Acts 20

Acts 20


After the uproarI had ceased,II PaulIII

Notes on verse 1a

I “uproar” = thorubos. 7x in NT. From the same as thoreo (to be troubled, agitated, alarmed, be unsettled, be frightened); from throos (clamor, noise) or from threomai (to wail). This is an uproar, noise, outcry, riot, disturbance, trouble. It can also be used figuratively for a very emotional wailing or hysteria. It is a commotion that leads to panic or terror.
II “ceased” = pauo. 15x in NT. To stop, refrain, pause, restrain, quit, or come to an end.
III “Paul” = Paulos. From Latin Paulus (small, little). This is Paul or Paulos, meaning little.

sent forIV the disciples,V and after encouragingVI them

Notes on verse 1b

IV “sent for” = metapempo. 9x in NT. From meta (with, among, behind, beyond) + pempo (to send, put forth, or dispatch; often a temporary errand; sending someone with a focus on the place they departed from). This is to send after, summon, invite.
V “disciples” = mathetes. From matheteuo (to make a disciple of); from manthano (to learn key facts, gain knowledge from experience; generally implies reflection as part of the learning process); from math– (thinking things through). This is a disciple, learner, or student. It is where we get “mathematics” from.
VI “encouraging” = parakaleo. From para (beside, by, in the presence of) + kaleo (to call by name, invite, to name, bid, summon, call aloud) {related to keleuo (to command, order, direct); from kelomai (to urge on)}. This is to call to, summon, invite, request, or beg. It can also be exhort or admonish. Also, this can be encourage, comfort, or console. This word has legal overtones and is used of one’s advocate in a courtroom. It is the root of the name of the Holy Spirit “paraclete” is our advocate and comforter.

and saying farewell,VII he leftVIII, IX for Macedonia.X 

Notes on verse 1c

VII “saying farewell” = aspazomai. Perhaps from a (with, together with) + a form of spao (to draw, draw out, pull). This is to welcome, salute, or greet. It can also be to embrace or acclaim.
VIII “left” = exerchomai. From ek (from, from out of) + erchomai (to come, go). This is to go out, depart, escape, proceed from, spread news abroad.
IX {untranslated} = poreuomai. From poros (ford, passageway). This is to go, travel, journey, or die. It refers to transporting things from one place to another and focuses on the personal significance of the destination.
X “Macedonia” = Makedonia. From makedonia (Macedonia, highland); from makednos (high or tall). This is Macedonia in Greece. See

When he had gone throughXI those regionsXII and had given them much encouragement,XIII

Notes on verse 2a

XI “gone through” = dierchomai. Related to “left” in v1. From dia (through, across to the other side, thoroughly) + erchomai (see note VIII above). This is to go through, come, depart, pierce, travel, traverse.
XII “regions” = meros. From meiromai (to get your allotment or portion). This is a part, a share, or a portion.
XIII “given them much encouragement” = parakaleo + autos + logos + polus. Literally, “having exhorted them with a lot of talk.” Parakaleo is the same as “encouraging” in v1. See note VI above. Logos is from lego (to speak, tell, mention). This is word, statement, speech, analogy. It is a word that carries an idea or expresses a thought, a saying. It could refer to a person with a message or reasoning laid out in words. By implication, this could be a topic, line of reasoning, or a motive. It can be used for a divine utterance or as Word – Christ. Polus is much, often, plenteous – a large number or a great extent.

he cameXIV to Greece,XV where he stayedXVI for threeXVII months.

Notes on verses 2b-3a

XIV “came” = erchomai. Related to “left” in v1 & “gone through” in v2. See note VIII above.
XV “Greece” = Hellas. 1x in NT. Related to Hellen (Greek; used for Gentiles, broader populations that spoke Greek and were a part of Greek culture regardless of their heritage); from Hellas (Hellas, what Greeks called themselves); perhaps from helane (torch) OR from selene (moon). This is Greece of Hellas. See &
XVI “stayed” = poieo. This is to make, do, act, construct, abide, or cause.
XVII “three” = treis. This is three.

He was about toXVIII set sailXIX for SyriaXX when a plotXXI was madeXXII against him

Notes on verse 3b

XVIII “was about to” = mello. Perhaps from melo (something that one is worried or concerned about, something one pays attention to or thinks about). Properly, this is ready, about to happen, to intend, delay, or linger. This is just on the point of acting.
XIX “set sail” = anago. From ana (up, again, back, among, anew) + ago (to lead, bring, carry, guide, drive, go). This is to lead up, offer, set sail, bring out, depart, loose.
XX “Syria” = Suria. 8x in NT. From Akkadian ashshur (after the god Ashur, head of their gods). This is Syria. See;
XXI “plot” = epiboule. 4x in NT– all in Acts. From epi (on, upon, what is fitting) + boule (counsel, plan, purpose, decision; wisdom that comes from deliberation); {from boulomai (to wish, desire, intend; to plan with great determination)}. This is a plot or design against someone.
XXII “made” = ginomai. This is to come into being, to happen, become, be born. It can be to emerge from one state or condition to another or is coming into being with the sense of movement or growth.

by the Jews,XXIII so he decidedXXIV to returnXXV through Macedonia. 

Notes on verse 3c

XXIII “Jews” = Ioudaios. From Ioudas (Judah, Judas); from Hebrew Yehudah (Judah, son of Jacob, his tribal descendants, a name for the southern kingdom. Literally, it means praised); probably from yadah (to throw one’s hands into the air in a gesture of praise); from yad (hand). This is Jewish, a Jew, or Judea.
XXIV “decided” = ginomai + gnome. Ginomai is the same as “made” in v3. See note XXII above. Gnome is 9x in NT. From ginosko (to know, recognize, realize, perceive, learn; gaining knowledge through personal experience). This is plot, purpose, opinion, judgment, advice, consent, purpose.
XXV “return” = hupostrepho. From hupo (by, under, about) + strepho (to turn, change, turn back, be converted; to turn around completely to take the opposite path or a completely different one); {from trope (turning, shifting, a revolution; figuratively, a variation); from trepo (to turn)}. This is to turn back or behind in a literal or figurative sense.

He was accompaniedXXVI by SopaterXXVII son of PyrrhusXXVIII from Beroea,XXIX

Notes on verse 4a

XXVI “accompanied” = sunepomai. 1x in NT. From sun (with, together with) + hepo (to follow). This is to travel together with or help along.
XXVII “Sopater” = Sopatros. 1x in NT. From the same as sozo (to save, heal, preserve, or rescue; taking someone from danger to safety; delivering or protecting literally or figuratively); {from sos (safe, rescued, well)} + pater (father, ancestor, elder, senior; father in a literal or figurative sense). This is Sopater, whose name may mean “of a safe father” or “father of salvation” or “preserved the father” or “keeper of the father.” See
XXVIII “Pyrrhus” = Purrhos. 3x in NT. From pur (fire, lightning, heat from the sun; figuratively, strife or trials). This is red, specifically as the color of fire.
XXIX “Beroea” = Beroiaios. 1x in NT. From Beroia (Berea); perhaps from peran (Peroea, “region beyond the coastline”); akin to pera (on the far side); perhaps from peiro (to pierce). This is Berean or someone from Berea. It may mean “bringer” or “carrier.” See

by AristarchusXXX and SecundusXXXI from Thessalonica,XXXII

Notes on verse 4b

XXX “Aristarchus” = Aristarchos. 5x in NT. From aristos (best); {from aristeuo (“to be the best)} + archos (leader); {from archo (to rule, begin, have first rank or have political power)}. This is Aristarchus, meaning “best leader” or “best ruling.” 
XXXI “Secundus” = Sekoundos. 1x in NT. From Latin secundus (second); from Proto-Italic sek-ondo (literally, “that follows”); akin to sequor (to come after). This is Secundus, meaning “second.” See
XXXII “Thessalonica” = Thessalonikeus. 4x in NT. From Thessalonike (Thessalonica, Macedonian city); {perhaps from thessalos (Thessalian); {from thessalia (Thessaly); from thessalos (Thessalus)} + nike (victory, conquest; figurative for what makes one successful)}}. This is Thessalonian. See

by GaiusXXXIII from Derbe,XXXIV and by Timothy,XXXV

Notes on verse 4c

XXXIII “Gaius” = Gaios. 5x in NT. Probably from Latin Gavius (Gavius); from the same as gaudere (to rejoice); from “Proto-Indo-European geh-w-” (to rejoice) OR from gaia (earth, land). This is Gaius or Caius. I may mean “of the land” or “made of earthly material” or “rejoice.”  See &
XXXIV “Derbe” = Derbaios. 1x in NT. From Derbe (Derbe, perhaps meaning “barred gate” or “narrow pass” or “narrow gate entrance”); perhaps from Persian Darband (Derbe); {from dar (gate) + band (bar)}.  This is Derbean – someone from Derbe. See
XXXV “Timothy” = Timoutheou. From time (worth or something’s perceived value; literally, price, but figuratively, the honor or value one sees in someone or something else; can be esteem or dignity; precious or valuables); {from tino (to pay, be punished, pay a penalty or fine because of a crime); from tio (to pay respect, value)} + Theos (God or a god). This is Timothy, literally “dear to God.”

as well as by TychicusXXXVI and TrophimusXXXVII from Asia.XXXVIII 

Notes on verse 4d

XXXVI “Tychicus” = Tuchikos. 5x in NT. From tuche (fortune, fate) OR related to tugchano (root means to become ready; to hit, meet, happen, obtain, chance, perhaps; properly, to hit the mark or be spot on; the opposite of the Greek word for sin hamartano, which literally means to miss the mark); {perhaps from tucho (to make ready, bring about)}. This is Tychicus, meaning “fortuitous” or “fortunate” or “casual” or “serendipitous.” See
XXXVII “Trophimus” = Trophimos. 3x in NT. From trophe (nourishment in a literal or figurative sense; by implication, ration or wages); perhaps from trepho (to bring up, rear, nourish, fatten, nurse; properly, to enlarge through proper nourishment). This is Trophimus, meaning “nutritive” or “nourishing” or “foster child.” See
XXXVIII “Asia” = Asianos. 1x in NT. From Asia (Asia, the Roman province, which consisted of western Asia Minor); perhaps from Hittite assuwa (22 allied ancient states in Anatolia) OR Aegean asis (muddy, silty) OR Semitic root asu (rising or light; Asia as land to the east). This is Asian or someone from Asia. See

They went aheadXXXIX and were waiting forXL us in Troas,XLI 

Notes on verse 5

XXXIX “went ahead” = proerchomai. Related to “left” in v1 & “gone through” and “came” in v2. 9x in NT. From pro (before, first, in front of, earlier) + erchomai (see note VIII above). This is to go on, advance. It is to come before in location or time.
XL “waiting for” = meno. This is to stay, remain, wait, await, continue, abide, endure. It can mean to literally stay in a place or to remain in a condition or to continue with hope and expectation.
XLI “Troas” = Troas. 6x in NT. From Troias (Trojan); from Tros (Troy). This is Troas, a city in Troy’s plain. See

but we sailedXLII from PhilippiXLIII after the daysXLIV of Unleavened Bread,XLV

Notes on verse 6a

XLII “sailed” = ekpleo. 3x in NT– all in Acts. From ek (from, from out of) + pleo (to sail, voyage); {probably from pluno (to plunge – so to wash); from pluo (to flow)}. This is to sail or leave on a ship.
XLIII “Philippi” = Philippoi. 4x in NT. From Philippos (Philip, meaning one who loves horses or is fond of horses); {from philos (dear, beloved, a friend, an associate; friendship with personal affection, a trusted confidante; love from personal experience with another person) + hippos (horse)}. This is Philippi, a city in Macedonia.
XLIV “days” = hemera. Perhaps from hemai (to sit). This is day, time, or daybreak.
XLV “Unleavened Bread” = azumos. 9x in NT. From a (not, without) + zume (yeast in a literal or figurative sense – an influence that grows, but is not easily detected); {perhaps from zeo (to boil, be hot, ferment, bubble, boil, or glow; used figuratively for being fervent or earnest)}. This is unleavened – can refer specifically to the Passover meal. Figuratively, it is sincere or not corrupted.

and in fiveXLVI days we joinedXLVII them in Troas, where we stayedXLVIII for sevenXLIX days.

Notes on verse 6b

XLVI “five” = pente. This is five. It may be symbolically associated with the Temple or redemption.
XLVII “joined” = erchomai. Same as “came” in v2. See note XIV above.
XLVIII “stayed” = diatribo. 9x in NT. From dia (through, for the sake of, across, thoroughly) + the same as tribos (worn track or path like a rut that is formed from rubbing i.e. steady use; also road or highway); {from tribo (to rub or thresh)}. This is to spend time, remain, stay, continue. Literally, it is to rub or wear away.
XLIX “seven” = hepta. This is seven or seventh. Figuratively, seven is the number of completeness or perfection.

On the firstL day of the week,LI when we metLII

Notes on verse 7a

L “first” = heis. This is one, a person, only, some.
LI “week” = sabbaton. From Hebrew shabbath (sabbath); from shabath (to rest, stop, repose, cease working; by implication, to celebrate). This is the sabbath. It can also be used as shorthand for a week i.e. the time between two sabbaths.
LII “met” = sunago. Related to “set sail” in v3. From sun (with, together with, closely associated) + ago (see note XIX above). This is to lead together and so to assemble, bring together, welcome with hospitality, or entertain. In the sense of assembly, this is the root of the word “synagogue.”

to breakLIII bread,LIV Paul was holding a discussionLV with them; since he intendedLVI

Notes on verse 7b

LIII “break” = klao. 14x in NT. This is to break, to break in pieces as one breaks bread.
LIV “bread” = artos. Perhaps from airo (raise, take up, lift, remove). This is bread or a loaf. It is a loaf as raised.
LV “holding a discussion” = dialegomai. Related to “given them much encouragement” in v2. 13x in NT. From dia (through, across to the other side, thoroughly) + lego (see note XIII above)}. This is to discuss, preach, reason, argue, address, lecture.
LVI “intended” = mello. Same as “was about to” in v3. See note XVIII above.

to leaveLVII the next day,LVIII he continuedLIX speakingLX until midnight.LXI 

Notes on verse 7c

LVII “leave” = exeimi. 4x in NT – all in Acts. From ek (from, from out of) + eimi (to go). This is to leave, go out from, arrive to shore.
LVIII “next day” = epaurion. 17x in NT. From epi (on, upon, something fitting) + aurion (tomorrow); {from the same as aer (air that we breathe); from aemi (to breathe or blow)}. This is tomorrow, the next day.
LIX “continued” = parateino. 1x in NT. From para (from beside, by) + teino (to stretch). This is to extend, prolong, or continue.
LX “speaking” = logos. Same as “given them much encouragement” in v2. See note XIII above.
LXI “midnight” = mesonuktion. 4x in NT. From mesonuktios (at midnight); {from mesos (middle, among, center); {from meta (with among, behind, beyond; implies a change following contact or action)} + nux (night in a literal or figurative sense)}. This is at midnight – the middle watch of the night.

There wereLXII manyLXIII lampsLXIV in the room upstairsLXV where we were meeting. 

Notes on verse 8

LXII “were” = eimi. This is to be, exist.
LXIII “many” = hikanos. From hikneomai (to reach, come to, attain). This is sufficient, suitable, adequate, competent, ample.
LXIV “lamps” = lampas. 9x in NT. From lampo (to give light literally or figuratively). This is a torch or lantern that was hand held, perhaps made of clay with a flax wick and oil.
LXV “room upstairs” = huperoon. 4x in NT. From huperoos(upper); from huper (over, above, beyond). This refers to an upper chamber on the third floor.

A young manLXVI namedLXVII Eutychus,LXVIII

Notes on verse 9a

LXVI “young man” = neanias. 3x in NT. From neos (young, new, youth, person). This is youth or young man – it is an adult up to the age of 40.
LXVII “named” = onoma. Related to “decided” in v3. May be from ginosko (see note XXIV above). This is a name, authority, cause, character, fame, reputation. The name was thought to include something of the essence of the person so it was not thought to be separate from the person.
LXVIII “Eutychus” = Eutuchos. Related to “Tychicus” in v4. 1x in NT. From eu (good, well, well done) + tuche (see note XXXVI above) OR from eu (see above) + akin to tugchano (see note XXXVI above). This is Eutychus, meaning “well-fated” or “fortunate” or “of good happenings” or “lucky” or “of good fortune.” See

who was sittingLXIX in the window,LXX began to sink offLXXI into a deepLXXII sleepLXXIII

Notes on verse 9b

LXIX “sitting” = kathezomai. 7x in NT. From kata (down, against, according to, among) + hezomai (to sit); {from aphedron (a seat, a base).  This is to sit down or be sitting.
LXX “window” = thuris. 2x in NT. From thura (opening or closure; a door, gate, or entrance; figuratively, an opportunity). This is window or windowsill.
LXXI “began to sink off” = kataphero. 4x in NT – all in Acts. From kata (down, against, throughout, among) + phero (to bear, bring, lead, make known publicly; to carry in a literal or figurative sense). This is to bring down, overcome, vote or make a verdict, pull down into sleep.
LXXII “deep” = bathus. 4x in NT. Perhaps from the same root as basis (step, foot); from baino (to walk, go). This is deep or profound in a literal or figurative sense. It can also mean very early.
LXXIII “sleep” = hupnos. 6x in NT. Perhaps from hupo (by, under, about, subordinate to). This is sleep in a literal or figurative sense. It could also refer to being spiritually disconnected. It is also the root of “hypnosis.”

while Paul talkedLXXIV still longer.LXXV OvercomeLXXVI by sleep, he fellLXXVII to the ground

Notes on verse 9c

LXXIV “talked” = dialegomai. Same as “holding a discussion” in v7. See note LV above.
LXXV “longer” = pleion. Related to “much” in v2. From polus (see note XIII above). This is many, more, great, having a greater value, more excellent.
LXXVI “overcome” = kataphero. Same as “began to sink off” in v9. See note LXXI above.
LXXVII “fell” = pipto. This is to fall literally or figuratively.

three floorsLXXVIII belowLXXIX and was picked upLXXX dead.LXXXI

Notes on verse 9d

LXXVIII “three floors” = tristegon. Related to “three” in v3. 1x in NT. From tristegos (related to three stories); {from treis (see note XVII above) + stege (a roof of a house that is flat); {from stego (cover tightly, conceal, endure patiently, to put something under a roof, forbearing) or tegos (thatch of a building)}}. This is third floor or having three floors.
LXXIX “ground…below” = kato. 10x in NT. From kata (down, against, throughout, among). This is down, below, lower, bottom, under.
LXXX “picked up” = airo. Related to “bread” in v7. See note LIV above.
LXXXI “dead” = nekros. Perhaps from nekus (corpse). This is dead or lifeless, mortal, corpse. It can also be used figuratively for powerless or ineffective. It is where the word “necrotic” comes from.

10 But Paul went downLXXXII and bending overLXXXIII him took him in his armsLXXXIV

Notes on verse 10a

LXXXII “went down” = katabaino. Related to “deep” in v9. From kata (down, against, throughout, among) + baino (see note LXXII above). This is to come down whether from the sky to the ground or from higher ground to lower. It can be used in a literal or figurative sense.
LXXXIII “bending over” = epipipto. Related to “fell” in v9. 11x in NT. From epi (on, upon, to, against, what is fitting) + pipto (see note LXXVII above). This is fall upon. It could be in the sense of pressing in on, being seized with fear, being embraced (as in the parable of the prodigal son in Luke 15:20), bending over, being insulted, or the Spirit falling on people. So, it is coming upon someone with more or less affection or violence.
LXXXIV “took…in his arms” = sumperilambano. 1x in NT. From sun (with, together with) + peri (about, concerning, all around, encompassing) + lambano (active acceptance/taking of what is available or what has been offered; emphasizes the choice and action of the individual). This is to enclose or embrace totally.

and said, “Do not be alarmed,LXXXV for his lifeLXXXVI is in him.” 11 Then Paul went upstairs,LXXXVII and after he had broken bread and eaten,LXXXVIII

Notes on verses 10b-11a

LXXXV “alarmed” = thorubeo. Related to “uproar” in v1. 5x in NT. From thorubos (see note I above). This is to disturb, agitate, cause tumult, trouble, create panic.
LXXXVI “life” = psuche. From psucho (to breathe, blow). This is breath, the breath of life, the self, individual, soul. This is the word for that which makes a person unique – their identity, will, personality, affections. This isn’t the soul as the immortal part of us, but as our individuality. It is also not life as a general concept, but specific to people. This is where the words psyche and psychology come from.
LXXXVII “went upstairs” = anabaino. Related to “deep” in v9 & “went down” in v10. From ana (up, back, among, again, anew) + the same as basis (step, hence foot; a pace); {from baino (see note LXXII above)}. This is to come up in a literal or figurative sense – ascent, rise, climb, enter.
LXXXVIII “eaten” = geuomai. 15x in NT. This is to taste, which implies eating. It can be used figuratively to mean experience, whether positively or negatively.

he continuedLXXXIX to converseXC with them until dawn;XCI then he left.XCII 

Notes on verse 11b

LXXXIX “continued” = hikanos. Same as “many” in v8. See note LXIII above.
XC “converse” = homileo. 4x in NT– 2x in Luke & 2x in Acts. From homilos (crowd) OR from homichle (mist, multitude); {from homou (together); {from homos (same)} + haireomai (to take, choose, or prefer) {probably related to airo (raise, take up, lift, remove)}}. This is to talk, converse, associate with.
XCI “dawn” = auge. 1x in NT. This is daylight, dawn, radiance.
XCII “left” = exerchomai. Same as “left” in v1. See note VIII above.

12 Meanwhile they had taken the boyXCIII awayXCIV aliveXCV and were not a littleXCVI comforted.XCVII

Notes on verse 12

XCIII “boy” = pais. Perhaps from paio (to strike or sting). This is child, youth, servant, or slave.
XCIV “taken…away” = ago. Related to “set sail” in v3 & “met” in v7. See note XIX above.
XCV “alive” = zao. This is to live literally or figuratively. It is used for life including the vitality of humans, plants, and animals – it is life physical and spiritual and life everlasting.
XCVI “little” = metrios. 1x in NT. From metrios (moderate) OR akin to metron (a measure, whether of distance or volume; a tool for measuring or the measure itself; figuratively, it is that which determines what is sufficient). This is moderately, exceedingly, or slightly.
XCVII “comforted” = parakaleo. Same as “encouraging” in v1. See note VI above.

13 We went ahead to the shipXCVIII and set sail for Assos,XCIX intending to take Paul onC board there, for he had made this arrangement,CI intending to go by landCII himself. 

Notes on verse 13

XCVIII “ship” = ploion. Related to “sailed” in v6. From pleo (see note XLII above). This is a boat, ship, or vessel.
XCIX “Assos” = Assos. Related to “first” in v7. Perhaps from asson (nearer); {from agchi (close)} OR from heis (see note L above) OR of foreign origin. This is Assos, meaning “nearer” or “closer” or “number one” or “unity” or “whole.” See
C “take…on” = analambano. Related to “took…in his arms” in v10. 13x in NT. From ana (up, again, anew) + lambano (see note LXXXIV above). This is to take up, lead away, raise. It is often used of the ascension.
CI “made…arrangement” = diatasso. 16x in NT. From dia (through, across to the other side, thoroughly) + tasso (to arrange, appoint, determine). This is to arrange thoroughly, charge, appoint, give orders to. It is a command that is a proper order, given with the chain of command and so binding. This is from ancient military language.
CII “go by land” = pezeuo. From pezos (by foot); from pous (foot, lit or fig) OR from peze (by foot, walking over land); {from pous (see above)}. This is to walk on land by foot.

14 When he metCIII us in Assos, we took him on board and wentCIV to Mitylene.CV 

Notes on verse 14

CIII “met” = sumballo. 6x in NT– 2x in Luke & 4x in Acts. From sun (with, together with) + ballo (to throw, cast, place, put, drop). This is to throw together, consider, encounter, discuss, debate, wage, help, join.
CIV “went” = erchomai. Same as “came” in v2. See note XIV above.
CV “Mitylene” = Mitulene. 1x in NT. From mutilene (a lot of shellfish) OR from mitulos (mutilated, lacking horns); {similar to Latin mutilus (mutilated)} OR from Mytilene (a princess from Greek myth who had a child called Myton with Poseidon). This is Mitylene, which may mean “hornless.” See &

15 We sailedCVI from there, and on the followingCVII day we arrivedCVIII

Notes on verse 15a

CVI “sailed” = apopleo. Related to “sailed” in v6 & “ship” in v13. 4x in NT – all in Acts. From apo (from, away from) + pleo (see note XLII above). This is to sail away, sail.
CVII “following” = epiousa. Related to “leave” in v7. 5x in NT– all from Acts. Perhaps related to epeimi (to com after, follow); {from epi (on, upon, at, what is fitting) + related to exeimi (see note LVII above)} OR from epi (on, upon, at, what is fitting) + hiemi (to go). This is next, following – the following day or evening.
CVIII “arrived” = katantao. 13x in NT. From kata (down, against, throughout, among); + antao (to meet with personally) OR from kata (see above) + anti (opposite, instead of, against). This is to come down, reach, arrive. It can be to descend from a higher elevation to a lower one or, more specifically, go to the coast or from out in the waters back to the coast. Figuratively, it is arriving at one’s destination or receiving inheritance.

oppositeCIX Chios.CX The nextCXI day

Notes on verse 15b

CIX “opposite” = antikrus. 1x in NT. From anti (opposite, instead of, against). This is opposite or off in nautical terms.
CX “Chios” = Chios. 1x in NT. Perhaps from Pre-Greek OR from Chios (a child of Poseidon); {from chion (snow)}. This is Chios, whose meaning is uncertain. See &
CXI “next” = heteros. This is other, another, different, strange. It is another of a different kind in contrast to the Greek word allos, which is another of the same kind. This could be a different quality, type, or group.

we touchedCXII at Samos,CXIII and the day afterCXIV that we came to Miletus.CXV 

Notes on verse 15c

CXII “touched” = paraballo. Related to “met” in v14. 1x in NT. From para (beside, by, in the presence of) + ballo (see note CIII above). This is to throw beside, which means arrive, land, liken.
CXIII “Samos” = Samos. 1x in NT. Perahps from samah (to be lifted high, rejoice) OR from Phoenician sama (high). This is Samos, meaning “joyful place” or “exalted place.” See &
CXIV “after” = echo. This is to have, hold, possess.
CXV “Miletus” = Miletos. 3x in NT. Possibly related to Hittite Millawanda OR Mycenaean Greek mi-ra-ti-jo (Miletian). This is Miletus, whose meaning is unclear. See

16 For Paul had decidedCXVI to sail pastCXVII Ephesus,CXVIII

Notes on verse 16a

CXVI “decided” = krino. To judge, decide, think good, condemn, determine, pass judgment, stand trial, sue. This is judging whether it is done in court or in a private setting. Properly, it refers to mentally separating or distinguishing an issue – to come to a choice or decision, to judge positively or negatively in seeking what is right or wrong, who is innocent or guilty. It can imply trying, condemning, punishing, or avenging.
CXVII “sail past” = parapleo. Related to “sailed” in v6 & “ship” in v13 & “sailed” in v15. 1x in NT. From para (beside, by, in the presence of) + pleo (see note XLII above). This is to sail by without stopping.
CXVIII “Ephesus” = Ephesos. 16x in NT. Perhaps from Luwian Apa-ša (“later-city”) OR from Hittite Apasa (capital of Arzawa – an allied group in western Anatolia); {from appa (behind, back, after)}. This is Ephesus, meaning the “later place,” which would perhaps have the sense of a city named Newtown or Lands End. See &

so that he might notCXIX have to spend timeCXX in Asia;CXXI

Notes on verse 16b

CXIX {untranslated} = ginomai. Same as “made” in v3. See note XXII above.
CXX “spend time” = chronotribeo. Related to “stayed” in v6. 1x in NT. From chronos (time in the chronological sense, quantitative time, a duration of time) + the same as tribos (see note XLVIII above). This is to linger or waste time.
CXXI “Asia” = Asia. Related to “Asia” in v4. 18x in NT. See note XXXVIII above.

he was eagerCXXII to beCXXIII in Jerusalem,CXXIV if possible,CXXV on the day of Pentecost.CXXVI

Notes on verse 16c

CXXII “was eager” = speudo. Related to “go by land” in v13. 6x in NT – shepherds went with hast to find Mary and Joseph and the child in Luke 2:16. Jesus tells Zacchaeus to hurry down from the tree in Luke 19:5-6. Perhaps from pous (see note CII above). This is to hurry, urge on, await. It implies eagerness or diligence.
CXXIII “be” = ginomai. Same as “made” in v3. See note XXII above.
CXXIV “Jerusalem” = Hierosoluma. From Hebrew Yerushalaim (probably foundation of peace); {from yarah (to throw, shoot, be stunned; to flow as water so figuratively to instruct or teach) + shalam (to make amends, to be complete or sound)}. This is Jerusalem, dwelling of peace.
CXXV “possible” = dunatos. From dunamai (to be able, have power or ability). This is mighty or powerful. It speaks of ability of persons, possibility of things. It is what can be given the power or ability that the subject exhibits. The root verb is also related to miracles i.e. deeds of power.
CXXVI “Pentecost” = Pentekoste. Related to “five” in v6. 3x in NT. From pentekonta (fifty); {from pente (see note XLVI above) + deka (ten or -teen)}. This is fiftieth, used specially for Pentecost, the fiftieth day after Passover.

17 From Miletus he sent a messageCXXVII to Ephesus, asking the eldersCXXVIII of the churchCXXIX to meetCXXX him. 

Notes on verse 17

CXXVII “sent a message” = pempo. Related to “sent for” in v1. See note IV above.
CXXVIII “elders” = presbuteros. From presbus (old man). This is an elder as one of the Sanhedrin and also in the Christian assembly in the early church.
CXXIX “church” = ekklesia. Related to “encouraging” in v1 & “asking…to meet” in v17. From ek (from, out from) + kaleo (see note VI above). This is properly a calling out or an assembly. It was used to refer to a church.
CXXX “asking…to meet” = metakaleo. Related to “encouraging” in v1. 4x in NT– all in Acts. From meta (with, among, after, beyond) + kaleo (see note VI above). This is to send for, invite, summon.

18 When they cameCXXXI to him, he said to them:

“You yourselves knowCXXXII how I livedCXXXIII among you

Notes on verse 18a

CXXXI “came” = paraginomai. Related to “made” in v3. From para (from beside, by) + ginomai (see note XXII above). This is to arrive, appear, reach. It implies appearing publicly.
CXXXII “know” = epistamai. 14x in NT. From epihistemi (to stand upon, be present, stand by, be urgent; to attack, confront, appear); {from epi (on, upon, against, what is fitting) + histemi (to stand, place, set up, establish, stand ready, stand firm, be steadfast)}. This is to know, stand on, get knowledge face to face or with personal effort, comprehend, be acquainted. It is related to “epistemology.”
CXXXIII “lived” = ginomai. Same as “made” in v3. See note XXII above.

the entireCXXXIV timeCXXXV from the firstCXXXVI day that I set footCXXXVII in Asia, 

Notes on verse 18b

CXXXIV “entire” = pas. This is all or every.
CXXXV “time” = chronos. Related to “spend time” in v16. See note CXX above.
CXXXVI “first” = protos. From pro (before, first, in front of, earlier). This is what is first, which could be the most important, the first in order, the main one, the chief.
CXXXVII “set foot” = epibaino. Related to “deep” in v9 & “went down” in v10 & “went upstairs” in v11. 6x in NT. From epi (on, upon, against, what is fitting) + baino (see note LXXII above). This is to step on, embark, get on a horse or ship, ascend.

19 servingCXXXVIII the LordCXXXIX with allCXL humilityCXLI

Notes on verse 19a

CXXXVIII “serving” = douleuo. From doulos (a servant or for a slave, enslaved; someone who belongs to someone else, but could be voluntary to pay off debt or involuntary – captured in war and enslaved; a metaphor for serving Christ); perhaps from deo (to tie, bind, fasten, impel, compel; to declare something against the law or prohibited). This is to be a slave, serve, do service, obey, be devoted.
CXXXIX “Lord” = Kurios. From kuros (authority, supremacy). This is a respectful address meaning master or sir. It refers to one who has control or power greater than one’s own. So, it was also applied to God and Jesus as Master or Lord.
CXL “all” = pas. Same as “entire” in v18. See note CXXXIV above.
CXLI “humility” = tapeinophrosune. 8x in NT. From tapeinos (low in position, depressed, low in circumstance; fig humiliated, low in spirit) + the base of phren (literally the diaphragm; used figuratively for heart, thought, or understanding; personal outlook we use to decide our actions, general outlook); {may be from phrao (to rein in, curb)}. This is humility, modesty. It is lowly or a humble mind.

and with tears,CXLII enduring the trialsCXLIII that cameCXLIV to me through the plots of the Jews. 

Notes on verse 19b

CXLII “tears” = dakruon. 10x in NT– 2x of the woman anointing Jesus’ feet, 2x of Paul’s tears about people distorting the truth, 2x of God wiping away ever tear of the saints in heaven, 1x of Paul missing the Corinthians, 1x of remembering Timothy’s tears, 1x of Esau’s tears, 1x of Jesus’ tears. This is tear or teardrop.
CXLIII “trials” = peirasmos. From peirazo (to test, try, tempt, or make proof of, scrutinize, or assay something; could also be examine, entice, prove, or discipline); from peira (trial, experiment, attempt, experience, assaying); from the base of peran (over, beyond, across); akin to pera (on the far side); from a derivative or peiro (to pierce). This is a test as in an experiment or assaying. It is also trial, temptation, and discipline. Further, it could be used to mean calamity, affliction, or adversity more generally.
CXLIV “came” = sumbaino. Related to “deep” in v9 & “went down” in v10 & “went upstairs” in v11 & “set foot” in v18. 8x in NT. From sun (with, together with) + from basis (step, hence foot; a pace); from baino (see note LXXII above). This is to walk together, happen, occur, meet. It could also be things that work together as a unit.

20 I did not shrinkCXLV from doing anythingCXLVI helpful,CXLVII

Notes on verse 20a

CXLV “shrink” = hupostello. Related to “know” in v18. 4x in NT. From hupo (by, under, about) + stello (to set, arrange, prepare, provide for); {probably from histemi (see note CXXXII above)}. This is to draw in, withdraw, conceal, shrink, go back, cower, reserve.
CXLVI “not…anything” = oudeis. Related to “first” in v7 & “Assos” in v13. From oude (not, neither, not even); {from ou (not, no, never) + de (but, and, indeed)} + heis (see note L above). This is none, nothing, nobody.
CXLVII “doing…helpful” = sumphero. Related to “began to sink off” in v9. 17x in NT. From sun (with, together with) + phero (see note LXXI above). This is to collect, bring together, or be profitable to. It is combining things such that there is gain or profit or advantage.

proclaimingCXLVIII the message to you and teachingCXLIX you publiclyCL and from houseCLI to house, 

Notes on verse 20b

CXLVIII “proclaiming” = anaggello. Related to “set sail” in v3 & “met” in v7 & “taken…away” in v12. 14x in NT. From ana (up, again, back, among, by, anew) + aggello (to announce, report) {from aggelos (angel, messenger – supernatural or human envoy of God); probably from ago (see note XIX above)}. This is returning with word, reporting, declaring, announcing. It is to tell something all the way, which is to say to tell it clearly.
CXLIX “teaching” = didasko. From dao (learn). This is to teach, direct, instruct, or impart knowledge. In the New Testament, this is almost always used for teaching scripture.
CL “publicly” = demosios. Related to “serving” in v19. 4x in NT– all in Acts. From demos (district, multitude, rabble, assembly; Greeks bound by similar laws or customs); from deo (see note CXXXVIII above). This is public, common, or openly.
CLI “house” = oikos. This is house – the building, the household, the family, descendants, the temple.

21 as I testifiedCLII to both Jews and GreeksCLIII about repentanceCLIV toward GodCLV

Notes on verse 21a

CLII “testified” = diamarturomai. 15x in NT. From dia (through, across to the other side, thoroughly) + marturomai (to witness, testify, call as a witness, affirm, charge, protest); {from martus (a witness whether having heard or seen something; witness literally, judicially, or figuratively; by analogy, a martyr)}. This is to affirm, give evidence, testify thoroughly. It is giving full testimony.
CLIII “Greeks” = Hellen. Related to “Greece” in v2. See note XV above.
CLIV “repentance” = metanoia. Related to “decided” in v3 & “named” in v9. From meta (with, among, after, beyond) + noieo (to perceive, think, understand); {from nous (mind, understanding, reasoning faculty, intellect, capacity to reflect); from ginosko (see note XXIV above)}. This is literally to change one’s mind – to choose to think differently and so to act differently because of a moral compunction. It is an intentional change to the inner self. This word shares a root with the English “paranoia.”
CLV “God” = Theos. Related to “Timothy” in v4. See note XXXV above.

and faithCLVI toward our Lord Jesus.CLVII, CLVIII 

Notes on verse 21b

CLVI “faith” = pistis. From peitho (to have confidence, urge, be persuaded, agree, assure, believe, have confidence, trust). This is less about knowing, believing, and repeating a list of doctrines then it is about trusting God. Faith means listening to God and seeking to live a holy life even (and especially) when we don’t understand how everything works or fits together. Faith is about being faithful (trusting and doing) rather than being all knowing.
CLVII “Jesus” = Iesous. From Hebrew Yehoshua (Joshua, the Lord is salvation); {from YHVH (proper name of the God of Israel; the self-existent and eternal one); {from havah (to become) or from hayah (to come to pass, become, be)} + yasha (to deliver, defend, help, preserve, rescue; properly, to be open, wide or free, which implies being safe. So, in a causative sense, this is to free someone)}. This is Jesus or Joshua in Greek – the Lord saves or the Lord is salvation.
CLVIII Some manuscripts include {untranslated} = Christos. From chrio (consecrate by anointing with oil; often done for prophets, priests, or kings). Literally, the anointed one, Christ. The Greek word for Messiah.

22 And now,CLIX as a captiveCLX to the Spirit,CLXI I am on my wayCLXII to Jerusalem,

Notes on verse 22a

CLIX {untranslated} = idou. From eido (to be aware, see, know, remember, appreciate). This is see! Lo! Behold! Look! Used to express surprise and or draw attention to the statement.
CLX “captive” = deo. Related to “serving” in v19 & “publicly” in v20. See note CXXXVIII above.
CLXI “Spirit” = pneuma. From pneo (to blow, breathe, breathe hard). This is wind, breath, or ghost. A breeze or a blast or air, a breath. Figuratively used for a spirit, the human soul or part of us that is rational. It is also used supernaturally for angels, demons, God, and the Holy Spirit. This is where pneumonia comes from.
CLXII “am on…way” = poreuomai. Same as {untranslated} in v1. See note IX above.

not knowingCLXIII what will happenCLXIV to me there, 23 exceptCLXV that the HolyCLXVI Spirit

Notes on verses 22b-23a

CLXIII “knowing” = eido. Related to {untranslated} in v22. See note CLIX above.
CLXIV “happen” = sunantao. Related to “arrived” in v15. 6x in NT. From sun (with, together with) + antao (see note CVIII above) OR from sun (with, together with) + anti (opposite, instead of, against). This is to meet or happen.
CLXV “except” = plen. Related to “much” in v2 & “longer” in v9. From pleion (see note LXXV above). This is yet, nevertheless.
CLXVI “Holy” = Hagios. From hagnos (holy, sacred, pure ethically, ritually, or ceremonially; prepared for worship, chaste, unadulterated, pure to the core; undefiled by sin; figurative for innocent, modest, perfect). God is totally different from humanity and thus set apart. That which is consecrated to worship God (elements of worship) or to serve God (as the saints) are holy because they are now set apart for God’s purposes. Holy because important to God. This is sacred physically, pure. It can be morally blameless or ceremonially consecrated.

testifies to meCLXVII in every cityCLXVIII that imprisonmentCLXIX and persecutionsCLXX are waiting for me. 

Notes on verse 23b

CLXVII {untranslated} = lego. Related to “given…encouragement” in v2 & “holding a discussion” in v7. See note XIII above.
CLXVIII “city” = polis. This is a city or its inhabitants. It is a town of variable size, but one that has walls. This is where “metropolis” and “police” come from.
CLXIX “imprisonment” = desmos. Related to “serving” in v19 & “publicly” in v20 & “captive” in v22. 18x in NT. From deo (see note CXXXVIII above). This is a chain, bond, infirmity, impediment.
CLXX “persecutions” = thlipsis. From thlibo (to press in on and make narrow, rub together, constrict; figuratively to oppress or afflict). This is pressure that hems us in – used often of internal pressure that makes us feel like we have no other options and are confined or restricted. So, this is persecution, affliction, trouble, distress, and anguish. There is a different word, stenoxoria, that refers to external pressure that we feel from what’s going on.

24 But I do notCLXXI countCLXXII my life of any valueCLXXIII to myself,

Notes on verse 24a

CLXXI “not” = oudeis. Same as “not…anything” in v20. See note CXLVI above.
CLXXII “count” = logos + poieo. Logos is the same as “given them much encouragement” in v2. See note XIII above. Poieo is the same as “stayed” in v3. See note XVI above.
CLXXIII “value” = timios. Related to “Timothy” in v4. 13x in NT. From time (see note XXXV above). This is valued, precious, respected, or dear. It is something that holds value.

if only I may finishCLXXIV my courseCLXXV and the ministryCLXXVI

Notes on verse 24b

CLXXIV “finish” = teleioo. From teleios (going through the steps to complete a stage or phase and then moving on to the next one; reaching an end and so being complete or “perfect”; also full grown or mature); from telos (an end, aim, purpose, completion, end goal, consummation, tax).  This is finish, accomplish, bring to an end, complete, reach a goal, finish a race, to consummate. It refers to completing stages or phases to get to an ultimate conclusion. It can also mean consecrate or fulfill.
CLXXV “course” = dromos. 3x in NT. From dramein (to run) OR from trecho (to run, make progress, rush; running like an athlete in a race; figuratively, to work quickly towards a goal in a focused way). This is a course, race, or career. It is a track for those who run on foot in a competitive game. Figuratively, it can refer to a career or other course of life. It is part of the word “hippodrome.”
CLXXVI “ministry” = diakonia. Perhaps from dia (through, across to the other side, thoroughly) + konis (dust) OR from dioko (to chase after, put to flight; by implication, to persecute or to purse like a hunter after its prey; this can be earnestly pursue or zealously persecute) {related to dio (put to flight)}. This is service, ministry, attending someone, service. It can mean serving someone at a table or otherwise as their servant/slave. It is also used for people who serve/minister in temples, as well as the work of Christian ministry. Figuratively, this word can mean money given for charity. This shares a root with “deacon” and is where the word “diaconate” comes from.

that I receivedCLXXVII from the Lord Jesus, to testify to the good newsCLXXVIII of God’s grace.CLXXIX

Notes on verse 24c

CLXXVII “received” = lambano. Related to “took…in his arms” in v10 & “take…on” in v13. See note LXXXIV above.
CLXXVIII “good news” = euaggelion. Related to “Eutychus” in v9 & to “set sail” in v3 & “met” in v7 & “taken…away” in v12 & “proclaiming” in v20. From eu (see note LXVIII above) + aggelos (see note CXLVIII above). This is literally “the good news,” used for the gospel. This is also where “evangelism” comes from.
CLXXIX “grace” = charis. From chairo (to rejoice, be glad; used to say hello; properly, delighting in the grace of God or experiencing God’s favor); from char– (to extend favor, lean towards, be inclined to be favorable towards). This is grace, kindness, favor, gratitude, thanks. It is the sense of being inclined to or favorable towards – leaning towards someone to share some good or benefit. This can be literal, figurative, or spiritual. It is grace as abstract concept, manner, or action.

25 “And nowCLXXX I knowCLXXXI that none ofCLXXXII you, among whom I have gone aboutCLXXXIII proclaimingCLXXXIV

Notes on verse 25a

CLXXX {untranslated} = idou. Same as {untranslated} in v22. See note CLIX above.
CLXXXI “know” = eido. Same as “knowing” in v22. See note CLXIII above.
CLXXXII {untranslated} = pas. Same as “entire” in v18. See note CXXXIV above.
CLXXXIII “gone about” = dierchomai. Same as “gone through” in v2. See note XI above.
CLXXXIV “proclaiming” = kerusso. This is to proclaim, preach, publish. Properly, it is to act as a herald – announcing something publicly with confidence and/or to persuade.

the kingdom,CLXXXV will ever seeCLXXXVI my faceCLXXXVII again. 

Notes on verse 25b

CLXXXV “kingdom” = basileia. Related to “deep” in v9 & “went down” in v10 & “went upstairs” in v11 & “set foot” in v18 & “came” in v19. From basileus (king, emperor, sovereign); probably from basis (step, hence foot; a pace); from baino (see note LXXII above). This is kingdom, rule, authority, sovereignty, royalty, a realm.
CLXXXVI “see” = horao. To see, perceive, attend to, look upon, experience. Properly, to stare at and so implying clear discernment. This, by extension, would indicate attending to what was seen and learned. This is to see, often with a metaphorical sense. Can include inward spiritual seeing.
CLXXXVII “face” = prosopon. Related to “see” in v25. From pros (at, towards, with) + ops (eye, face); {from optanomai (to appear, be seen); perhaps from horao (see note CLXXXVI above)}. This is the face, surface, or front. It can imply presence more generally.

26 Therefore I declareCLXXXVIII to you thisCLXXXIX day that I am not responsibleCXC for the bloodCXCI of anyCXCII of you, 

Notes on verse 26

CLXXXVIII “declare” = marturomai. Related to “testified” in v21. 5x in NT. See note CLII above.
CLXXXIX “this” = semeron. Related to “days” in v6. From hemera (see note XLIV above). This is today, now, at present.
CXC “not responsible” = katharos. This is clean, clear, pure, unstained; clean in a literal, ritual, or spiritual sense; so, also guiltless, innocent or upright; something that is pure because it has been separated from the negative substance or aspect; spiritually clean because of God’s act of purifying.
CXCI “blood” = haima. This is blood in a literal sense as bloodshed. Figuratively, it can also be used to refer to wine or to kinship (being related).
CXCII “any” = pas. Same as “entire” in v18. See note CXXXIV above.

27 for I did not shrink from declaringCXCIII to you the wholeCXCIV purposeCXCV of God. 28 Keep watchCXCVI over yourselves and over all the flock,CXCVII

Notes on verses 27-28a

CXCIII “declaring” = anaggello. Same as “proclaiming” in v20. See note CXLVIII above.
CXCIV “whole” = pas. Same as “entire” in v18. See note CXXXIV above.
CXCV “purpose” = boule. Related to “plot” in v3. 12x in NT. See note XXI above.
CXCVI “keep watch” = prosecho. Related to “after” in v15. From pros (at, toward) + echo (see note CXIV above). This is have towards, which is to say to give something your complete attention, beware, be cautious, hold to, turn to.
CXCVII “flock” = poimnion. 5x in NT. From poimne (flock or fold in a literal or figurative sense – usually sheep or goats); from poimen (shepherd in a literal or figurative sense – one who feeds, protects, rules). This is a flock, which can refer to believers.

of which the Holy Spirit has madeCXCVIII you overseers,CXCIX to shepherdCC the church of God that he obtainedCCI with the blood of his ownCCII Son. 

Notes on verse 28b

CXCVIII “made” = tithemi. This is to put, place, set, fix, establish in a literal or figurative sense. Properly, it is placing something in a passive or horizontal position.
CXCIX “overseers” = episkopos. 5x in NT. From epi (on, upon, at, what is fitting) + skopos (a mark or goal like the marker at the end of a race; figuratively, other goals or destinations; also, a watch or sentry); {from skeptomai (to peer out, consider, gaze carefully)}. This is an overseer, supervisor, guardian, or ruler. It is a civic title and also one used in the church – a bishop. It is where the word “episcopal” comes from.
CC “shepherd” = poimaino. Related to “flock” in v28. 11x in NT. From poimen (see note CXCVII above). This is to tend, care for, shepherd. It focuses on tending, guiding, and protecting rather than feeding. Figuratively, it can mean to govern.
CCI “obtained” = peripoieo. Related to “stayed” in v3. 3x in NT. From peri (about, concerning, all around, encompassing) + poieo (see note XVI above). This is to acquire, earn, preserve, make one’s own.
CCII “own” = idios. This is something that belongs to you or that is personal, private, apart. It indicates a stronger sense of possession than a simple possessive pronoun. This is where “idiot” comes from (denoting someone who hasn’t had formal training or education and so they rely on their own understanding).

29 I knowCCIII that after I have gone,CCIV savageCCV

Notes on verse 29a

CCIII “know” = eido. Same as “knowing” in v22. See note CLXIII above.
CCIV “gone” = aphixis. 1x in NT. From aphikneomai (to come to, spread rumor, reach); {from apo (from, away from) + the same as hikanos (sufficient, suitable, adequate, competent, ample); {from hiko or hikneomai (to reach, come to, attain) OR hiketes (a suppliant)}}. This is arrival or departure.
CCV “savage” = barus. Related to “deep” in v9 & “went down” in v10 & “went upstairs” in v11 & “set foot” in v18 & “came” in v19 & “kingdom” in v25. 6x in NT. Perhaps from the same as baros (weight, burden in a literal or figurative sense; authority); from the same as basis (foot, step, pace) {from baino (see note LXXII above). This is heavy, burdensome, oppressive, serious. It is weighty in a literal or figurative sense.

wolvesCCVI will come inCCVII among you, not sparingCCVIII the flock. 30 SomeCCIX even from your own groupCCX

Notes on verses 29b-30a

CCVI “wolves” = lukos. 6x in NT. Perhaps related to leukos (bright, white); from luke (light). This is wolf or maybe jackal. Figuratively, it means cruel, greedy, or destructive.
CCVII “come in” = eiserchomai. Related to “left” in v1 & “gone through” and “came” in v2 & “went ahead” in v5. From eis (to, into, for, among) + erchomai (see note VIII above). This is to go in in a literal or figurative sense.
CCVIII “sparing” = pheidomai. 10x in NT. This is to spare, refrain, or to treat with leniency.
CCIX “some” = aner. This is man, male, husband, or fellow. It can also refer to an individual.
CCX “group” = autos. Literally, “selves.”

will comeCCXI, CCXII distorting the truthCCXIII in order to enticeCCXIV the disciples to followCCXV them. 

Notes on verse 30b

CCXI “come” = anistemi. Related to “know” in v18 & “shrink” in v20. From ana (upwards, up, again, back, anew) + histemi (see note CXXXII above). This is to raise up, rise, appear. It is to stand up literally or figuratively. Can also mean to resurrect.
CCXII {untranslated} = laleo. From lalos (talkative). This is to talk, say, or preach.
CCXIII “distorting the truth” = diastrepho. Related to “return” in v3. 7x in NT. From dia (through, because of, across, thoroughly) + strepho (see note XXV above). This is to distort, pervert, to twist something into a different shape than it is meant to be. So, figuratively, it can refer to moral corruption.
CCXIV “entice” = apospao. Related to “saying farewell” in v1. 4x in NT. From apo (from, away from) + spao (see note VII above). This is to draw forth, part, draw away, pull out a sword. Figuratively, to withdraw or retire.
CCXV “follow” = opiso. Related to “see” and “face” in v25. From the same as opisthen (after, back, from the rear); probably from opis (back); from optanomai (see note CLXXXVII above). This is back, behind, after.

31 Therefore be alert,CCXVI rememberingCCXVII that for three yearsCCXVIII

Notes on verse 31a

CCXVI “be alert” = gregoreo. From egeiro (to awake, raise up or lift up; to get up from sitting or lying down, to get up from sleeping, to rise from a disease or from death; figuratively, rising from inactivity or from ruins). This is to be or stay awake, watch. Figuratively, it can be alertness or vigilance.
CCXVII “remembering” = mnemoneuo. Related to “waiting for” in v5. From mnemon (mindful) OR from mneme (memory or mention); {from mnaomai (to remember; by implication give reward or consequence) or mimnesko (to remind or remember; memory through an active, intentional process or being mindful; not incidentally or accidentally remembering); or form meno (see note XL above) or from massaomai (to chew, gnaw); from masso (to knead, squeeze)}. This is to remember, recollect. It does not necessarily imply remembering something that you forgot – it could be simply calling something to mind. It can mean to punish or rehearse.
CCXVIII “three years” = trietia. Related to “three” in v3 & “three floors” in v9. 1x in NT. From treis (see note XVII above) + etos (year, age). This is three years’ time.

I did not cease nightCCXIX or day to warnCCXX everyoneCCXXI with tears. 

Notes on verse 31b

CCXIX “night” = nux. Related to “midnight” in v7. See note LXI above.
CCXX “warn” = noutheteo. Related to “decided” in v3 & “named” in v9 & “repentance” in v21 & to “made” in v28. 8x in NT. From nouthesia (admonition, teaching, warning; focusing one’s mind by using reasoning to reprove or warn someone); {from nous (see note CLIV above) + tithemi (see note CXCVIII above)}. This is to warn, admonish, teach. Literally, it is to set one’s mind on something – specifically in giving someone a warning using logic. It can also be a gentle reproof.
CCXXI “everyone” = heis + hekastos. Heis is the same as “first” in v7. See note L above. Hekastos is perhaps from hekas (separate). This is each one, any, every. It is every individual as a distinct entity as opposed to those counted as a group in small sets.

32 And now I commendCCXXII you to God and to the messageCCXXIII of his grace, a message that is ableCCXXIV to build you upCCXXV

Notes on verse 32a

CCXXII “commend” = paratithemi. Related to “made” in v28 & “warn” in v31. 19x in NT. From para (by, beside, in the presence of) + tithemi (see note CXCVIII above). This is properly, to set beside or place before. So, it can mean to set or serve a meal, to deposit something with someone, to set forth an argument. It can also mean to entrust, commend, or tell a parable (as setting forth information).
CCXXIII “message” = logos. Same as “speaking” in v2. See note LX above.
CCXXIV “is able” = dunamai. Related to “possible” in v16. See note CXXV above.
CCXXV “build…up” = oikodomeo. Related to “house” in v20. From oikos (see note CLI above) + domeo (to build). This is to build a house or be a house builder. Figuratively, it can mean to edify or encourage, be strong or embolden.

and to giveCCXXVI you the inheritanceCCXXVII among all who are sanctified.CCXXVIII 

Notes on verse 32b

CCXXVI “give” = didomi. To give, offer, place, bestow, deliver. This is give in a literal or figurative sense.
CCXXVII “inheritance” = kleronomia. Related to “break” in v7. 14x in NT. From kleronomos (heir); {from kleros (lot, portion, heritage; that share assigned to you; also a lot used to determine something by fate, chance, or divine will); {perhaps from klero (casting a lot) or from klao (see note LIII above)} + the same as nomos (what is assigned – usage, law, custom, principle; used for the law in general or of God’s law; sometimes used to refer to the first five books of the Bible or the entire Old Testament; also used to refer to theology or the practice and tradition of interpreting and implementing the law of God); {from nemo (to parcel out, assign)}}. This is inheritance, heritage, or possession.
CCXXVIII “sanctified” = hagiazo. Related to “Holy” in v23. From hagios (see note CLXVI above). This is to make holy, consecrate, sanctify, set apart as holy, purify, venerate.

33 I covetedCCXXIX no one’sCCXXX silverCCXXXI or goldCCXXXII or clothing.CCXXXIII 

Notes on verse 33

CCXXIX “coveted” = epithumeo. 16x in NT. From epi (on, upon, fitting) + thumos (passion, wrath; actions emerging from passion or impulse) {from thuo (to rush along, breathe violently, offer sacrifice)}. This is desire, lust, longing for, setting one’s heart on. It is a longing whether good or bad. In either case, passion and yearning is set on the object of desire.
CCXXX “no one’s” = oudeis. Same as “not…anything” in v20. See note CXLVI above.
CCXXXI “silver” = argurion. From arguros (silver, whether the metal itself or things made from silver); from argos (shining). This is silver, which implies money – shekel, drachma, etc.
CCXXXII “gold” = chrusion. 12x in NT. From chrusos (gold or something made of gold; symbolic of purchasing power); perhaps from chraomai (to use, make use of, give what is needed, act in a specific way, request). This is gold or something made of gold. Emphasizes that which gold can obtain.
CCXXXIII “clothing” = himatismos. 6x in NT. From himatizo (to clothe, dress, give clothing); from himation (the outer garment, cloak, robe, or mantle; worn loosely over a tunic); from heima (garment) OR from ennumi (to put on). This is clothing, apparel.

34 You knowCCXXXIV for yourselves that I workedCCXXXV with my own handsCCXXXVI

Notes on verse 34a

CCXXXIV “know” = ginosko. Related to “decided” in v3 & “named” in v9 & “repentance” in v21 & “warn” in v31. See note XXIV above.
CCXXXV “worked” = hupereteo. 3x in NT. From huperetes (originally a rower or someone who crewed a boat on the lower deck; underling, servant, or attendant; in the New Testament, disciples); {from huper (by, under, subordinate to another) + eresso (to row)}. This is to work as a rower. So, it means to work under someone’s immediate authority. Figuratively, it means to minister to, take care of, or serve.
CCXXXVI “hands” = cheir. This is the hand in a literal sense. Figuratively, the hand is the means a person uses to accomplish things so it can also mean power, means, or instrument.

to support myselfCCXXXVII and my companions.CCXXXVIII 35 In all this I have given you an exampleCCXXXIX that by such workCCXL

Notes on verses 34b-35a

CCXXXVII “support myself” = ho + chreia + ego. Literally, “my needs.” Chreia is from chraomai (to use, make use of, give what is needed, act in a specific way, request); related to chre (what is proper, fitting, or necessary). This is the is task, business, or affair. It can also be need, want, or destitution.
CCXXXVIII “my companions” = ho + eimi + meta + ego. Literally, “those being with me.” Eimi is the same as “were” in v8. See note LXII above.
CCXXXIX “given…an example” = hupodeiknumi. 6x in NT. From hupo (by, under, about, under someone’s authority) + deiknumi (to show, demonstrate, teach, make known). This is to teach, indicate, suggest, prove, exhibit, to show secretly, admonish.
CCXL “work” = kopiao. From kopos (labor that leads to exhaustion, depletion, weariness, fatigue; working until worn out); from kopto (to cut, strike, cut off; beating the chest to lament and so to mourn). This is working with effort, whether of the body or mind, growing weary, feeling tired, working hard.

we mustCCXLI supportCCXLII the weak,CCXLIII

Notes on verse 35b

CCXLI “must” = dei. Related to “serving” in v19 & “publicly” in v20 & “captive” in v22 & “imprisonment” in v23. From deo (see note CLXXXVIII above). This is what is necessary or proper. It is what is needed or what one should do – a duty or something inevitable. This refers to something absolutely necessary.
CCXLII “support” = antilambano. Related to “took…in his arms” in v10 & “take…on” in v13 & “received” in v24. 3x in NT. From anti (over against, instead of, corresponding to) + lambano (see note LXXXIV above). This is to take instead of, take hold of, help, share in, partake of, enjoy. Properly, to take hold in a way that is proportional or fitting – acting in a way that corresponds to what is needed in the situation. In terms of helping, this is giving the help that matches what is really needed.
CCXLIII “weak” = astheneo. From asthenes (not having strength or weak in a moral sense; sick); {from a (not) + sthenes (strong, vigor); {from the base of sthenoo (to strengthen so that one can be mobile); from sthenos (strength)}}. This is sick, feeble, languishing, impotent. Can also refer to moral weakness.

remembering the wordsCCXLIV of the Lord Jesus, for he himself said, ‘It is moreCCXLV blessedCCXLVI to give than to receive.’”

36 When he had finished speaking, he knelt downCCXLVII with them all and prayed.CCXLVIII 

Notes on verses 35c-36

CCXLIV “words” = logos. Same as “speaking” in v2. See note LX above.
CCXLV “more” = mallon. From mala (very, very much). This is rather, more than, or better.
CCXLVI “blessed” = makarios. From makar (happy); from mak– (to become long or large). This is blessed, happy, fortunate. It is when God’s grace/abundance is extended.
CCXLVII “knelt down” = tithemi + ho + gonu + autos. Literally, “having bowed his knee.” Tithemi is the same as “made” in v28. See note CXCVIII above. Gonu is 12x in NT. This is knee.
CCXLVIII “prayed” = proseuchomai. From pros (advantageous for, at, toward) + euchomai (to wish, make a request, pray). This is to pray or pray for, to worship or supplicate. It is more literally exchanging one’s own wishes for God’s.

37 There wasCCXLIX muchCCL weepingCCLI among them all; they embracedCCLII Paul and kissedCCLIII him, 

Notes on verse 37

CCXLIX “was” = ginomai. Same as “made” in v3. See note XXII above.
CCL “much” = hikanos. Same as “many” in v8. See note LXIII above.
CCLI “weeping” = klauthmos. 9x in NT. From klaio (to weep, lament, or sob; weeping aloud). This is weeping, lamentation, shrieks, intense pain.
CCLII “embraced” = epipipto + epi + ho + trachelos. Literally, “having fallen upon the neck.” Epipipto is the same as “bending over” in v10. See note LXXXIII above. Trachelos is 7x in NT. Probably from trachus (rough, uneven). This is the neck or throat. It can also refer to an embrace. It shares a root with the word “trachea.”
CCLIII “kissed” = kataphileo. Related to “Philippi” in v6. 6x in NT– 2x of Judas’s betrayal, 2x of the woman who washes Jesus’s feet and kisses them (Lk 7:38, 45), 1x when the father kisses the prodigal son (Lk 15:20), and 1x when Paul kisses the Ephesian elders goodbye (Acts 20:37). From kata (down, against, according to) + phileo (friendship love and fondness with personal attachment; kiss as a sign of love deriving from this personal affection -cherishing); {from philos (dear, beloved, a friend, an associate; friendship with personal affection, a trusted confidante; love from personal experience with another person)}. This is kissing with great emotion or kissing repeatedly, earnestly, affectionately.

38 grievingCCLIV especiallyCCLV because of whatCCLVI he had said,CCLVII

Notes on verse 38a

CCLIV “grieving” = odunao. 4x in NT– 1x of Jesus’s parents when they lose him at the Temple (Luke 2:48), 2x of the Rich Man’s agony in the Parable of the Rich Man and Lazarus (Luke 16:24-25), and 1x when Paul feels grief on saying goodbye to the Ephesian elders (Acts 20:38). From odunao (pain, grief, sorrow, whether physical or mental); from duno (to enter, sink into; can also be set like the sun); from duo (to sink). This is to cause or experience great pain, whether of mind or body. It is personal anguish that is shown through grieving.
CCLV “especially” = malista. Related to “more” in v35. 12x in NT. From mala (see note CCXLV above). This is most, especially, chiefly.
CCLVI “what” = logos. Same as “speaking” in v2. See note LX above.
CCLVII “said” = ereo. Perhaps from rheo (to say, speak of, command). This is to say, tell, speak, mean, command.

that they would not seeCCLVIII himCCLIX again.CCLX Then they broughtCCLXI him to the ship.

Notes on verse 38b

CCLVIII “see” = theoreo. From theaomai (to behold, look upon, see, contemplate, visit); from thaomai (to gaze at a spectacle; to look at or contemplate as a spectator; to interpret something in efforts to grasp its significance); from theoros (a spectator or envoy). This is gazing, beholding, experiencing, discerning. It is looking at something to analyze it and concentrate on what it means. This is the root of the word “theatre” in that people concentrate on the action of the play to understand its meaning.
CCLIX “him” = prosopon + autos. Literally, “his face.” Prospon is the same as “face” in v25. See note CLXXXVII above.
CCLX “again” = mello. Same as “was about to” in v3. See note XVIII above.
CCLXI “brought” = propempo. Related to “sent for” in v1 & “sent a message” in v17. 9x in NT. From pro (before, first, in front of, earlier) + pempo (see note IV above). This is to send forth, accompany, escort. It is to prepare for a journey.

Image credit: “The Scattering” by SwimmingPenguin, 2017.

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