craftsman; particularly one who works with wood); from the base of timoria (penalty, punishment, vengeance); from timoreo (to punish, protect honor); {perhaps from time (worth or something’s perceived value; literally, price, but figuratively, the honor or value one sees in someone or something else; also esteem or dignity; also precious or valuables); {from tino (to pay, be punished, pay a penalty or fine because of a crime); from tio (to pay respect, value)}} + the base of tikto (to produce, bring forth, beget). This is art, craft, skill, or trade.
CXVIII “imagination” = enthumesis. 4x in NT. From enthumeomai (to think, reflect on, ponder, meditate on; also, passionate mindset, inspirited, moved by a strong impulse); {from en (in, on, at, by, with) + thumos (passion, wrath; actions emerging from passion or impulse) {from thuo (to rush along, breathe violently, offer sacrifice)}}. This is pondering, thoughts, reflection, or deliberation. It focuses on a passionate impulse that impels the thought process.
CXIX “mortals” = anthropos. Same as {untranslated} in v26. See note LXXXIX above.

30 CXXWhile God has overlookedCXXI the timesCXXII of human ignorance,CXXIII

Notes on verse 30a

CXX {untranslated} = men. Same as {untranslated} in v17. See note X above.
CXXI “overlooked” = hupereidon. Related to “full of idols” in v16. 1x in NT. From huper (by, under, over, above, under the authority of another) + eidos (see note VIII above). This is to disregard, not notice, wink at.
CXXII “times” = chronos. Time in the chronological sense, quantitative time or a duration of time.
CXXIII “ignorance” = agnoia. Related to “know” in v19 & “unknown” and “unknown” in v23. 4x in NT. From agnoeo (see note LXVII above). This is ignorance, whether inadvertent or willful blindness.

now he commandsCXXIV all peopleCXXV everywhere to repent,CXXVI 

Notes on verse 30b

CXXIV “commands” = paraggello. Related to “synagogue” in v17 & “proclaimer” and “was telling the good news” in v18 & “brought” in v19 & “proclaim” in v23. From para (from beside, by) + aggello (see note XXVI above). This is to send a message, order, notify, command. It is a charge – a proper command as a military term that has followed proper channels. It can also mean to entreat solemnly.
CXXV “people” = anthropos. Same as {untranslated} in v26. See note LXXXIX above.
CXXVI “repent” = metanoeo. Related to “know” in v19 & “unknown” and “unknown” in v23 & “ignorance” in v30. From meta (with, among, after, beyond) + noieo (to perceive, think, understand); {from nous (mind, understanding, reasoning faculty, intellect, capacity to reflect); from ginosko (see note XXXVI above)}. This is to change how one thinks, to reconsider, to repent. It refers to a change of thinking, which means a change of purpose and behavior.

31 because he has fixedCXXVII a day on which he will haveCXXVIII the worldCXXIX

Notes on verse 31a

CXXVII “fixed” = histemi. Same as “stood” in v22. See note LII above.
CXXVIII “will have” = mello. Perhaps from melo (something that one is worried or concerned about, something one pays attention to or thinks about). Properly, this is ready, about to happen, to intend, delay, or linger. This is just on the point of acting.
CXXIX “world” = oikoumene. Related to “live” in v24 & “places…where live” in v26. 15x in NT. From oikeo (see note LXXVII above). This is the world – the part where people live. It was used specifically for the Roman world. It is the root of the word “ecumenic.”

judgedCXXX in righteousnessCXXXI by a manCXXXII whom he has appointed,CXXXIII

Notes on verse 31b

CXXX “judged” = krino. To judge, decide, think good, condemn, determine, pass judgment, stand trial, sue. This is judging whether it is done in court or in a private setting. Properly, it refers to mentally separating or distinguishing an issue – to come to a choice or decision, to judge positively or negatively in seeking what is right or wrong, who is innocent or guilty. It can imply trying, condemning, punishing, or avenging.
CXXXI “righteousness” = dikaiosune. From dikaios (correct, righteous – implies innocent; this is that which conforms to God’s notion of justice, uprightness); from dike (the principle of justice; that which is right in a way that is very clear; a decision or the execution of that decision; originally, this word was for custom or usage; evolved to include the process of law, judicial hearing, execution of sentence, penalty, and even vengeance; more commonly, it refers to what is right); may be from deiknumi (to show, point out, exhibit; figurative for teach, demonstrate, make known). This is judicial or divine approval of character or action. This is righteousness, justice, justness, divine righteousness.
CXXXII “man” = aner. Same as {untranslated} in v22. See note LV above.
CXXXIII “appointed” = horizo. Same as “allotted” in v26. See note XCII above.

and of this he has givenCXXXIV assuranceCXXXV to all by raisingCXXXVI him from the dead.”CXXXVII

Notes on verse 31c

CXXXIV “given” = parecho. 16x in NT– including Luke 6:29: “if anyone strikes you on the cheek, offer the other also.” From para (beside, by, in the presence of) + echo (to have, hold, possess). This is present, to show, bring, give, offer to hold near.
CXXXV “assurance” = pistis. From peitho (to have confidence, urge, be persuaded, agree, assure, believe, have confidence, trust). This is less about knowing, believing, and repeating a list of doctrines then it is about trusting God. Faith means listening to God and seeking to live a holy life even (and especially) when we don’t understand how everything works or fits together. Faith is about being faithful (trusting and doing) rather than being all knowing.
CXXXVI “raising” = anistemi. Related to “Stoic” and “resurrection” in v18 & “stood” in v22. From ana (upwards, up, again, back, anew) + histemi (see note XIX above). This is to raise up, rise, appear. It is to stand up literally or figuratively. Can also mean to resurrect.
CXXXVII “dead” = nekros. Perhaps from nekus (corpse). This is dead or lifeless, mortal, corpse. It can also be used figuratively for powerless or ineffective. It is where the word “necrotic” comes from.

Image credit: “Athens: Altar to an ‘Unknown god'” by Dimitris Tsalkanis of FreeBibleImages.

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