Acts 2

Acts 2


When the dayI of PentecostII had come,III

Notes on verse 1a

I “day” = hemera. Perhaps from hemai (to sit). This is day, time, or daybreak.
II “Pentecost” = Pentekoste. 3x in NT. From pentekonta (fifty); {from pente (five) + deka (ten or -teen)}. This is fiftieth, used specially for Pentecost, the fiftieth day after Passover.
III “come” = sumpleroo. 3x in NT. From sun (with, together with) + pleroo (to fill, make full or complete; properly, filling something up to the maximum extent or induvial capacity; used figuratively for furnish, influence, satisfy, finish, preach, perfect, and fulfill); {from pleres (to be full, complete, abounding in, occupied with)}. This is to fill entirely, a boat swamped with water, or fulfill. It can also be come or approach.

they wereIV allV togetherVI in one place. And suddenlyVII from heavenVIII

Notes on verses 1b-2a

IV “were” = eimi. This is to be, exist.
V “all” = pas. This is all or every.
VI “together” = homou. 4x in NT. From homos (the same). This is together.
VII “suddenly” = aphno. 3x in NT. Perhaps from aphanes (invisible, hidden, not apparent); {from a (not, without) + phaino (to bring light, cause to appear, shine, become visible or clear); {perhaps from phos (light, radiance; light literal or figurative)}}. This is suddenly or unawares.
VIII “heaven” = ouranos. May be related to oros (mountain, hill); probably related to airo (raise, take up, lift, remove). This is the air, the sky, the atmosphere, and heaven. It is the sky that is visible and the spiritual heaven where God dwells. Heaven implies happiness, power, and eternity.

there cameIX a soundX like the rushXI of a violentXII wind,XIII

Notes on verse 2b

IX “came” = ginomai. This is to come into being, to happen, become, be born. It can be to emerge from one state or condition to another or is coming into being with the sense of movement or growth.
X “sound” = echos. 4x in NT. From eche (noise or sound). This is a loud sound, roaring, or echo. It can also be a report, rumor, or fame. This is where the word “echo” comes from.
XI “rush” = phero. This is to bear, bring, lead, or make known publicly. It is to carry in a literal or figurative sense.
XII “violent” = biaios. 1x in NT. From bia (strength, force, violence). This is violent, strong, or mighty.
XIII “wind” = pnoe. 2x in NT. From pneo (to blow, breath, breathe hard). This is breath, blowing, gust, or wind.

and it filledXIV the entireXV houseXVI where they were sitting.XVII 

Notes on verse 2c

XIV “filled” = pleroo. Related to “come” in v1. See note III above.
XV “entire” = holos. This is whole, complete, or entire. It is a state where every member is present and functioning in concert. This is the root of the word “whole.”
XVI “house” = oikos. This is house – the building, the household, the family, descendants, the temple.
XVII “sitting” = kathemai. Related to “day” in v1. From kata (down, against, throughout, among) + hemai (see note I above). This is to sit, be enthroned, or reside.

DividedXVIII tongues,XIX as of fire,XX

Notes on verse 3a

XVIII “divided” = diamerizo. 12x in NT. From dia (through, across to the other side, thoroughly) + merizo (to divide, part, share, distribute, assign; figuratively, to differ); {from meros (part, share, portion figurative or literal); from meiromai (to get your share, receive one’s allotment)}. This is to divide up, distribute, or share. Figuratively, it can mean dissension.
XIX “tongues” = glossa. Root refers to a point that sticks out. This is tongue in a literal sense, but can also refer to language or a nation that speaks a different language. Figuratively, it can also refer to speaking in tongues or speech inspired by the Spirit.
XX “fire” = pur. This is fire, lightning, heat from the sun. Figuratively, it can refer to strife or trials.

appearedXXI among them, and a tongue restedXXII onXXIII eachXXIV of them. 

Notes on verse 3b

XXI “appeared” = horao. To see, perceive, attend to, look upon, experience. Properly, to stare at and so implying clear discernment. This, by extension, would indicate attending to what was seen and learned. This is to see, often with a metaphorical sense. Can include inward spiritual seeing.
XXII “rested” = kathizo. From kathezomai (to sit down, be seated); {from kata (down, against, according to, among) + hezomai (to sit); {from aphedron (a seat, a base)}}. This is to sit, set, appoint, stay, rest.
XXIII {untranslated} = heis. This is one, a person, only, some.
XXIV “each” = hekastos. Perhaps from hekas (separate). This is each one, any, every. It is every individual as a distinct entity as opposed to those counted as a group in small sets.

All of them were filledXXV with the HolyXXVI SpiritXXVII

Notes on verse 4a

XXV “were filled” = pleitho. This is to fill to the highest level possible – to accomplish, supply, or complete.
XXVI “Holy” = Hagios. From hagnos (holy, sacred, pure ethically, ritually, or ceremonially; prepared for worship, chaste, unadulterated, pure to the core; undefiled by sin; figurative for innocent, modest, perfect). God is totally different from humanity and thus set apart. That which is consecrated to worship God (elements of worship) or to serve God (as the saints) are holy because they are now set apart for God’s purposes. Holy because important to God. This is sacred physically, pure. It can be morally blameless or ceremonially consecrated.
XXVII “Spirit” = Pneuma. From pneo (to blow, breathe, breathe hard). This is wind, breath, or ghost. A breeze or a blast or air, a breath. Figuratively used for a spirit, the human soul or part of us that is rational. It is also used supernaturally for angels, demons, God, and the Holy Spirit. This is where pneumonia comes from.

and beganXXVIII to speakXXIX in otherXXX

Notes on verse 4b

XXVIII “began” = archomai. From archo (to rule, begin, have first rank or have political power). This is to begin or rule.
XXIX “speak” = laleo. From lalos (talkative). This is to talk, say, or preach.
XXX “other” = heteros. This is other, another, different, strange. It is another of a different kind in contrast to the Greek word allos, which is another of the same kind. This could be a different quality, type, or group.

languages,XXXI as the Spirit gaveXXXII them ability.XXXIII

Notes on verse 4c

XXXI “languages” = glossa. Same as “tongues” in v3. See note XIX above.
XXXII “gave” = didomi. To give, offer, place, bestow, deliver. This is give in a literal or figurative sense.
XXXIII “ability” = apophtheggomai. Related to “suddenly” in v2. 3x in NT. From apo (from, away from) + phtheggomai (to speak out loud; can also be to speak in a way that cannot be understood or generally to speak out); {related to pheggos (light, radiance, splendor); related to phos (see note VII above)}. This is to declare, pronounce, or speak clearly.

Now there wereXXXIV devoutXXXV JewsXXXVI

Notes on verse 5a

XXXIV {untranslated} = aner. This is man, male, husband, or fellow. It can also refer to an individual.
XXXV “devout” = eulabes. 4x in NT. From eu (good, well, well done, rightly) + lambano (active acceptance/taking of what is available or what has been offered; emphasizes the choice and action of the individual). This is literally handling well or grasping what is good. So, cautious or circumspect. By extension, it refers to devout, pious, or God fearing
XXXVI “Jews” = Ioudaios. From Ioudas (Judah, Judas); from Hebrew Yehudah (Judah, son of Jacob, his tribal descendants, a name for the southern kingdom. Literally, it means praised); probably from yadah (to throw one’s hands into the air in a gesture of praise); from yad (hand). This is Jewish, a Jew, or Judea.

from everyXXXVII peopleXXXVIII under heaven livingXXXIX in Jerusalem.XL 

Notes on verse 5b

XXXVII “every” = pas. Same as “all” in v1. See note V above.
XXXVIII “people” = ethnos. Probably from etho (a custom or culture). This is people who are united by having similar customs or culture. Generally, it is used to refer to Gentiles. This is a tribe, race, nation, or Gentiles in general. This is where the term “ethnicity” comes from.
XXXIX “living” = katoikeo. Related to “house” in v2. From kata (down, against, throughout, among) + oikeo (to settle or be established somewhere in a permanent way, to make a home or live at home); {from oikos (see note XVI above)}. This is to live or settle on a permanent basis.
XL “Jerusalem” = Ierousalem. From Hebrew Yerushalaim (probably foundation of peace); {from yarah (to throw, shoot, be stunned; to flow as water so figuratively to instruct or teach) + shalam (to make amends, to be complete or sound)}. This is Jerusalem, dwelling of peace.

AndXLI at this soundXLII the crowdXLIII gatheredXLIV and was bewildered,XLV

Notes on verse 6a

XLI {untranslated} = ginomai. Same as “came” in v2. See note IX above.
XLII “sound” = phone. Related to “suddenly” in v2 & “ability” in v4. Probably from phemi (to declare, say, use contrasts in speaking to shed light on one point of view); {from phao (to shine) or phaino (see note VII above). This is a voice, sound, tone or noise. It can also be a language or dialect.
XLIII “crowd” = plethos. From pletho (to fill, accomplish, supply; to fill to maximum capacity). This is fullness, multitude, great number.
XLIV “gathered” = sunerchomai. From sun (with, together with) + erchomai (to come, go). This is to go with, assemble, leave together with, cohabit.
XLV “was bewildered” = sugcheo. 5x in NT. From sun (with, together with) + cheo (to pour). This is literally to pour together, which is to say confuse, stir up, or bewilder. So, it could be to agitate a gathered group or inner perplexity.

because each oneXLVI heardXLVII them speaking in the nativeXLVIII languageXLIX of each. 

Notes on verse 6b

XLVI “one” = heis. Same as {untranslated} in v3. See note XXIII above.
XLVII “heard” = akouo. This is hear or listen, but it also means to understand by hearing. This is where the word “acoustics” comes from.
XLVIII “native” = idios. This is something that belongs to you or that is personal, private, apart. It indicates a stronger sense of possession than a simple possessive pronoun. This is where “idiot” comes from (denoting someone who hasn’t had formal training or education and so they rely on their own understanding).
XLIX “language” = dialektos. 6x in NT. From dialegomai (to discuss, preach, reason, argue, lecture); {from dia (through, across to the other side, thoroughly) + lego (to speak, tell, mention)}. This is speech, language, tongue, or dialect. It can also be mode of discourse. It is the root where “dialect” and “dialogue” come from.

AmazedL and astonished,LI they asked,LII

Notes on verse 7a

L “amazed” = existemi. 17x in NT. From ek (from, from out of) + histemi (to stand, place, establish, appoint, stand ready, be steadfast). This is to displace or take something or someone from standing. Figuratively, it is to be overwhelmed and flabbergasted – as if beside oneself. By extension, it is astonished, amazed, or mad.
LI “astonished” = thaumazo. From thauma (a wonder or marvel; used abstractly for wonderment or amazement; something that evokes emotional astonishment); may be from theaomai (to behold, look upon, see, contemplate, visit); from thaomai (to gaze at a spectacle; to look at or contemplate as a spectator; to interpret something in efforts to grasp its significance). This is to marvel, wonder, or admire. To be amazed out of one’s senses or be awestruck. Being astonished and starting to contemplate what was beheld. This root is where the word “theatre” comes from.
LII “asked” = lego. Related to “language” in v6. See note XLIX above.

“Are notLIII all these who are speaking Galileans?LIV And how is it that we hear, each of us, in our ownLV nativeLVI language?LVII 

Notes on verses 7b-8

LIII {untranslated} = idou. From eido (to be aware, see, know, remember, appreciate). This is see! Lo! Behold! Look! Used to express surprise and or draw attention to the statement.
LIV “Galileans” = Galilaios. 11x in NT. From galilaia (Galilee, the region and the sea); from Hebrew galil (cylinder, circuit, district); from galal (to roll in a literal or figurative sense, roll away, roll down, wallow, remove, trust). This is Galilean.
LV “own” = idios. Same as “native” in v6. See note XLVIII above.
LVI “native” = en + hos + gennao. Literally, “in which we were born.” Gennao is related to “came” in v2. From genna (descent, birth); from genos (family, offspring, kin – in a literal or figurative sense); from ginomai (see note IX above). This is to beget, give birth to, or bring forth. Properly, it refers to procreation by the father, but was used of the mother by extension. Figuratively, this can mean to regenerate.
LVII “language” = dialektos. Same as “language” in v6. See note XLIX above.

Parthians,LVIII Medes,LIX Elamites,LX

Notes on verse 9a

LVIII “Parthians” = Parthos. 1x in NT. From Old Persian Parthava (of the Parthians; perhaps meaning “strong man” or “champion”). This is Parthian, east of the Roman Empire. See
LIX “Medes” = Medos. 1x in NT. From Old Persian Mada (Mede); possibly from Proto-Iranian madyah (“in the middle”). This is Mede or Median. Someone from east of Assyria. See
LX “Elamites” = Elamites. 1x in NT. From Hebrew Elam (Elam, his lineage, and their land; meaning hidden or distant); probably from alam (to conceal, hide, melt, shut, neglect, escape, or melt). This is Elamite, one from north of the Persian Gulf.

and residentsLXI of Mesopotamia,LXII JudeaLXIII

Notes on verse 9b

LXI “residents” = katoikeo. Same as “living” in v5. See note XXXIX above.
LXII “Mesopotamia” = Mesopotamia. 2x in NT. From mesos (middle, among, center); {perhaps from meta (with among, behind, beyond; implies a change following contact or action)} + potamos (river, stream, water, flooded waterbed following heavy rain or snow that has melted); {from pino (to drink literally or figuratively)}. This is Mesopotamia – the land between two rivers, the Tigris and Euphrates.
LXIII “Judea” = Ioudaia. Related to “Jews” in v5. From Hebrew Yehudah (see note XXXVI above). This is Judea, which was a Roman province.

and Cappadocia,LXIV PontusLXV and Asia,LXVI 

Notes on verse 9c

LXIV “Cappadocia” = Kappadokia. 2x in NT. From Old Persian Katpatuka (Cappadocia); from Luwian (low country) or Hittite (place below). This is Cappadocia, a province in central-eastern Asia Minor. See
LXV “Pontus” = Pontos. 2x in NT. This is Pontus, which means “sea” – a region on the Black Sea.
LXVI “Asia” = Asia. 18x in NT. Perhaps from Hittite Assuwa (22 allied ancient states in Anatolia) OR Aegean Asis (muddy, silty) OR Semitic root Asu (rising or light; Asia as land to the east). This is Asia, the Roman province, which consisted of western Asia Minor. See

10 PhrygiaLXVII and Pamphylia,LXVIII EgyptLXIX

Notes on verse 10a

LXVII “Phrygia” = Phrugia. 3x in NT. “Phrygia” = phrugia. 3x in NT. From phrux (Phrygian); perhaps from Phrygian Bryges (ancient Balkan tribe); perhaps from Proto-Indo-European *bʰerǵʰ- (“high, mountain, hill”). This is Phrygia or Phrygian. It was northeastern Asia Province (Asia Minor). See
LXVIII “Pamphylia” = Pamphulia. Related to “all” in v1. 5x in NT. From pas (see note V above) + phule (clan, tribe, lineage); {from phuo (to produce, spring up, grow, germinate; perhaps originally meaning puff or blow)}. This is Pamphylia, meaning every tribe. It is a province on the southern coast of Asia Minor
LXIX “Egypt” = Aiguptos. From Egyptian ḥwt-kꜣ-ptḥ (Egypt; literally “the temple of the ka of Ptah in Memphis, Egypt”); from ḥwt (hut, large structure, palace, temple, estate) + ka (“a spiritual part of the soul in Egyptian mythology, which survived after death”; “something like ‘life-force’; the part of the soul which the living have and the dead do not…goodwill – especially of the king) + ptah (“a god of creativity and craftsmen, sometimes also identified with gods of death and the birth of the sun”; “Ptah, creator god and patron of craftsmen, worshipped at Memphis”). This is Egypt, meaning “the temple of the ka of Ptah.” See

and the partsLXX of LibyaLXXI belonging to Cyrene,LXXII

Notes on verse 10b

LXX “parts” = meros. Related to “divided” in v3. See note XVIII above.
LXXI “Libya” = Libue. 1x in NT. Perhaps from lips (southwest wind – which carries rain, the southwest). This is Libya, west of the Nile in North Africa.
LXXII “Cyrene” = Kurene. 1x in NT. Perhaps from kure (a spring); from kuros (power). This is a city in North Africa on the Mediterranean. Cyrene means perhaps “powerful one” or” high social standing.” See

and visitorsLXXIII from Rome,LXXIV both Jews and proselytes,LXXV 

Notes on verse 10c

LXXIII “visitors” = epidemeo. 2x in NT. From epi (on, upon, against, what is fitting) + demos district, multitude, rabble, assembly; Greeks bound by similar laws or customs); {from deo (to tie, bind, compel, declare unlawful)}. This is to be at home – so, to sojourn, visit, or otherwise live temporarily in a foreign city.
LXXIV “Rome” = Rhomaios. 12x in NT. From Rhome (Rome); from the base of rhonnumi (to strengthen, be firm, have health; used as a salutation in letters at the end); {probably from rhoomai (to move quickly)} OR from Latin Romulus (the one who founded Rome according to legend – many scholars believe this was suggested after the fact i.e. long after Rome was called Rome) OR from Rumon or Rumen (the Tiber river); {related to Proto-Indo-European root *srew- (to flow)} OR from Etruscan ruma (teat). This is Rome, Roman, or Roman citizen. See
LXXV “proselytes” = proselutos. Related to “gathered” in v6. 4x in NT. From proserchomai (to approach, draw near, come up to; figuratively to worship); {from pros (for, at, towards) + erchomai (see note XLIV above)}. This is a proselyte as a newcomer to Judaism. A convert to Judaism would have been circumcised and a begun to follow the Law. It could also be a foreigner.

11 CretansLXXVI and ArabsLXXVII—in our ownLXXVIII

Notes on verse 11a

LXXVI “Cretans” = Kres. 2x in NT. From Krete (Crete, a Mediterranean island); {from krus (a hero of myth) OR from Luwian kursatta or kursawar (island) or Luwian kursattar (cutting, silver)}. This is Crete or Cretan. See
LXXVII “Arabs” = Araps. 1x in NT. From Arabia (Arabia); from Hebrew Arab (Arabia, “steppe dwellers”); from arab (grow dark, become evening); from ereb (evening, sunset, night) OR from Arabic ‘arab (Arabic, declare, trade). This is Arabia. See
LXXVIII “own” = hemeteros. 8x in NT. From hemeis (we ourselves); from ego (I, me). This is our, our own – it is not a simple possessive pronounce, but one that is intensified.

languagesLXXIX we hear them speaking about God’sLXXX deeds of power.”LXXXI 

Notes on verse 11b

LXXIX “languages” = glossa. Same as “tongues” in v3. See note XIX above.
LXXX “God’s” = Theos. From Proto-Indo-European origins, meaning do, put, place. This is God or a god in general.
LXXXI “deeds of power” = megaleios. 1x in NT. From megas (great, exceeding, abundant; big in a literal or figurative sense). This is magnificent, grand, perfection, mighty deed.

12 All were amazed and perplexed,LXXXII sayingLXXXIII to oneLXXXIV another, LXXXV“What does this mean?”LXXXVI 

Notes on verse 12

LXXXII “perplexed” = diaporeo. 4x in NT. From dia (through, across to the other side, thoroughly) + aporeo (perplexed, in doubt; mentally at a loss); {from a (not, without) + poros (way, resource)}. This is in trouble or doubt, having difficulty. This is being perplexed because you can’t find a solution.
LXXXIII “saying” = lego. Same as “asked” in v7. See note LII above.
LXXXIV “one” = allos. This is other, another. Specifically, it is another of a similar kind or type. There is a different word in Greek that speaks of another as a different kind (heteros).
LXXXV “another” = allos. Same as “one” in v12. See note LXXXIII above.
LXXXVI “what does this mean” = tis + thelo + houtos + eimi. Literally, “what does this wish to be?” Thelo is to wish, desire, will, or intend. It is to choose or prefer in a literal or figurative sense. It can also mean inclined toward or take delight in. It can have a sense of being ready to act on the impulse in question. Eimi is the same as “were” in v1. See note IV above.

13 But others sneeredLXXXVII and said, “They are filledLXXXVIII with new wine.”LXXXIX

Notes on verse 13

LXXXVII “sneered” = cheluazo. 2x in NT. From chleue (jest or joke) OR from a derivative of cheilos (lip, shore, brink; figuratively, language or dialect, brim of a pitcher); from the same as chasma (gap, gulf, chasm, open space); from chasko (to gape, yawn); from chao (to gape or yawn). This is to throw one’s lip at, jeer, joke, sneer, mock, ridicule.
LXXXVIII “filled” = mestoo. 1x in NT. From mestos (full or filled with in a literal or figurative sense). This is to fill or replenish, used to imply intoxication.
LXXXIX “new wine” = gleukos. 1x in NT. From glukus (sweet, fresh). This is sweet new wine. This root is where “glucose” comes from.

14 But Peter,XC standingXCI with the eleven,XCII raisedXCIII his voiceXCIV and addressedXCV them,

Notes on verse 14a

XC “Peter” = Petros. Related to petra (large rock that is connected and or projecting like a rock, ledge, or cliff; can also be cave or stony ground). This is Peter, a stone, pebble, or boulder.
XCI “standing” = histemi. Related to “amazed” in v7. See note L above.
XCII “eleven” = hendeka. Related to “Pentecost” in v1 & to {untranslated} in v3. 6x in NT– all referring to the apostles minus Judas. From heis (see note XXIII above) + deka (see note II above). This is eleven.
XCIII “raised” = epairo. Related to “heaven” in v2. 19x in NT. From epi (on, upon, among, what is fitting) + airo (see note VIII above). This is to lift up or raise in a literal or figurative sense. Figuratively, it could mean to exalt oneself.
XCIV “voice” = phone. Same as “sound” in v6. See note XLII above.
XCV “addressed” = apophtheggomai. Same as “ability” in v4. See note XXXIII above.

“FellowXCVI Jews and all who live in Jerusalem, let this be knownXCVII to you, and listenXCVIII to what I say.XCIX 

Notes on verse 14b

XCVI “fellow” = aner. Same as {untranslated} in v5. See note XXXIV above.
XCVII “known” = gnostos. 15x in NT. From ginosko (to know, recognize, realize, perceive, learn; gaining knowledge through personal experience). This is known or acquaintance.
XCVIII “listen” = enotizomai. 1x in NT. From en (in, on, at, by, with) + ous (the ear, the ability to hear/perceive). This is to listen or give ear.
XCIX “say” = rhema. Literally, “my words.” From rheo (to speak, command, make, say, speak of); from ereo (to all, say, speak of, tell; denotes ongoing speech). This is word, which implies a matter or thing spoken, a command, report, promise, thing, or business. Often used for narration, commands, or disputes.

15 Indeed, these are not drunk,C as you suppose,CI for it is only nine o’clock in the morning.CII 

Notes on verse 15

C “drunk” = methuo. 6x in NT. From methu (wine) OR from methe (drunkenness, an intoxicant). This is to drink freely, be drunk.
CI “suppose” = hupolambano. Related to “devout” in v5. 5x in NT. From hupo (by, under, about, subordinate to) + lambano (see note XXXV above). This is to take up or bear up, to receive. It can also mean to welcome or entertain. Further, it can mean to take up discussion of a topic, to suppose, or imagine.
CII “nine o’clock in the morning” = hora + tritos + ho + hemera. Literally, “third hour of the day.” Hora is a set time or period, an hour, instant, or season. This is where the word “hour” comes from. Tritos is from treis (three). This is third. Hemera is the same as “day” in v1. See note I above.

16 No, this is what was spokenCIII through the prophetCIV Joel:CV

Notes on verse 16

CIII “spoken” = ereo. Related to “say” in v14. See note XCIX above.
CIV “prophet” = prophetes. Related to “suddenly” in v2 & “sound” in v6. From pro (before, in front of, earlier than) + phemi (see note XLII above). This is a prophet or poet – one who speaks with inspiration from God.
CV “Joel” = Ioel. 1x in NT. From Hebrew Yo’el (Joel, meaning “the Lord is God”); {from YHVH (the holy name of the God of Israel, generally designated Lord; the self-existent and eternal one; the tetragrammaton); {from havah (to become); or from hayah (to be become, happen)}) + El (God, a god)}. This is Joel, meaning “the Lord is God.”

17 ‘In the lastCVI days it will be, God declares,CVII
that I will pour outCVIII my Spirit upon all flesh,CIX

Notes on verse 17a

CVI “last” = eschatos. Related to eschaton (end, last); perhaps from echo (to have, possess, hold). This is last, end, extreme, final. It is often used to discuss the end times, prophecies of the future, and the afterlife. The branch of theology focusing on all these topics is called “eschatology.”
CVII “declares” = lego. Same as “asked” in v7. See note LII above.
CVIII “pour out” = ekcheo. Related to “was bewildered” in v6. From ek (from, from out of) + cheo (see note XLV above). This is something poured out in a liberal fashion. So, it is gushing, spilling, or shedding.
CIX “flesh” = sarx. May be from saroo (to sweep, cleanse by sweeping); from sairo (to brush off). This is flesh, the body, human nature, materiality, kindred. Flesh is not always evil in scripture (as when it refers to Jesus taking on a human body). However, it is generally used in a negative way for actions made selfishly and not through faith. This can mean animal flesh, i.e. meat, or refer to body in contrast to soul/spirit. Flesh can be a way of talking about how things or people are related or talking about human frailty (physical or moral).

    and your sonsCX and your daughtersCXI shall prophesy,CXII
and your young menCXIII shall seeCXIV visions,CXV

Notes on verse 17b

CX “sons” = huios. This is son, descendant – a son whether natural born or adopted. It can be used figuratively for other forms of kinship.
CXI “daughters” = thugater. This is daughter, a related female or one who lives with you.
CXII “prophesy” = propheteuo. Related to “suddenly” in v2 & “sound” in v6 & “prophet” in v16. From prophetes (see note CIV above). This is to prophesy, foretell, or tell forth.
CXIII “young men” = neaniskos. 11x in NT. From neanias (youth, young man; someone in their prime to the age of 40); from neos (young, new, youth, person). This is a youth or young man in their prime up to 40.
CXIV “see” = horao. Same as “appeared” in v3. See note XXI above.
CXV “visions” = horasis. Related to “appeared” in v3. 4x in NT. From horao (see note XXI above). This is gazing, appearance, sight.

    and your old menCXVI shall dreamCXVII dreams.CXVIII

Notes on verse 17c

CXVI “old men” = presbuteros. From presbus (old man). This is an elder as one of the Sanhedrin and also in the Christian assembly in the early church.
CXVII “dream” = enupniazomai. Related to “dreams” in v17. 2x in NT. From enupnion (see note CXVIII below). This is to dream as a vision in sleep or a dreamer.
CXVIII “dreams” = enupnion. 1x in NT. From en (in, on, at, by, with) + hupnos (sleep literal or figurative); {perhaps related to hupo (by, under, about, subordinate to)}. This is a dream or vision.

18 EvenCXIX upon my slaves,CXX both men and women,CXXI
    in those days I will pour out my Spirit,
        and they shall prophesy.

Notes on verse 18

CXIX “even” = ge. 16x in NT. This is a particle of emphasis – indeed, besides, doubtless, yet, at least.
CXX “slaves” = doulos. Related to “visitors” in v10. Perhaps from deo (see note LXXIII above). This is used for a servant or for a slave, enslaved. It refers to someone who belongs to someone else. But, it could be voluntary (choosing to be enslaved to pay off debt) or involuntary (captured in war and enslaved). It is used as a metaphor for serving Christ. Slavery was not inherited (i.e. the children of slaves were not assumed to be slaves) and slaves could buy their way to freedom. Slavery was generally on a contractual basis (that is for the duration of how long it took you to pay your debt and/or save up enough money to buy your freedom).
CXXI “women” = doule. Related to “visitors” in v10 & “slaves” in v18. 3x in NT– 2x of Mary, 1x of Pentecost. From doulos (see note CXX above). This is female slave or bondservant.

19 And I will showCXXII portentsCXXIII in the heaven aboveCXXIV

Notes on verse 19a

CXXII “show” = didomi. Same as “gave” in v4. See note XXXII above.
CXXIII “portents” = teras. 16x in NT. This is a wonder or marvel performed to get bystanders to react. It could also be a portent or omen.
CXXIV “above” = ano. 9x in NT. From ana (up, back, again, among, between, anew). This is literally up, upward, to the brim. Figuratively, it can refer to things above, i.e. of the heavens.

    and signsCXXV on the earthCXXVI below,CXXVII

Notes on verse 19b

CXXV “signs” = semeion. From the same as semaino (to give a sign, signify, indicate, make known); from sema (a sign or mark). It is literally a sign of any kind. It also refers to a sign given by God to confirm or authenticate a message or prophecy. It is not necessarily miraculous, but it can be. The Gospel of John generally uses this word instead of miracle.
CXXVI “earth” = ge. This is earth, land, soil, region, country, the inhabitants of an area.
CXXVII “below” = kato. 10x in NT. From kata (down, against, throughout, among). This is down, below, lower, bottom, under.

        blood,CXXVIII and fire, and smokyCXXIX mist.CXXX

Notes on verse 19c

CXXVIII “blood” = haima. This is blood in a literal sense as bloodshed. Figuratively, it can also be used to refer to wine or to kinship (being related).
CXXIX “smoky” = kapnos. 13x in NT– 1x in Acts on Pentecost and all others in the book of Revelation. This is smoke.
CXXX “mist” = atmis. 2x in NT. Perhaps from the same as aer (air that we breathe); from aemi (to breathe or blow). This is breath, steam, vapor, or mist.

20 The sunCXXXI shall be turnedCXXXII to darknessCXXXIII
    and the moonCXXXIV to blood,

Notes on verse 20a

CXXXI “sun” = helios. This is sun, which would imply light in general or the east.
CXXXII “turned” = metastrepho. 3x in NT. From meta (with among, behind, beyond; implies a change following contact or action) + strepho (to turn, change, turn back, be converted; to turn around completely to take the opposite path or a completely different one); {from trope (turning, shifting, a revolution; figuratively, a variation); from trepo (to turn)}. This is to turn, change, distort, corrupt, or transmute.
CXXXIII “darkness” = skotos. Perhaps from the base of skia (shadow, thick darkness, outline; figurative for a spiritual situation that is good or bad). This is darkness literal or figurative – as moral or spiritual darkness, sin and what comes from it. This can also mean obscurity.
CXXXIV “moon” = selene. 9x in NT. From selas (bright flame). This is moon as bright.

        before the comingCXXXV of the Lord’sCXXXVI greatCXXXVII and gloriousCXXXVIII day.

Notes on verse 20b

CXXXV “coming” = erchomai. Related to “gathered” in v6 & “proselytes” in v11. See note XLIV above.
CXXXVI “Lord’s” = Kurios. From kuros (authority, supremacy). This is a respectful address meaning master or sir. It refers to one who has control or power greater than one’s own. So, it was also applied to God and Jesus as Master or Lord.
CXXXVII “great” = megas. Related to “deeds of power” in v11. See note LXXXI above.
CXXXVIII “glorious” = epiphanes. Related to “suddenly” in v2 & “sound” in v6 & “prophet” in v16 & to “ability” in v4. 1x in NT. From epiphaino (to shine on, give light to); {from epi (on, upon, among, what is fitting) + phaino (see note VII above)}. This is visible, notable, or manifest. It can also be splendid, memorable, or glorious.

21 Then everyoneCXXXIX who calls onCXL the nameCXLI of the Lord shall be saved.’CXLII

Notes on verse 21

CXXXIX “everyone” = pas. Same as “all” in v1. See note V above.
CXL “calls on” = epikaleo. From epi (on, upon, among, what is fitting) + kaleo (to call by name, invite, to name, bid, summon, call aloud); {related to keleuo (to command, order, direct); from kelomai (to urge on)}. This is to call on, appeal to, worship, invoke for help.
CXLI “name” = onoma. Related to “known” in v14. May be from ginosko (see note XCVII above). This is a name, authority, cause, character, fame, reputation. The name was thought to include something of the essence of the person so it was not thought to be separate from the person.
CXLII “saved” = sozo. From sos (safe, rescued, well). This is to save, heal, preserve, or rescue. Properly, this is taking someone from danger to safety. It can be delivering or protecting literally or figuratively. This is the root that “savior” and “salvation” come from in Greek.

22 “Fellow Israelites,CXLIII listenCXLIV to what I have to say:CXLV

Notes on verse 22a

CXLIII “Israelites” = Israelites. Related to “Joel” in v16. 9x in NT. From Israel (Israel, the people and land); from Hebrew Yisrael (God strives or one who strives with God; new name for Jacob and for his offspring); {from sarah (to persist, exert oneself, contend, persevere, wrestle, prevail) + El (see note CV above)}. This is Israel the people and the land. This is Israelite in a literal or figurative sense.
CXLIV “listen” = akouo. Same as “heard” in v6. See note XLVII above.
CXLV “what I have to say” = ho + logos + houtos. Literally, “these words.” Logos is related to “language” in v6 & “asked” in v7. From lego (see note XLIX above). This is word, statement, speech, analogy. It is a word that carries an idea or expresses a thought, a saying. It could refer to a person with a message or reasoning laid out in words. By implication, this could be a topic, line of reasoning, or a motive. It can be used for a divine utterance or as Word – Christ.

JesusCXLVI of Nazareth,CXLVII a man attestedCXLVIII to you by God

Notes on verse 22b

CXLVI “Jesus” = Iesous. Related to “Joel” in v16. From Hebrew Yehoshua (Joshua, the Lord is salvation); {from YHVH (see note CV above) + yasha (to deliver, defend, help, preserve, rescue; properly, to be open, wide or free, which implies being safe. So, in a causative sense, this is to free someone)}. This is Jesus or Joshua in Greek – the Lord saves or the Lord is salvation.
CXLVII “Nazareth” = Nazoraios. 13x in NT. Probably from nazara (Nazareth); perhaps from netser (branch) OR from natsar (to watch, guard, protect). This is Nazarene. See
CXLVIII “attested” = apodeiknumi. 4x in NT. From apo (from, away from) + deiknumi (to show, point out, exhibit; figurative for teach, demonstrate, make known). This is to demonstrate or show with proof. It is showing that something is what it claims.

with deeds of power,CXLIX wonders,CL and signs that God didCLI through him amongCLII you, as you yourselves knowCLIII— 

Notes on verse 22c

CXLIX “deeds of power” = dunamis. From dunamai (to be able, have power or ability). This is might, strength, physical power, efficacy, energy, and miraculous power. It is force literally or figuratively – the power of a miracle or the miracle itself.
CL “wonders” = teras. Same as “portents” in v19. See note CXXIII above.
CLI “did” = poieo. This is to make, do, act, construct, abide, or cause.
CLII “among” = mesos. Related to “Mesopotamia” in v9. See note LXII above.
CLIII “know” = eido. Related to {untranslated} in v7. See note LIII above.

23 this man, handed overCLIV to you according to the definiteCLV planCLVI and foreknowledgeCLVII of God,

Notes on verse 23a

CLIV “handed over” = ekdotos. Related to “gave” in v4. 1x in NT. From ek (from, from out of) + didomi (see note XXXII above). This is give out, surrender.
CLV “definite” = horizo. 8x in NT. From the same as horion (boundary, territory); from horos (limit, boundary). This is to determine, set boundaries, appoint, designate, pre-determined. Literally, this is setting horizons.
CLVI “plan” = boule. 12x in NT. From boulomai (to wish, desire, intend; to plan with great determination). This is counsel, plan, purpose, decision. It refers to wisdom that comes from deliberation.
CLVII “foreknowledge” = prognosis. Related to “known” in v14 & “name” in v21. 2x in NT. From proginosko (to know beforehand, foresee); {from pro (before, in front of, earlier than) + ginosko (see note XCVII above)}. This is foreknowledge or a previous determination.

you crucifiedCLVIII and killedCLIX by the handsCLX of those outside the law.CLXI 

Notes on verse 23b

CLVIII “crucified” = prospegnumi. 1x in NT. From pros (at, to, toward). This is to fasten to – used specifically for crucifixion.
CLIX “killed” = anaireo. Related to “heaven” in v2 & “raised” in v14. From ana (up, back, among, again, anew) + haireo (to take, choose, or prefer) {probably related to airo (see note VIII above)}. This is to take up or away, which implies taking with violence. So, this is used for murdering, executing, and slaying.
CLX “hands” = cheir. This is the hand in a literal sense. Figuratively, the hand is the means a person uses to accomplish things so it can also mean power, means, or instrument.
CLXI “those outside the law” = anomos. 10x in NT. From a (not, without) + nomos (what is assigned – usage, law, custom, principle; used for the law in general or of God’s law; sometimes used to refer to the first five books of the Bible or the entire Old Testament; also used to refer to theology or the practice and tradition of interpreting and implementing the law of God); {from nemo (to parcel out, assign)}. This is literally without law. So, it could refer to someone who disregards authority or one who is not under the law (i.e. a Gentile). It can be lawless, wicked, or a transgressor.

24 But God raised him up,CLXII having releasedCLXIII him from the agonyCLXIV

Notes on verse 24a

CLXII “raised…up” = anistemi. Related to “amazed” in v7 & “standing” in v14. From ana (upwards, up, again, back, anew) + histemi (see note L above). This is to raise up, rise, appear. It is to stand up literally or figuratively. Can also mean to resurrect.
CLXIII “released” = luo. This is to loose, release, or untie. Figuratively, it can mean to break, destroy, or annul. This is releasing what had been withheld.
CLXIV “agony” = odin. 4x in NT. Akin to odune (pain, distress, or anguish, whether physical or mental); perhaps from duno (to enter, sink into; can also be set like the sun); from duo (to sink). This is severe agony, a snare, the pain from childbirth. It can refer figuratively to pain and difficulty that comes from ushering in something new.

of death,CLXV because it was impossibleCLXVI for him to be heldCLXVII in its power. 

Notes on verse 24b

CLXV “death” = thanatos. From thnesko (to die, be dead). This is death, whether literal or spiritual. It can also refer to something that is fatal.
CLXVI “impossible” = oudunatos. Dunatos is related to “deeds of power” in v22. From dunamai (see note CXLIX above). This is mighty or powerful. It speaks of ability of persons, possibility of things. It is what can be given the power or ability that the subject exhibits. The root verb is also related to miracles i.e. deeds of power.
CLXVII “be held” = krateo. From kratos (strength, power, dominion; vigor in a literal or figurative sense; power that is exercised). This is being strong or mighty so, by extension, to prevail or rule. It can also mean to seize, grasp hold of and thereby control.

25 For DavidCLXVIII says concerning him,

‘I sawCLXIX the Lord alwaysCLXX beforeCLXXI me,
    for he is at my right handCLXXII so that I will not be shaken;CLXXIII

Notes on verse 25

CLXVIII “David” = Dauid. From Hebrew David (David); from the same as dod (beloved, love, uncle); the root may mean to boil, which is used figuratively to describe love. So, this implies someone you love such as a friend, a lover, or a close family member like an uncle. David’s name likely means something like “beloved one.”
CLXIX “saw” = proorao. Related to “appeared” in v3 & “visions” in v17. 4x in NT. From pro (before, first, in front of, earlier) + horao (see note XXI above). This is to see previously, pay attention to, be mindful of, foresee.
CLXX “always” = dia + pas. Literally, “through everything.” Pas is the same as “all” in v1. See note V above.
CLXXI “before” = enopion. Related to “appeared” in v3 & “visions” in v17 & “saw” in v25. From en (in, on, at, by with) + ops (eye, face); {from optanomai (to appear, be seen); from horao (see note XXI above)}. This is literally “in the eye of” and is used for before or in the presence of.
CLXXII “right hand” = dexios. Perhaps from dechomai (to warmly receive, be ready for what is offered, take, accept, or welcome; to receive in a literal or figurative sense). This is right, right side, or the right hand.
CLXXIII “be shaken” = saleuo. 15x in NT. From salos (tossing, agitation, rolling – as the sea swells). This is to agitate or shake up. It can be disturb, topple, incite, or destroy.

26 therefore my heartCLXXIV was glad,CLXXV and my tongue rejoiced;CLXXVI
    moreover, my flesh will liveCLXXVII in hope.CLXXVIII

Notes on verse 26

CLXXIV “heart” = kardia. Literally the heart, but figuratively mind, character, inner self, will, intention, thoughts, feelings. Also, the center of something. The word heart is only used figuratively in the Old and New Testaments. This is where “cardiac” comes from.
CLXXV “was glad” = euphraino. Related to “devout” in v5. 14x in NT. From eu (see note XXXV above) + phren (diaphragm, heart, intellect, understanding; figurative for personal opinion or inner mindset; thought regulating action; sympathy, feelings, cognition); {perhaps from phrao (to rein in or curb)}. This is to be glad, revel, feast. It is having a positive outlook, rejoicing.
CLXXVI “rejoiced” = agalliao. 11x in NT. From agallomai (to exalt, make glorious) {from agan (much, very) + hallomai (to leap or leap up; when referring to water, springing up or bubbling up; to jump or figuratively to gush)}. This is properly joy that prompts you to jump up. It is a full body experience of joy: exulting, rejoicing, or even boasting from joy.
CLXXVII “live” = kataskenoo. 4x in NT. From kata (down, against, throughout, among) + skenoo (to encamp, pitch a tent, dwell); {from skenos (tent, booth, tabernacle, or dwelling)}. It could be a cloth hut. This is a tent in a literal or figurative sense ); {perhaps related to skeuos (vessel, tool, container, implement; also vessel in a figurative or literal sense) or perhaps related to skia (shadow, thick darkness, outline; figurative for a spiritual situation that is good or bad)}. This is to encamp or dwell. It is used figuratively for to lodge, stay or rest.
CLXXVIII “hope” = elpis. From elpo (to anticipate, welcome, expect; usually to anticipate positively). This is expectation, hope, trust, confidence faith. The expectation can be abstract or concrete.

27 For you will not abandonCLXXIX my soulCLXXX to HadesCLXXXI

Notes on verse 27a

CLXXIX “abandon” = egkataleipo. From en (in, on, at, by, with) + kataleipo (to leave or leave behind, abandon, forsake, leave in reserve); {from kata (down, against, throughout, among) + leipo (to leave behind, remain, lack, abandon, fall behind while racing)}. This is left behind, left as a remainder, desert, forsake. Properly, it means to leave someone or something wanting or lacking – so, to forsake or cause someone to be helpless in a serious scenario.
CLXXX “soul” = psuche. From psucho (to breathe, blow). This is breath, the breath of life, the self, individual, soul. This is the word for that which makes a person unique – their identity, will, personality, affections. This isn’t the soul as the immortal part of us, but as our individuality. It is also not life as a general concept, but specific to people. This is where the words psyche and psychology come from.
CLXXXI “Hades” = Hades. Related to “appeared” in v3 & “visions” in v17 & “saw” and “before” in v25. 10x in NT. From a (not, without) + horao (see note XXI above). This is Literally, the world that is not seen. It is Hades, hell, the place where the dead reside. It can also refer to the grave.

    or letCLXXXII your Holy OneCLXXXIII experienceCLXXXIV corruption.CLXXXV

Notes on verse 27b

CLXXXII “let” = didomi. Same as “gave” in v4. See note XXXII above.
CLXXXIII “Holy One” = Hosios. 8x in NT. This is righteous, pious, holy, devout, or Holy One. This refers to what is worthy or respect or reverence because it corresponds to a higher law, particularly God’s law. It can be contrasted with dikaios (just according to law and statue) & hieros (formally consecrated) & hagios (pure, sacred, free from ritual defilement).
CLXXXIV “experience” = horao. Same as “appeared” in v3. See note XXI above.
CLXXXV “corruption” = diaphthora. 6x in NT. From diaphtheiro (to destroy, spoil, corrupt, disintegrate, decay; it can refer to the effect of moral or spiritual impurity); {from dia (through, across to the other side, thoroughly) + from phtheiro (to destroy, corrupt, ruin, deteriorate, wither; also used of moral corruption); {from phthio (perish, waste away)}}. This is destruction, corruption, or decay.

28 You have made knownCLXXXVI to me the waysCLXXXVII of life;CLXXXVIII

Notes on verse 28a

CLXXXVI “known” = gnorizo. Related to “known” in v14 & “name” in v21 & “foreknowledge” in v23. From ginosko (see note XCVII above). This is to declare, know, discover, make known.
CLXXXVII “ways” = hodos. This is way, road, path, or journey. It can imply progress along a route.
CLXXXVIII “life” = zoe. From zao (to live, be alive). This is life including the vitality of humans, plants, and animals – it is life physical and spiritual and life everlasting.

    you will make me fullCLXXXIX of gladnessCXC with your presence.’CXCI

Notes on verse 28b

CLXXXIX “make…full” = pleroo. Same as “filled” in v2. See note XIV above.
CXC “gladness” = euphrosune. Related to “devout” in v5 & “was glad” in v26 & to “was glad” in v26. 2x in NT. From eu (see note XXXV above) + phren (see note CLXXV above). This is gladness, rejoicing, or joy.
CXCI “presence” = prosopon. Related to “appeared” in v3 & “visions” in v17 & “saw” and “before” in v25 & “Hades” in v27. From pros (at, towards, with) + ops (see note CLXXI above). This is the face, surface, or front. It can imply presence more generally.

29 “Fellow Israelites,CXCII I mayCXCIII say to you confidentlyCXCIV

Notes on verse 29a

CXCII “Israelites” = adelphos. From a (with, community, fellowship) + delphus (womb). This is a brother in a literal or figurative sense. It is also used of another member of the Church.
CXCIII “may” = exesti. Related to “were” in v1. From ek (out, out of) + eimi (see note IV above). This is what is permitted or what is allowed under the law. It can mean what is right, what holds moral authority, or, more broadly, something that is shown out in public.
CXCIV “confidently” = parresia. Related to “all” in v1 & “Pamphylia” in v10 & to “say” in v14 & “spoken” in v16. From pas (see note V above) + rhesis (speech); {from rheo (see note XCIX above)}. This is confidence, openness, boldness, outspokenness. It can imply assurance – free speech.

of our ancestorCXCV David that he both diedCXCVI and was buried,CXCVII and his tombCXCVIII is with us to this day. 

Notes on verse 29b

CXCV “ancestor” = patriarches. Related to “began” in v4. 4x in NT. From patria (lineage, family, kindred, nation); {from pater (father in a literal or figurative sense)} + archo (see note XXVIII above). This is patriarch, founder, or head of a family.
CXCVI “died” = teleutao. 13x in NT. From teleute (end, finishing, consummation; can also be used for death); from teleo (to complete, fulfill, accomplish, end); from telos (an end, aim, purpose, completion, end goal, consummation, tax; going through the steps to complete a stage or phase and then moving on to the next one). This is to complete or come to the end/end goal. It can also mean to finish life or to meet one’s ultimate fate in heaven or hell.
CXCVII “buried” = thapto. 11x in NT. This is to bury or hold a funeral.
CXCVIII “tomb” = mnema. 8x in NT. From mnaomai (to remember; by implication give reward or consequence); perhaps from meno (to stay, abide, wait, endure). This is memorial, tomb, or monument.

30 Since he wasCXCIX a prophet, he knewCC that God had swornCCI with an oathCCII to him

Notes on verse 30a

CXCIX “was” = huparcho. Related to “began” in v4 & “ancestor” in v29. From hupo (by, under, about, subordinate to) + archo (see note XXVIII above). This is to begin or be ready, to exist or possess. It is what one already has or possesses.
CC “knew” = eido. Same as “know” in v22. See note CLIII above.
CCI “sworn” = omnuo. This is to swear, to make an oath.
CCII “oath” = horkos. Related to “definite” in v23. 10x in NT. Related to erkos (fence, enclosure); perhaps related to horion (see note CLV above). This is an oath or vow. It is something with limits, done for a sacred purpose.

that he would putCCIII one of his descendantsCCIV on his throne.CCV 

Notes on verse 30b

CCIII “put” = kathizo. Same as “rested” in v3. See note XXII above.
CCIV “his descendants” = karpos + ho + osphus + autos. Literally, “fruit of his loins.” Karpos is related to “heaven” in v2 & “raised” in v14 & “killed” in v23. Perhaps from harpazo (to seize by force, snatch away); from haireo (see note CLIX above). This is a fruit or vegetable, through sometimes it refers to an animal. Figuratively, it is deeds, results, profits, or gain. Osphus is 8x in NT. This is waist, hips, or loins.
CCV “throne” = thronos. Probably from thanos (bench); from thrao (to sit). This is throne or seat – the place where the king sits. So, it is used figuratively to mean power, dominion, or a potentate. This is where the word “throne” comes from.

31 ForeseeingCCVI this, David spokeCCVII of the resurrectionCCVIII of the Messiah,CCIX saying,

‘He was not abandoned to Hades,
    nor did his flesh experience corruption.’

Notes on verse 31

CCVI “foreseeing” = proorao. Same as “saw” in v25. See note CLXIX above.
CCVII “spoke” = laleo. Same as “speak” in v4. See note XXIX above.
CCVIII “resurrection” = anastasis. Related to “amazed” in v7 & “standing” in v14 & “raised…up” in v24. From anistemi (see note CLXII above). This is literally standing up or standing again. It is used figuratively for recovering a spiritual truth. It can be raising up, rising, or resurrection.
CCIX “Messiah” = Christos. From chrio (consecrate by anointing with oil; often done for prophets, priests, or kings). Literally, the anointed one, Christ. The Greek word for Messiah.

32 “This Jesus God raised up,CCX and of that all of us are witnesses.CCXI 33 Being therefore exaltedCCXII at the right hand of God and having receivedCCXIII

Notes on verses 32-33a

CCX “raised up” = anistemi. Same as “raised…up” in v24. See note CLXII above.
CCXI “witnesses” = martus. This is a witness whether having heard or seen something. It refers to a witness literally, judicially, or figuratively. By analogy, this is a martyr. This is also where the word “martyr” comes from.
CCXII “exalted” = hupsoo. From hupsos (height, high position, heaven, dignity, eminence; elevation, altitude; to be exalted); from hupsi (on high, aloft); from huper (over, above, beyond). This is to elevate in a literal or figurative sense. So it could be to raise up or set something in a high place or to exalt or make something great.
CCXIII “received” = lambano. Related to “devout” in v5 & “suppose” in v15. See note XXXV above.

from the FatherCCXIV the promiseCCXV of the HolyCCXVI Spirit, he has poured out this that you seeCCXVII and hear. 

Notes on verse 33b

CCXIV “Father” = Pater. Related to “ancestor” in v29. See note CXCV above.
CCXV “promise” = epaggelia. From epi (on, upon, against, what is fitting) + aggello (to announce, report); {from aggelos (angel, messenger); probably from ago (to lead, bring, carry, guide, drive)}. This is a summons, promise, or message. It is a formal promise that is officially sanctioned. In the New Testament, this usually refers to a promise made in the Old Testament.
CCXVI “Holy” = Hagios. Same as “Holy” in v4. See XXVI note above.
CCXVII “see” = blepo. This is literally to see – it is primarily used in the physical sense. However, figuratively it can be seeing, which includes attention and so to watchfulness, being observant, perceiving, and acting on the visual information. It can also mean beware.

34 For David did not ascendCCXVIII into the heavens, but he himself says,

‘The Lord said to my Lord,
“Sit at my right hand,
35     until I makeCCXIX your enemiesCCXX your footstool.”’CCXXI

Notes on verses 34-35

CCXVIII “ascend” = anabaino. From ana (up, back, among, again, anew) + the same as basis (step, hence foot; a pace); {from baino (to walk, to go)}. This is to come up in a literal or figurative sense – ascent, rise, climb, enter.
CCXIX “make” = tithemi. This is to put, place, set, fix, establish in a literal or figurative sense. Properly, it is placing something in a passive or horizontal position.
CCXX “enemies” = echthros. From echthos (hatred). This is an openly hostile person so an enemy, a foe, or a hated person. This speaks of irreconcilable hostility. It can also mean adversary and/or refer to Satan.
CCXXI “footstool” = hupopodion + ho + pous + su. Literally, “stool of your feet.” Hupopodion is 7x in NT.  From hupo (by, under, about, under one’s authority) + pous (foot in a figurative or literal sense). This is literally under the feet. So, it is a footstool or footrest. It is also used figuratively to depict a king as one who has conquered his enemies. This is the same root that “podium” comes from. Pous is related to “footstool” in v35. See above.

36 “Therefore let the entireCCXXII house of IsraelCCXXIII knowCCXXIV with certaintyCCXXV that God has madeCCXXVI him both Lord and Messiah, this Jesus whom you crucified.”CCXXVII

Notes on verse 36

CCXXII “entire” = pas. Same as “all” in v1. See note V above.
CCXXIII “Israel” = Israel. Related to “Joel” in v16 & “Israelites” in v22. See note CXLIII above.
CCXXIV “know” = ginosko. Related to “known” in v14 & “name” in v21 & “foreknowledge” in v23 & “known” in v28. See note XCVII above.
CCXXV “certainty” = asphalos. 3x in NT. From asphales (certain, reliable, secure, definite; literally unfailing – something that is secure because it is solid and constructed on something that will not fall or slip; it is literal or figurative); {from a (not, without) + sphallo (to trip up or fail)}. This is securely in a literal or figurative sense. Also, it’s certainly, steadfastly, or assuredly.
CCXXVI “made” = poieo. Same as “did” in v22. See note CLI above.
CCXXVII “crucified” = stauroo. Related to “amazed” in v7 & “standing” in v14 & “raised…up” in v24 & “resurrection” in v31. From stauros (upright stake, cross; literally the horizontal beam of a Roman cross, generally carried by the one convicted to die); from the same as histemi (see note L above). This can be to attach someone to a cross or fencing with stakes. In a figurative sense, it could be to destroy, mortify, or subdue passions/selfishness.

37 Now when they heard this, they were cutCCXXVIII to the heart and said to Peter and to the otherCCXXIX apostles,CCXXXCCXXXIBrothers,CCXXXII what should we do?” 

Notes on verse 37

CCXXVIII “cut” = katanusso. 1x in NT. From kata (down, against, according to, throughout) + nusso (to pierce, strike, nudge). This is to pierce, sting, cause pain physically or emotionally, agitate.
CCXXIX “other” = loipos. Related to “abandon” in v27. From leipo (see note CLXXIX above). This is the rest, remained, remnant, other, residue.
CCXXX “apostles” = apostolos. Related to “amazed” in v7 & “standing” in v14 & “raised…up” in v24 & “resurrection” in v31 & “crucified” in v36. From apostello (to send, send away, send forth as a messenger, to commission); {from apo (from, away from) + stello (to set, arrange, prepare, provide for); {probably from histemi (see note L above)}}. This is a messenger – someone sent out on a mission as an envoy or delegate. It can also refer to someone set at liberty. Generally, this is a messenger who is meant to be a representative of the one who sent them. They are thus, set apart on a mission literally or figuratively.
CCXXXI {untranslated} = aner. Same as {untranslated} in v5. See note XXXIV above.
CCXXXII “brothers” = adelphos. Same as “Israelites” in v29. See note CXCII above.

38 Peter saidCCXXXIII to them, “RepentCCXXXIV and be baptizedCCXXXV every oneCCXXXVI of you

Notes on verse 38a

CCXXXIII “said” = phemi. Related to “suddenly” in v2 & “sound” in v6 & “prophet” in v16 & “prophesy” in v17. See note XLII above.
CCXXXIV “repent” = metanoeo. Related to “known” in v14 & “name” in v21 & “foreknowledge” in v23 & “known” in v28 & “know” in v36. From meta (with, among, after, beyond) + noieo (to perceive, think, understand); {from nous (mind, understanding, reasoning faculty, intellect, capacity to reflect); from ginosko (see note XCVII above)}. This is to change how one thinks, to reconsider, to repent. It refers to a change of thinking, which means a change of purpose and behavior.
CCXXXV “baptized” = baptizo. From bapto (to dip or dye; to entirely cover with liquid, to stain). This is to submerge, wash, or immerse. Used specially for baptism.
CCXXXVI “every one” = hekastos. Same as “each” in v3. See note XXIV above.

in the name of Jesus ChristCCXXXVII so that your sinsCCXXXVIII may be forgiven,CCXXXIX

Notes on verse 38b

CCXXXVII “Christ” = Christos. Same as “Messiah” in v31. See note CCIX above.
CCXXXVIII “sins” = hamartia. Related to “divided” in v3 & “parts” in v10. From hamartano (to miss the mark, do wrong, make a mistake, sin); {from a (not) + meros (see note XVIII above)}. Literally, this means not having one’s share or portion – like not receiving inheritance or what was allotted to you. This word means missing the mark so it is used for guilt, fault, and acts of sin.
CCXXXIX “forgiven” = aphesis. Related to “were” in v1 & “may” in v29. 17x in NT. From aphiemi (to send away, release, abandon, lay aside, forgive); {from apo (from, away from) + hiemi (to send, to go); {from eimi (see note IV above)}}. This is sending away – a release or letting go. So, it can be releasing someone from debt, slavery, or some other obligation – thus, freedom or liberty. Figuratively it can mean to pardon as releasing from the debt of sin.

and you will receive the giftCCXL of the HolyCCXLI Spirit. 39 For the promise is for you, for your children,CCXLII and for all who are far away,CCXLIII everyoneCCXLIV whom the Lord our God calls toCCXLV him.” 

Notes on verses 38c-39

CCXL “gift” = dorea. Related to “gave” in v4 & “handed over” in v23. 11x in NT. From doron (gift, offering, sacrifice; emphasizes that the gift is given freely, voluntarily); from didomi (see note XXXII above). This is a free gift given voluntarily and not received by merit or entitlement. It emphasizes the benevolence of the giver.
CCXLI “Holy” = Hagios. Same as “Holy” in v4. See XXVI note above.
CCXLII “children” = teknon. From tikto (to beget, bring forth, produce). This is a child, descendant, or inhabitant.
CCXLIII “far away” = makran. 9x in NT. From makros (long, long lasting); from mekos (length); probably related to megas (great or large). This is far off, remote, far away in a literal or figurative sense.
CCXLIV “everyone” = hosos. Literally, “as many as.”
CCXLV “calls to” = proskaleo. Related to “calls on” in v21. From pros (at, to, toward, with) + kaleo (see note CXL above). This is to call to oneself, summon.

40 And he testifiedCCXLVI with manyCCXLVII otherCCXLVIII argumentsCCXLIX

Notes on verse 40a

CCXLVI “testified” = diamarturomai. Related to “witnesses” in v32. 15x in NT. From dia (through, across to the other side, thoroughly) + marturomai (to witness, testify, call as a witness, affirm, charge, protest); {from martus (see note CCXI above)}. This is to affirm, give evidence, testify thoroughly. It is giving full testimony.
CCXLVII “many” = pleion. From polus (much, many, abundant). This is many, more, great, having a greater value, more excellent.
CCXLVIII “other” = heteros. Same as “other” in v4. See note XXX above.
CCXLIX “arguments” = logos. Same as “what I have to say” in v22. See note CXLV above.

and exhortedCCL them, saying, “Save yourselves from this corruptCCLI generation.”CCLII 

Notes on verse 40b

CCL “exhorted” = parakaleo. Related to “calls on” in v21 & “calls to” in v39. From para (beside, by, in the presence of) + kaleo (see note CXL above). This is to call to, summon, invite, request, or beg. It can also be exhort or admonish. Also, this can be encourage, comfort, or console. This word has legal overtones and is used of one’s advocate in a courtroom. It is the root of the name of the Holy Spirit “paraclete” is our advocate and comforter.
CCLI “corrupt” = skolios. 4x in NT. Perhaps from skelos (the leg); perhaps from skello (to parch). This is crooked, curved, bent, or winding It is bent because it is parched like wood. Used figuratively for morally twisted or perverse. It is something that does not meet God’s standards. Related to the root for “skeleton” and “scoliosis.”
CCLII “generation” = genea. Related to “came” in v2 & “native” in v8. From genos (see note LVI above). This is family, generation, kind, or nation. As generation, it implies an age as a period of time. It can also mean infinity. This is the root of the word “generation.

41 So thoseCCLIII who welcomedCCLIV his messageCCLV were baptized, and that day about three thousandCCLVI personsCCLVII were added.CCLVIII 

Notes on verse 41

CCLIII {untranslated} = men. This is truly, indeed, even, in fact. Often, it is not translated, but used to emphasize affirmation.
CCLIV “welcomed” = apodechomai. Related to “right hand” in v25. 7x in NT. From apo (from, away from) + dechomai (see note CLXXII above). This is to welcome, embrace, receive, approve of. It can also mean to show hospitality.
CCLV “message” = logos. Same as “what I have to say” in v22. See note CXLV above.
CCLVI “three thousand” = trischilioi. Related to “nine” in v15. 1x in NT. From tris (three times); {from treis (see note CII above)} + chilioi (thousand literal and figurative; can mean total inclusion). This is three thousand.
CCLVII “persons” = psuche. Same as “soul” in v27. See note CLXXX above.
CCLVIII “added” = prostithemi. Related to “make” in v35. 18x in NT. From pros (at, to, toward, with) + tithemi (see note CCXIX above). This is to add, place to, bring together for a reason, or add up.

42 They devotedCCLIX themselves to the apostles’ teachingCCLX and fellowship,CCLXI

Notes on verse 42a

CCLIX “devoted” = proskartereo. Related to “be held” in v24. 10x in NT. From pros (at, to, toward, with) + kartereo (to be strong, endure; figuratively to be steadfast, to persevere, to be patient); {from kratos (see note CLXVII above)}. This is to show strength consistently in the face of trials. It can also mean to persist, stand ready, be earnest, or attend to something.
CCLX “teaching” = didache. From didasko (to teach, direct, instruct, or impart knowledge; in the New Testament, almost always used for teaching scripture); from dao (to learn). This is teaching or doctrine.
CCLXI “fellowship” = koinonia. 19x in NT. From koinonos (partner, companion, partaker, sharer); From koinos (common, shared, unclean, ritually profane); probably from sun (with, together with). This is sharing in common so it is fellowship, participation, communion, and aid that comes from the community.

to the breakingCCLXII of breadCCLXIII and the prayers.CCLXIV

Notes on verse 42b

CCLXII “breaking” = klasis. 2x in NT. From klao (to break). This is breaking.
CCLXIII “bread” = artos. Related to “heaven” in v2 & “raised” in v14 & “killed” in v23 & “descendants” in v30. Perhaps from airo (see note VIII above). This is bread or a loaf. It is a loaf as raised.
CCLXIV “prayers” = proseuche. From proseuchomai (to pray or pray for, to worship or supplicate; more literally exchanging one’s own wishes for God’s); {from pros (advantageous for, at, toward) + euchomai (to wish, make a request, pray)}. This is prayer, worship, or a place where one prays.

43 AweCCLXV cameCCLXVI upon everyoneCCLXVII because manyCCLXVIII wonders and signs were being doneCCLXIX through the apostles. 

Notes on verse 43

CCLXV “awe” = phobos. From phebomai (to flee, withdraw, be put to flight). This is panic flight, fear, fear being caused, terror, alarm, that which causes fear, reverence, respect.
CCLXVI “came” = ginomai. Same as “came” in v2. See note IX above.
CCLXVII “everyone” = pas + psuche. Pas is the same as “all” in v1. See note V above. Psuche is the same as “soul” in v27. See note CLXXX above.
CCLXVIII “many” = polus. Related to “many” in v40. See note CCXLVII above.
CCLXIX “being done” = ginomai. Same as “came” in v2. See note IX above.

44 All who believedCCLXX were together and hadCCLXXI all thingsCCLXXII in common;CCLXXIII 

Notes on verse 44

CCLXX “believed” = pisteuo. From pistis (faith, faithfulness, belief, trust, confidence; to be persuaded or come to trust); from peitho (to have confidence, urge, be persuaded, agree, assure, believe, have confidence, trust). This is to believe, entrust, have faith it, affirm, have confidence in. This is less to do with a series of beliefs or doctrines that one believes and more to do with faithfulness, loyalty, and fidelity. It is trusting and then acting based on that trust.
CCLXXI “had” = echo. Related to “last” in v17. See note CVI above.
CCLXXII “all things” = hapas. Related to “all” in v1 & “Pamphylia” in v10 & “confidently” in v29. From hama (at once, together with) + pas (see note V above) OR from a (with) + pas (see V above). This is all; every part working together as a unit.
CCLXXIII “in common” = koinos. Related to “fellowship” in v42. 14x in NT. See note CCLXI above.

45 they would sellCCLXXIV their possessionsCCLXXV and goodsCCLXXVI and distributeCCLXXVII the proceeds to all, as any had need.CCLXXVIII 

Notes on verse 45

CCLXXIV “sell” = piprasko. 9x in NT. From pernemi (to sell by export). This is to sell with travel involved. It can also mean to sell into slavery or to be devoted to.
CCLXXV “possessions” = ktema. 4x in NT. From ktaomai (to get, purchase, possess). This is a possession as something acquired. It particularly refers to field or property that is land.
CCLXXVI “goods” = huparxis. Related to “began” in v4 & “ancestor” in v29 & “was” in v30. 2x in NT. From huparcho (to begin or be ready, to exist or possess; what one already has or possesses); {from hupo (by, under, about, subordinate to) + archo (see note XXVIII above)}. This is a possession that is at your own disposal and is available to you. It is possessions, goods, wealth, or property.
CCLXXVII “distribute” = diamerizo. Same as “divided” in v3. See note XVIII above.
CCLXXVIII “need” = chreia. From chraomai (to use, make use of, give what is needed, act in a specific way, request); related to chre (what is proper, fitting, or necessary). This is the is task, business, or affair. It can also be need, want, or destitution.

46 Day by day, as they spent much timeCCLXXIX togetherCCLXXX in the temple,CCLXXXI they brokeCCLXXXII bread at home 

Notes on verse 46a

CCLXXIX “spent much time” = proskartereo. Same as “devoted” in v42. See note CCLIX above.
CCLXXX “together” = homothumadon. Related to “together’ in v1. 11x in NT. From homou (see note VI above) + thumos (passion, wrath; actions emerging from passion or impulse) {from thuo (to rush along, breathe violently, offer sacrifice)}}. This is having one mind or a shared passion. It is people who share the same desire.
CCLXXXI “temple” = hieron. From hieros (sacred, something sacred, temple, holy, set apart; something consecrated to a god). This is the word for temple.
CCLXXXII “broke” = klao. Related to “breaking” in v42. 14x in NT. See note CCLXII above.

and ateCCLXXXIII their foodCCLXXXIV with gladCCLXXXV and generousCCLXXXVI hearts, 

Notes on verse 46b

CCLXXXIII “ate” = metalambano. Related to “devout” in v5 & “suppose” in v15 & “received” in v33. 7x in NT. From meta (with among, behind, beyond; implies a change following contact or action) + lambano (see note XXXV above). This is take a or partake, to share, or participate.
CCLXXXIV “food” = trophe. 16x in NT. Perhaps from trepho (to bring up, rear, nourish, fatten, nurse; properly, to enlarge through proper nourishment). This is nourishment in a literal or figurative sense. By implication, it can be ration or wages.
CCLXXXV “glad” = agalliasis. Related to “rejoiced” in v26. 5x in NT. From agalliao (see note CLXXVI above). This is exultation, wild joy, exhilaration, gladness, or welcome.
CCLXXXVI “generous” = aphelotes. 1x in NT. From apheles (no stone – even or smooth); {from a (not, without) + phellos (a stone; something that one stubs their foot on)}. This is lacking rocks – being level or smooth. Figuratively, it refers to things being uncomplicated or lacking a stumbling block. So, it can be simplicity or sincerity.

47 praisingCCLXXXVII God and having the goodwillCCLXXXVIII of allCCLXXXIX the people.CCXC And day by day the Lord added to their number those who were being saved.

Notes on verse 47

CCLXXXVII “praising” = aineo. 8x in NT. From ainos (praise, saying, story, proverb). This is to praise.
CCLXXXVIII “goodwill” = charis. From chairo (to rejoice, be glad; used to say hello; properly, delighting in the grace of God or experiencing God’s favor); from char– (to extend favor, lean towards, be inclined to be favorable towards). This is grace, kindness, favor, gratitude, thanks. It is the sense of being inclined to or favorable towards – leaning towards someone to share some good or benefit. This can be literal, figurative, or spiritual. It is grace as abstract concept, manner, or action.
CCLXXXIX “all” = holos. Same as “entire” in v2. See note XV above.
CCXC “people” = laos. This is the people or crowd – often used for the chosen people. This is where the word “laity” comes from.

Image credit: A stained glass window with a Pentecost theme by Hans Stocker at the Catholic church of St. Peter in Büsserach. Photo by Roland Zumbuehl, 2017.

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