Acts 2:22-24

Acts 2:22-24
A Women’s Lectionary 24


22 “You that are Israelites,A listenB to whatC I have to say:

Notes on verse 22a

A “Israelites” = aner + Israelites. Aner is man, male, husband, or fellow. It can also refer to an individual. Israelites is 9x in NT. From Israel (Israel, the people an land); from Hebrew Yisrael (God strives or one who strives with God; new name for Jacob and for his offspring); {from sarah (to persist, exert oneself, contend, persevere, wrestle, prevail) + el (God or god)}. This is Israel the people and the land. This is Israelite in a literal or figurative sense.
B “listen” = akouo. This is hear or listen, but it also means to understand by hearing. This is where the word “acoustics” comes from.
C “what” = logos + houtos. Literally, “these words.” Logos is from lego (to speak, tell, mention). This is word, statement, speech, analogy. It is a word that carries an idea or expresses a thought, a saying. It could refer to a person with a message or reasoning laid out in words. By implication, this could be a topic, line of reasoning, or a motive. It can be used for a divine utterance or as Word – Christ.

JesusD of Nazareth,E a manF attestedG to you by GodH

Notes on verse 22b

D “Jesus” = Iesous. From Hebrew Yehoshua (Joshua, the Lord is salvation); {from YHVH (proper name of the God of Israel; the self-existent and eternal one); {from havah (to become) or from hayah (to come to pass, become, be)} + yasha (to deliver, defend, help, preserve, rescue; properly, to be open, wide or free, which implies being safe. So, in a causative sense, this is to free someone)}. This is Jesus or Joshua in Greek – the Lord saves or the Lord is salvation.
E “Nazareth” = Nazoraios. 13x in NT. Probably from nazara (Nazareth); perhaps from netser (branch) OR from natsar (to watch, guard, protect). This is Nazarene. See
F “man” = aner. Same as “Israelites” in v22. See note A above.
G “attested” = apodeiknumi. 4x in NT. From apo (from, away from) + deiknumi (to show, point out, exhibit; figurative for teach, demonstrate, make known). This is demonstrate or show with proof. It is showing that something is what it claims.
H “God” = Theos. From Proto-Indo-European origins, meaning do, put, place. This is God or a god in general.

with deeds of power,I wonders,J and signsK that God didL through him amongM you, as you yourselves knowN— 

Notes on verse 22c

I “deeds of power” = dunamis. From dunamai (to be able, have power or ability). This is might, strength, physical power, efficacy, energy, and miraculous power. It is force literally or figuratively – the power of a miracle or the miracle itself.
J “wonders” = teras. 16x in NT. This is a wonder or marvel performed to get bystanders to react. It could also be a portent or omen.
K “signs” = semeion. From the same as semaino (to give a sign, signify, indicate, make known); from sema (a sign or mark). It is literally a sign of any kind. It also refers to a sign given by God to confirm or authenticate a message or prophecy. It is not necessarily miraculous, but it can be. The Gospel of John generally uses this word instead of miracle.
L “did” = poieo. This is to make, do, act, construct, abide, or cause.
M “among” = mesos. Perhaps from meta (with among, behind, beyond; implies a change following contact or action). This is middle, among, center, midst.
N “know” = eido. This is to know, consider perceive, appreciate, behold, or remember. It means seeing with one’s eyes, but also figuratively, it means perceiving – seeing that becomes understanding. So, by implication, this means knowing or being aware.

23 this man, handed overO to you according to the definiteP planQ and foreknowledgeR of God,

Notes on verse 23a

O “handed over” = ekdotos. 1x in NT. From ek (from, from out of) + didomi (give, offer, place, bestow, deliver; give in a literal or figurative sense). This is to give over, deliver up.
P “definite” = horizo. 8x in NT. From the same as horion (boundary, territory); from horos (limit, boundary). This is to determine, set boundaries, appoint, designate, pre-determined. Literally, this is setting horizons.
Q “plan” = boule. 12x in NT. From boulomai (to wish, desire, intend; to plan with great determination). This is counsel, plan, purpose, decision. It refers to wisdom that comes from deliberation.
R “foreknowledge” = prognosis. 2x in NT. From proginosko (to know beforehand, foresee); {from pro (before, in front of, earlier than) + ginosko (know, recognize, learn from firsthand experience)}. This is foreknowledge or a previous determination.

you crucifiedS and killedT by the handsU of those outside the law.V 

Notes on verse 23b

S “crucified” = prospegnumi. 1x in NT. From pros (at, to, toward). This is to fasten to – used specifically for crucifixion.
T “killed” = anaireo. From ana (up, back, among, again, anew) + haireo (to take, choose, or prefer) {probably related to airo (raise, take up, lift, remove)}. This is to take up or away, which implies taking with violence. So, this is used for murdering, executing, and slaying.
U “hands” = cheir. This is the hand in a literal sense. Figuratively, the hand is the means a person uses to accomplish things so it can also mean power, means, or instrument.
V “outside the law” = anomos. 10x in NT. From a (not, without) + nomos (what is assigned – usage, law, custom, principle; used for the law in general or of God’s law; sometimes used to refer to the first five books of the Bible or the entire Old Testament; also used to refer to theology or the practice and tradition of interpreting and implementing the law of God); {from nemo (to parcel out, assign)}. This is literally without law. So, it could refer to someone who disregards authority or one who is not under the law (i.e. a Gentile). It can be lawless, wicked, or a transgressor.

24 But God raised him up,W having freedX him fromY death,Z because it was impossibleAA for him to be heldBB in its power.

Notes on verse 24

W “raised…up” = anistemi. From ana (upwards, up, again, back, anew) + histemi (to make to stand, place, set up, establish, appoint, stand by, stand still, stand ready, stand firm, be steadfast). This is to raise up, rise, appear. It is to stand up literally or figuratively. Can also mean to resurrect.
X “freed” = luo. This is to loose, release, or untie. Figuratively, it can mean to break, destroy, or annul. This is releasing what had been withheld.
Y {untranslated} = odin. 4x in NT. Akin to odune (pain, distress, or anguish, whether physical or mental); perhaps from duno (to enter, sink into; can also be set like the sun); from duo (to sink). This is severe agony, a snare, the pain from childbirth. It can refer figuratively to pain and difficulty that comes from ushering in something new.
Z “death” = thanatos. From thnesko (to die, be dead). This is death, whether literal or spiritual. It can also refer to something that is fatal.
AA “impossible” = dunatos. Related to “deeds of power” in v22. From dunamai (see note I above). This is mighty or powerful. It speaks of ability of persons, possibility of things. It is what can be given the power or ability that the subject exhibits. The root verb is also related to miracles i.e. deeds of power.
BB “be held” = krateo. From kratos (strength, power, dominion; vigor in a literal or figurative sense; power that is exercised). This is being strong or mighty so, by extension, to prevail or rule. It can also mean to seize, grasp hold of and thereby control. In this sense, it means arrest.

Image credit: “The Crucifixion; Jesus dies on the cross” by Jesus MAFA in Cameroon, 1973.

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