Acts 2:14a, 22-32

Acts 2:14a, 22-32
Second Sunday of Easter A


14 But Peter,I standingII with the eleven,III raisedIV his voiceV

Notes on verse 14a

I “Peter” = Petros. Related to petra (large rock that is connected and or projecting like a rock, ledge, or cliff; can also be cave or stony ground). This is Peter, a stone, pebble, or boulder.
II “standing” = histemi. This is to stand, place, establish, appoint, stand ready, be steadfast.
III “eleven” = hendeka. 6x in NT– all referring to the apostles minus Judas. From heis (one) + deka (ten). This is eleven.
IV “raised” = epairo. 19x in NT. From epi (on, upon, among, what is fitting) + airo (raise, take up, lift, remove). This is to lift up or raise in a literal or figurative sense. Figuratively, it could mean to exalt oneself.
V “voice” = phone. Probably from phemi (to declare, say, use contrasts in speaking to shed light on one point of view); {from phao (to shine) or phaino (to bring light, cause to appear, shine, become visible or clear). This is a voice, sound, tone or noise. It can also be a language or dialect.

and addressedVI them, “FellowVII JewsVIII and allIX

Notes on verse 14b

VI “addressed” = apophtheggomai. Related to “voice” in v14. 3x in NT. From apo (from, away from) + phtheggomai (to make a clear sound, proclaim); {related to phegos (light, brightness, splendor); from phaos (light, daylight); from phao (see note V above)}. This is to speak clearly, declare.
VII “fellow” = aner. This is man, male, husband, or fellow. It can also refer to an individual.
VIII “Jews” = Ioudaios. From Ioudas (Judah, Judas); from Hebrew Yehudah (Judah, son of Jacob, his tribal descendants, a name for the southern kingdom. Literally, it means praised); probably from yadah (to throw one’s hands into the air in a gesture of praise); from yad (hand). This is Jewish, a Jew, or Judea.
IX “all” = pas. This is all or every.

who liveX in Jerusalem,XI let this beXII

Notes on verse 14c

X “live” = katoikeo. From kata (down, against, throughout, among) + oikeo (to settle or be established somewhere in a permanent way, to make a home or live at home); {from oikos (house – the building, the household, the family, descendants; the temple)}. This is to live or settle on a permanent basis.
XI “Jerusalem” = Ierousalem. From Hebrew Yerushalaim (probably foundation of peace); {from yarah (to throw, shoot, be stunned; to flow as water so figuratively to instruct or teach) + shalam (to make amends, to be complete or sound)}. This is Jerusalem, dwelling of peace.
XII “be” = eimi. This is to be, exist.

knownXIII to you, and listenXIV to what I say.XV

Notes on verse 14c

XIII “known” = gnostos. 15x in NT. From ginosko (to know, recognize, realize, perceive, learn; gaining knowledge through personal experience). This is known or acquaintance.
XIV “listen” = enotizomai. 1x in NT. From en (in, on, at, by, with) + ou (the ear or hearing). Literally, to give ear, to listen.
XV “what…say” = rhema. From rheo (to speak, command, make, say, speak of); from ereo (to all, say, speak of, tell; denotes ongoing speech). This is word, which implies a matter or thing spoken, a command, report, promise, thing, or business. Often used for narration, commands, or disputes.

22 “Fellow Israelites,XVI listenXVII to what I have to say:XVIII

Notes on verse 22a

XVI “Israelites” = Israelites. 9x in NT. From Israel (Israel, the people and land); from Hebrew Yisrael (God strives or one who strives with God; new name for Jacob and for his offspring); {from sarah (to persist, exert oneself, contend, persevere, wrestle, prevail) + el (God or god)}. This is Israel the people and the land. This is Israelite in a literal or figurative sense.
XVII “listen” = akouo. This is hear or listen, but it also means to understand by hearing. This is where the word “acoustics” comes from.
XVIII “what…have to say” = logos. From lego (to speak, tell, mention). This is word, statement, speech, analogy. It is a word that carries an idea or expresses a thought, a saying. It could refer to a person with a message or reasoning laid out in words. By implication, this could be a topic, line of reasoning, or a motive. It can be used for a divine utterance or as Word – Christ.

JesusXIX of Nazareth,XX a manXXI

Notes on verse 22b

XIX “Jesus” = Iesous. From Hebrew Yehoshua (Joshua, the Lord is salvation); {from YHVH (proper name of the God of Israel; the self-existent and eternal one); {from havah (to become) or from hayah (to come to pass, become, be)} + yasha (to deliver, defend, help, preserve, rescue; properly, to be open, wide or free, which implies being safe. So, in a causative sense, this is to free someone)}. This is Jesus or Joshua in Greek – the Lord saves or the Lord is salvation.
XX “Nazareth” = Nazoraios. 13x in NT. Probably from nazara (Nazareth); perhaps from netser (branch) OR from natsar (to watch, guard, protect). This is Nazarene. See
XXI “man” = aner. Same as “fellow” in v14. See note VII above.

attestedXXII to you by GodXXIII with deeds of power,XXIV wonders,XXV

Notes on verse 22c

XXII “attested” = apodeiknumi. 4x in NT. From apo (from, away from) + deiknumi (to show, point out, exhibit; figurative for teach, demonstrate, make known). This is demonstrate or show with proof. It is showing that something is what it claims.
XXIII “God” = Theos. From Proto-Indo-European origins, meaning do, put, place. This is God or a god in general.
XXIV “deeds of power” = dunamis. From dunamai (to be able, have power or ability). This is might, strength, physical power, efficacy, energy, and miraculous power. It is force literally or figuratively – the power of a miracle or the miracle itself.
XXV “wonders” = teras. 16x in NT. This is a wonder or marvel performed to get bystanders to react. It could also be a portent or omen.

and signsXXVI that God didXXVII through him amongXXVIII you, as you yourselves knowXXIX— 

Notes on verse 22d

XXVI “signs” = semeion. From the same as semaino (to give a sign, signify, indicate, make known); from sema (a sign or mark). It is literally a sign of any kind. It also refers to a sign given by God to confirm or authenticate a message or prophecy. It is not necessarily miraculous, but it can be. The Gospel of John generally uses this word instead of miracle.
XXVII “did” = poieo. This is to make, do, act, construct, abide, or cause.
XXVIII “among” = mesos. Perhaps from meta (with among, behind, beyond; implies a change following contact or action). This is middle, among, center, midst.
XXIX “know” = eido. This is to know, consider perceive, appreciate, behold, or remember. It means seeing with one’s eyes, but also figuratively, it means perceiving – seeing that becomes understanding. So, by implication, this means knowing or being aware.

23 this man, handed overXXX to you according to the definiteXXXI planXXXII and foreknowledgeXXXIII of God,

Notes on verse 23a

XXX “handed over” = ekdotos. 1x in NT. From ek (from, from out of) + didomi (give, offer, place, bestow, deliver; give in a literal or figurative sense). This is give out, surrender.
XXXI “definite” = horizo. 8x in NT. From the same as horion (boundary, territory); from horos (limit, boundary). This is to determine, set boundaries, appoint, designate, pre-determined. Literally, this is setting horizons.
XXXII “plan” = boule. 12x in NT. From boulomai (to wish, desire, intend; to plan with great determination). This is counsel, plan, purpose, decision. It refers to wisdom that comes from deliberation.
XXXIII “foreknowledge” = prognosis. Related to “known” in v14. 2x in NT. From proginosko (to know beforehand, foresee); {from pro (before, in front of, earlier than) + ginosko (see note XIII above)}. This is foreknowledge or a previous determination.

you crucifiedXXXIV and killedXXXV by the handsXXXVI of those outside the law.XXXVII 

Notes on verse 23b

XXXIV “crucified” = prospegnumi. 1x in NT. From pros (at, to, toward). This is to fasten to – used specifically for crucifixion.
XXXV “killed” = anaireo. Related to “raised” in v14. From ana (up, back, among, again, anew) + haireo (to take, choose, or prefer) {probably related to airo (see note IV)}. This is to take up or away, which implies taking with violence. So, this is used for murdering, executing, and slaying.
XXXVI “hands” = cheir. This is the hand in a literal sense. Figuratively, the hand is the means a person uses to accomplish things so it can also mean power, means, or instrument.
XXXVII “those outside the law” = anomos. 10x in NT. From a (not, without) + nomos (what is assigned – usage, law, custom, principle; used for the law in general or of God’s law; sometimes used to refer to the first five books of the Bible or the entire Old Testament; also used to refer to theology or the practice and tradition of interpreting and implementing the law of God); {from nemo (to parcel out, assign)}. This is literally without law. So, it could refer to someone who disregards authority or one who is not under the law (i.e. a Gentile). It can be lawless, wicked, or a transgressor.

24 But God raised him up,XXXVIII having releasedXXXIX him from the agonyXL

Notes on verse 24a

XXXVIII “raised…up” = anistemi. Related to “standing” in v14. From ana (upwards, up, again, back, anew) + histemi (see note II above). This is to raise up, rise, appear. It is to stand up literally or figuratively. Can also mean to resurrect.
XXXIX “released” = luo. This is to loose, release, or untie. Figuratively, it can mean to break, destroy, or annul. This is releasing what had been withheld.
XL “agony” = odin. 4x in NT. Akin to odune (pain, distress, or anguish, whether physical or mental); perhaps from duno (to enter, sink into; can also be set like the sun); from duo (to sink). This is severe agony, a snare, the pain from childbirth. It can refer figuratively to pain and difficulty that comes from ushering in something new.

of death,XLI because it was impossibleXLII for him to be heldXLIII in its power. 

25 For DavidXLIV saysXLV concerning him,

Notes on verses 24b-25a

XLI “death” = thanatos. From thnesko (to die, be dead). This is death, whether literal or spiritual. It can also refer to something that is fatal.
XLII “impossible” = dunatos. Related to “deeds of power” in v22. From dunamai (see note XXIV above). This is mighty or powerful. It speaks of ability of persons, possibility of things. It is what can be given the power or ability that the subject exhibits. The root verb is also related to miracles i.e. deeds of power.
XLIII “be held” = krateo. From kratos (strength, power, dominion; vigor in a literal or figurative sense; power that is exercised). This is being strong or mighty so, by extension, to prevail or rule. It can also mean to seize, grasp hold of and thereby control.
XLIV “David” = Dauid. From Hebrew David (David); from the same as dod (beloved, love, uncle); the root may mean to boil, which is used figuratively to describe love. So, this implies someone you love such as a friend, a lover, or a close family member like an uncle. David’s name likely means something like “beloved one.”
XLV “says” = lego. Related to “say” in v22. See note XVIII above.

‘I sawXLVI the LordXLVII alwaysXLVIII beforeXLIX me,

Notes on verse 25b

XLVI “saw” = proorao. 4x in NT. From pro (before, first, in front of, earlier) + horao (to see, perceive, attend to, look upon, experience; to stare at, which implies clear discernment; by extension, attending to what was seen and learned; to see, often with a metaphorical sense, which can include inward spiritual seeing). This is to see previously, pay attention to, be mindful of, foresee.
XLVII “Lord” = Kurios. From kuros (authority, supremacy). This is a respectful address meaning master or sir. It refers to one who has control or power greater than one’s own. So, it was also applied to God and Jesus as Master or Lord.
XLVIII “always” = pas. Same as “all” in v14. See note IX above.
XLIX “before” = enopion. Related to “saw” in v25. From en (in, on, at, by with) + ops (eye, face); {from optanomai (to appear, be seen); from horao (see note XLVI above)}. This is literally “in the eye of” and is used for before or in the presence of.

    for he is at my right handL so that I will not be shaken;LI
26 therefore my heartLII was glad,LIII and my tongueLIV rejoiced;LV

Notes on verses 25c-26a

L “right hand” = dexios. Perhaps from dechomai (to warmly receive, be ready for what is offered, take, accept, or welcome; to receive in a literal or figurative sense). This is right, right side, or the right hand.
LI “be shaken” = saleuo. 15x in NT. From salos (tossing, agitation, rolling – like the sea swells). This is to agitate or shake up. It can mean to disturb, topple, incite, or destroy.
LII “heart” = kardia. Literally the heart, but figuratively mind, character, inner self, will, intention, thoughts, feelings. Also, the center of something. The word heart is only used figuratively in the Old and New Testaments. This is where “cardiac” comes from.
LIII “was glad” = euphraino. 14x in NT. From eu (good, well, well done) + phren (diaphragm, heart, intellect, understanding; figurative for personal opinion or inner mindset; thought regulating action; sympathy, feelings, cognition); {perhaps from phrao (to rein in or curb)}. This is to be glad, revel, feast. It is having a positive outlook, rejoicing.
LIV “tongue” = glossa. Root refers to a point that sticks out. This is tongue in a literal sense, but can also refer to language or a nation that speaks a different language. Figuratively, it can also refer to speaking in tongues or speech inspired by the Spirit.
LV “rejoiced” = agalliao. 11x in NT. From agallomai (to exalt, make glorious) {from agan (much, very) + hallomai (to leap or leap up; when referring to water, springing up or bubbling up; to jump or figuratively to gush)}. This is properly joy that prompts you to jump up. It is a full body experience of joy: exulting, rejoicing, or even boasting from joy.

    moreover, my fleshLVI will liveLVII in hope.LVIII

Notes on verse 26b

LVI “flesh” = sarx. May be from saroo (to sweep, cleanse by sweeping); from sairo (to brush off). This is flesh, the body, human nature, materiality, kindred. Flesh is not always evil in scripture (as when it refers to Jesus taking on a human body). However, it is generally used in a negative way for actions made selfishly and not through faith. This can mean animal flesh, i.e. meat, or refer to body in contrast to soul/spirit. Flesh can be a way of talking about how things or people are related or talking about human frailty (physical or moral).
LVII “live” = kataskenoo. 4x in NT. From kata (down, against, throughout, among) + skenoo (to encamp, pitch a tent, dwell); {from skenos (tent, booth, tabernacle, or dwelling)}. It could be a cloth hut. This is a tent in a literal or figurative sense ); {perhaps related to skeuos (vessel, tool, container, implement; also vessel in a figurative or literal sense) or perhaps related to skia (shadow, thick darkness, outline; figurative for a spiritual situation that is good or bad)}. This is to encamp or dwell. It is used figuratively for to lodge, stay or rest.
LVIII “hope” = elpis. From elpo (to anticipate, welcome, expect; usually to anticipate positively). This is expectation, hope, trust, confidence faith. The expectation can be abstract or concrete.

27 For you will not abandonLIX my soulLX to HadesLXI

Notes on verse 27a

LIX “abandon” = egkataleipo. From en (in, on, at, by, with) + kataleipo (to leave or leave behind, abandon, forsake, leave in reserve); {from kata (down, against, throughout, among) + leipo (to leave behind, remain, lack, abandon, fall behind while racing)}. This is left behind, left as a remainder, desert, forsake. Properly, it means to leave someone or something wanting or lacking – so, to forsake or cause someone to be helpless in a serious scenario.
LX “soul” = psuche. From psucho (to breathe, blow). This is breath, the breath of life, the self, individual, soul. This is the word for that which makes a person unique – their identity, will, personality, affections. This isn’t the soul as the immortal part of us, but as our individuality. It is also not life as a general concept, but specific to people. This is where the words psyche and psychology come from.
LXI “Hades” = Hades. Related to “know” in v22. 10x in NT. From a (not, without) + eido (see note XXIX above). This is Literally, the world that is not seen. It is Hades, hell, the place where the dead reside. It can also refer to the grave.

    or letLXII your Holy OneLXIII experienceLXIV corruption.LXV

Notes on verse 27b

LXII “let” = didomi. Related to “handed over” in v23. See note XXX above.
LXIII “Holy One” = Hosios. 8x in NT. This is righteous, pious, holy, devout, or Holy One. This refers to what is worthy or respect or reverence because it corresponds to a higher law, particularly God’s law. It can be contrasted with dikaios (just according to law and statue) & hieros (formally consecrated) & hagios (pure, sacred, free from ritual defilement).
LXIV “experience” = horao. Related to “saw” and “before” in v25. See note XLVI above.
LXV “corruption” = diaphthora. 6x in NT. From diaphtheiro (to destroy, spoil, corrupt, disintegrate, decay; it can refer to the effect of moral or spiritual impurity); {from dia (through, across to the other side, thoroughly) + from phtheiro (to destroy, corrupt, ruin, deteriorate, wither; also used of moral corruption); {from phthio (perish, waste away)}}. This is destruction, corruption, or decay.

28 You have made knownLXVI to me the waysLXVII of life;LXVIII
    you will make me fullLXIX of gladnessLXX with your presence.’LXXI

Notes on verse 28

LXVI “made known” = gnorizo. Related to “known” in v14 & “foreknowledge” in v23. From ginosko (see note XIII above). This is to declare, know, discover, make known.
LXVII “ways” = hodos. This is way, road, path, or journey. It can imply progress along a route.
LXVIII “life” = zoe. From zao (to live, be alive). This is life including the vitality of humans, plants, and animals – it is life physical and spiritual and life everlasting.
LXIX “make…full” = pleroo. From pleres (to be full, complete, abounding in, occupied with). This is to fill, make full or complete. Properly, this is filling something up to the maximum extent that it can be filled – an appropriate amount for its individual capacity. So, this is used figuratively for furnish, influence, satisfy, finish, preach, perfect, and fulfill.
LXX “gladness” = euphrosune. Related to “was glad” in v26. 2x in NT. From eu (good, well, well done) + phren (see note LIII above). This is gladness, rejoicing, or joy.
LXXI “presence” = prosopon. Related to “saw” and “before” in v25 & “experience” in v27. From pros (at, towards, with) + ops (see note XLIX above). This is the face, surface, or front. It can imply presence more generally.

29 “FellowLXXII Israelites, I mayLXXIII say to you confidentlyLXXIV of our ancestorLXXV David

Notes on verse 29a

LXXII {untranslated} = adelphos. From a (with, community, fellowship) + delphus (womb). This is a brother in a literal or figurative sense. It is also used of another member of the Church.
LXXIII “may” = exesti. Related to “be” in v14. From ek (out, out of) + eimi (see note XII above). This is what is permitted or what is allowed under the law. It can mean what is right, what holds moral authority, or, more broadly, something that is shown out in public.
LXXIV “confidently” = parresia. Related to “all” and “say” in v14. From pas (see note IX above) + rhesis (speech); {from rheo (see note XV above)}. This is confidence, openness, boldness, outspokenness. It can imply assurance – free speech.
LXXV “ancestor” = patriarches. 4x in NT. From patria (lineage, family, kindred, nation); {from pater (father in a literal or figurative sense)} + archo (to rule, begin, have first rank or have political power). This is patriarch, founder, or head of a family.

that he both diedLXXVI and was buried,LXXVII and his tombLXXVIII is with us to this day.LXXIX 

Notes on verse 29b

LXXVI “died” = teleutao. 13x in NT. From teleute (end, finishing, consummation; can also be used for death); from teleo (to complete, fulfill, accomplish, end); from telos (an end, aim, purpose, completion, end goal, consummation, tax; going through the steps to complete a stage or phase and then moving on to the next one). This is to complete or come to the end/end goal. It can also mean to finish life or to meet one’s ultimate fate in heaven or hell.
LXXVII “buried” = thapto. 11x in NT. This is to bury or hold a funeral.
LXXVIII “tomb” = mnema. 8x in NT. From mnaomai (to remember; by implication give reward or consequence); perhaps from meno (to stay, abide, wait, endure). This is memorial, tomb, or monument.
LXXIX “day” = hemera. Perhaps from hemai (to sit). This is day, time, or daybreak.

30 Since he wasLXXX a prophet,LXXXI he knewLXXXII that God had swornLXXXIII with an oathLXXXIV to him

Notes on verse 30a

LXXX “was” = huparcho. From hupo (by, under, about, subordinate to) + archo (to rule, begin, have first rank or have political power). This is to begin or be ready, to exist or possess. It is what one already has or possesses.
LXXXI “prophet” = prophetes. Related to “voice” and “addressed” in v14. From pro (before, in front of, earlier than) + phemi (see note V above). This is a prophet or poet – one who speaks with inspiration from God.
LXXXII “knew” = eido. Same as “know” in v22. See note XXIX above.
LXXXIII “sworn” = omnuo. This is to swear, to make an oath.
LXXXIV “oath” = horkos. Related to “definite” in v23. 10x in NT. Related to erkos (fence, enclosure); perhaps related to horion (see note XXXI above). This is an oath or vow. It is something with limits, done for a sacred purpose.

that he would putLXXXV one of his descendantsLXXXVI on his throne.LXXXVII 

Notes on verse 30b

LXXXV “put” = kathizo. From kathezomai (to sit down, be seated); {from kata (down, against, according to, among) + hezomai (to sit); {from aphedron (a seat, a base)}}. This is to sit, set, appoint, stay, rest.
LXXXVI “descendants” = karpos + ho + osphus + autos. Literally, “fruit of his loins.” Karpos is related to “raised” in v14 & “killed” in v23. Perhaps from harpazo (to seize by force, snatch away); from haireo (see note XXXV above). This is a fruit or vegetable, through sometimes it refers to an animal. Figuratively, it is deeds, results, profits, or gain. Osphus is 8x in NT. This is waist, hips, or loins.
LXXXVII “throne” = thronos. Probably from thanos (bench); from thrao (to sit). This is throne or seat – the place where the king sits. So, it is used figuratively to mean power, dominion, or a potentate. This is where the word “throne” comes from.

31 ForeseeingLXXXVIII this, David spoke of the resurrectionLXXXIX of the Messiah,XC saying,

‘He was not abandoned to Hades,
    nor did his flesh experience corruption.’

32 “This Jesus God raised up, and of that all of us are witnesses.XCI 

Notes on verses 31-32

LXXXVIII “foreseeing” = proorao. Same as “saw” in v25. See note XLVI above.
LXXXIX “resurrection” = anastasis. Related to “standing” in v14 & “raised…up” in v24. From anistemi (see note XXXVIII above). This is literally standing up or standing again. It is used figuratively for recovering a spiritual truth. It can be raising up, rising, or resurrection.
XC “Messiah” = Christos. From chrio (consecrate by anointing with oil; often done for prophets, priests, or kings). Literally, the anointed one, Christ. The Greek word for Messiah.
XCI “witnesses” = martus. This is a witness whether having heard or seen something. It refers to a witness literally, judicially, or figuratively. By analogy, this is a martyr. This is also where the word “martyr” comes from.

Image credit: “Saint Peter on the Holy Crown of Hungary” from the 11th century. Photo scanned by Tóth Endre and Szelényi Károly, Kossuth 2000, Budapest.

You May Also Like

Leave a Reply