Acts 26

Acts 26


AgrippaI saidII to Paul,III “You have permissionIV to speakV for yourself.”

Notes on verse 1a

I “Agrippa” = Agrippas. 11x in NT– all in Acts. Perhaps from agrios (related to the country or fields. It can mean natural, wild, or fierce); {from agros (a field as a place where one grows crops or pastures cattle; a farm or lands); perhaps from ago (to lead, bring, carry, guide, drive, go)} + hippos (horse) OR from agrippos (wildish olive); {from agros (see above)}. This is Agrippa, meaning “wild-horse tamer” or “beginning to be cultivated” or “originally wild but becoming cultured by prolonged use.” See
II “said” = phemi. From phao (to shine). This is to declare, say, or use contrasts in speaking to shed light on one point of view.
III “Paul” = Paulos. From Latin Paulus (small, little). This is Paul or Paulos, meaning little.
IV “have permission” = epitrepo. 18x in NT. From epi (on, upon, against, what is fitting) + the same as trope (turning, change, shifting); {from trepo (to turn)}. This is to allow, permit, yield, entrust, give license.
V “speak” = lego. This is to speak, say, name, call, command. It is generally to convey verbally.

Then Paul stretched outVI his handVII and began to defendVIII himself:

Notes on verse 1b

VI “stretched out” = ekteino. 16x in NT. From ek (from, from out of) + teino (to stretch, extend, strain). This is to stretch out, reach, lay hands on. Can also be used for casting an anchor.
VII “hand” = cheir. This is the hand in a literal sense. Figuratively, the hand is the means a person uses to accomplish things so it can also mean power, means, or instrument.
VIII “began to defend” = apologeomai. Related to “speak” in v1. 10x in NT. From apo (from, away from) + logos (word, statement, speech, analogy; a word that carries an idea or expresses a thought, a saying; a person with a message or reasoning laid out in words; by implication, a topic, line of reasoning, or a motive; can be used for a divine utterance or as Word – Christ); {from lego (see note V above)}. This is to make an accounting or defend oneself – particularly in court. It is to present proof or evidence using sound logic.

“I considerIX myself fortunateX that it is before you, KingXI Agrippa,

Notes on verse 2a

IX “consider” = hegeomai. Related to “Agrippa” in v1. From ago (see note I above). This is to think, suppose, have an opinion. It is to lead the way, what comes in front or first, initial thought, high esteem or authority. It can refer to one who commands in an official capacity. This word shares a root with the word “hegemony.”
X “fortunate” = makarios. From makar (happy); from mak– (to become long or large). This is blessed, happy, fortunate. It is when God’s grace/abundance is extended.
XI “King” = basileus. Probably from basis (step, hence foot; a pace); from baino (to walk, to go). This is king, emperor, or sovereign.

I am toXII make my defenseXIII todayXIV

Notes on verse 2b

XII “to” = mello. Perhaps from melo (something that one is worried or concerned about, something one pays attention to or thinks about). Properly, this is ready, about to happen, to intend, delay, or linger. This is just on the point of acting.
XIII “make…defense” = apologeomai. Same as “began to defend” in v1. See note VIII above.
XIV “today” = semeron. From hemera (day, time, daybreak); perhaps from hemai (to sit). This is today, now, at present.

against allXV the accusationsXVI of the Jews,XVII 

Notes on verse 2c

XV “all” = pas. This is all or every.
XVI “accusations” = egkaleo. 7x in NT. From en (en, on, at, by, with) + kaleo (to call by name, invite, to name, bid, summon, call aloud) {related to keleuo (to command, order, direct); from kelomai (to urge on)}. This is to bring charges, accuse, or call something into question. It can also mean to bring to account.
XVII “Jews” = Ioudaios. From Ioudas (Judah, Judas); from Hebrew Yehudah (Judah, son of Jacob, his tribal descendants, a name for the southern kingdom. Literally, it means praised); probably from yadah (to throw one’s hands into the air in a gesture of praise); from yad (hand). This is Jewish, a Jew, or Judea.

because you areXVIII especiallyXIX familiarXX with all the customsXXI

Notes on verse 3a

XVIII “are” = eimi. This is to be, exist.
XIX “especially” = malista. 12x in NT. From mala (very, very much). This is most, especially, chiefly.
XX “familiar” = gnostes. 1x in NT. From ginosko (to know, recognize, realize, perceive, learn; gaining knowledge through personal experience). This is someone who knows, an expert.
XXI “customs” = ethos. 12x in NT. From etho (custom, what is customary). This is custom habit, rite – also, doing something that the law requires. It can be an unwritten custom, acting in accordance with tradition.

and controversiesXXII of the Jews; therefore I begXXIII of you to listenXXIV to me patiently.XXV

Notes on verse 3b

XXII “controversies” = zetema. 5x in NT– all in Acts. From zeteo (to seek, search for, desire. searching for something by inquiring or investigation; to seek in a literal or figurative sense; to worship God). This is a question, controversy, issue, debate, search.
XXIII “beg” = deomai. From deo (to tie, bind, fasten, impel, compel; to declare something against the law or prohibited) This is having an urgent need because one is missing or needing something so it is an earnest appeal or pressing request.
XXIV “listen” = akouo. This is hear or listen, but it also means to understand by hearing. This is where the word “acoustics” comes from.
XXV “patiently” = makrothumos. 1x in NT. From makrothumos (patient); from makros (long, long lasting) {from mekos (length); probably related to megas (big in a literal or figurative sense – great, large, exceeding, abundant, high, mighty, perfect, strong, etc.)} + thumos (passion, wrath; actions emerging from passion or impulse) {from thuo (to rush along, breathe violently, offer sacrifice)}.}. This is patiently, an enduring temper.

XXVIAll the Jews knowXXVII my way of lifeXXVIII from my youth,XXIX

Notes on verse 4a

XXVI {untranslated} = men. This is truly, indeed, even, in fact. Often, it is not translated, but used to emphasize affirmation.
XXVII “know” = eido. This is to know, consider perceive, appreciate, behold, or remember. It means seeing with one’s eyes, but also figuratively, it means perceiving – seeing that becomes understanding. So, by implication, this means knowing or being aware.
XXVIII “way of life” = biosis. 1x in NT. From bioo (to live, life related to the physical); from bios (life, livelihood, goods, wealth). This is the act of living or the way of life itself.
XXIX “youth” = neotes. 4x in NT. From neos (young, new, youth, person). This is youth or newness.

a life spentXXX from the beginningXXXI among my own peopleXXXII and in Jerusalem.XXXIII 

Notes on verse 4b

XXX “spent” = ginomai. This is to come into being, to happen, become, be born. It can be to emerge from one state or condition to another or is coming into being with the sense of movement or growth.
XXXI “beginning” = arche. From archomai (to begin or rule); from archo (to rule, begin, have first rank or have political power). Properly, this is what is first. In a temporal sense, that is beginning or origin. It can also refer to the one who ranks first, i.e. king or ruler. So, it can also be magistrate, power, or principality. It can be used more generally for what is preeminent.
XXXII “people” = ethnos. Related to “customs” in v3. Probably from etho (see note XXI above). This is people who are united by having similar customs or culture. Generally, it is used to refer to Gentiles. This is a tribe, race, nation, or Gentiles in general. This is where the term “ethnicity” comes from.
XXXIII “Jerusalem” = Hierosoluma. From Hebrew Yerushalaim (probably foundation of peace); {from yarah (to throw, shoot, be stunned; to flow as water so figuratively to instruct or teach) + shalam (to make amends, to be complete or sound)}. This is Jerusalem, dwelling of peace.

They have knownXXXIV for a long time,XXXV if they are willingXXXVI to testify,XXXVII

Notes on verse 5a

XXXIV “known” = proginosko. Related to “familiar” in v3. 5x in NT. From pro (before, first, in front of, earlier) + ginosko (see note XX above). This is to know ahead of time, foresee, or ordain.
XXXV “for a long time” = anothen. 13x in NT– this is the word used in John 3:3 in the being born “from above”/“again” conversation between Jesus and Nicodemus. From ano (up, above, up to the top, things above, heaven); from ana (up, upwards, again, back, among, anew). This is from above, from the top, again, beginning, from the source. It implies anew.
XXXVI “are willing” = thelo. This is to wish, desire, will, or intend. It is to choose or prefer in a literal or figurative sense. It can also mean inclined toward or take delight in. It can have a sense of being ready to act on the impulse in question.
XXXVII “testify” = martureo. From martus (a witness whether having heard or seen something; witness literally, judicially, or figuratively; by analogy, a martyr). This is to bear witness, testify, give evidence. It is to testify in a literal or figurative sense.

that I have belonged to the strictestXXXVIII sectXXXIX of our religionXL and livedXLI as a Pharisee.XLII 

Notes on verse 5b

XXXVIII “strictest” = akribestatos. 1x in NT. From akriboo (examine carefully, learn diligently); {from akribes (high point, extreme)} OR from the same as akros (the point, end); {from akrib– (learning precise information with as much accuracy as possible; probing inquiry to gain a comprehensive, exact sense of the facts)}. This is exact, precise, strict.
XXXIX “sect” = hairesis. 9x in NT. From haireo (to take, choose, or prefer); {probably related to airo (raise, take up, lift, remove)}. This is a choice, contention, heresy, or sect. It is making a person choice so, by implication, choice of a separate party or faction. It is where the word “heresy” comes from.
XL “religion” = threskeia. 4x in NT. From threskos (religious, devout, or pious; one who carefully adheres to religious requirements); probably from the base of throeo (to be disturbed, unsettled, troubled; feeling the desire to scream from fear, very upset, startled); from throos (noise, tumult). This is religion or worship. Specifically, it refers to ritual observance.
XLI “lived” = zao. This is to live literally or figuratively. It is used for life including the vitality of humans, plants, and animals – it is life physical and spiritual and life everlasting.
XLII “Pharisee” = Pharisaios. From Aramaic peras (to divide, separate) and from Hebrew parash (to make distinct, separate, scatter). This is a Pharisee, a member of a Jewish sect active in the 1st century. Their name meant separate in the sense of wanting to live a life separated from sin. Whereas the Sadducees were part of the priestly line and inherited their religious position and responsibilities, Pharisees were regular people who studied the scriptures and offered guidance to regular folk. Sadducees were often wealthier and willing to sacrifice their identity to rub elbows with Roman society. Pharisees were often more concerned with what it meant to follow God without compromising what made them different as followers of God. Sadducees primarily believed in that which was written down (the first five books of the Bible) and Pharisees believed in the Bible and the traditions of the elders. Pharisees had a very wide range of interpretations and diversity of opinion. Their standard mode of religious engagement was lively debate with one another. To argue religion with another teacher was to recognize that they had something of value to offer.

And now I standXLIII here on trialXLIV on account of my hopeXLV

Notes on verse 6a

XLIII “stand” = histemi. This is to stand, place, establish, appoint, stand ready, be steadfast.
XLIV “on trial” = krino. To judge, decide, think good, condemn, determine, pass judgment, stand trial, sue. This is judging whether it is done in court or in a private setting. Properly, it refers to mentally separating or distinguishing an issue – to come to a choice or decision, to judge positively or negatively in seeking what is right or wrong, who is innocent or guilty. It can imply trying, condemning, punishing, or avenging.
XLV “hope” = elpis. From elpo (to anticipate, welcome, expect; usually to anticipate positively). This is expectation, hope, trust, confidence faith. The expectation can be abstract or concrete.

in the promiseXLVI madeXLVII by GodXLVIII to our ancestors,XLIX 

Notes on verse 6b

XLVI “promise” = epaggelia. Related to “Agrippa” in v1 & “consider” in v2. From epi (on, upon, against, what is fitting) + aggello (to announce, report); {from aggelos (angel, messenger); probably from ago (see note I above)}. This is a summons, promise, or message. It is a formal promise that is officially sanctioned. In the New Testament, this usually refers to a promise made in the Old Testament.
XLVII “made” = ginomai. Same as “spent” in v4. See note XXX above.
XLVIII “God” = Theos. From Proto-Indo-European origins, meaning do, put, place. This is God or a god in general.
XLIX “ancestors” = pater. This is father in a literal or figurative sense. Could be elder, senior, ancestor, originator, or patriarch.

a promise that our twelve tribesL hope to attain,LI as they earnestlyLII worshipLIII

Notes on verse 7a

L “twelve tribes” = dodekaphulon. 1x in NT. From dodeka (twelve; also shorthand for the apostles); {from duo (two, both) + deka (ten)} + phule (clan, tribe, lineage); {from phuo (to produce, spring up, grow, germinate; perhaps originally meaning puff or blow)}. This is twelve tribes – a way to refer to Israel.
LI “attain” = katantao. 13x in NT. From kata (down, against, throughout, among); + antao (to meet with personally) OR from kata (see above) + anti (opposite, instead of, against). This is to come down, reach, arrive. It can be to descend from a higher elevation to a lower one or, more specifically, go to the coast or from out in the waters back to the coast. Figuratively, it is arriving at one’s destination or receiving inheritance.
LII “earnestly” = ekteneia. Related to “stretched out” in v1. 1x in NT. From ektenes (stretched fervent zealous); from ekteino (see note VI above). This is zeal, earnestness, instantly.
LIII “worship” = latreuo. From latris (a hired servant; someone who is qualified to perform a technical task). Properly, this is giving good, technical service because qualified or equipped to do so. It can be serve, minister, worship, or give homage.

dayLIV and night.LV It is for this hope,LVI Your Excellency,LVII that I am accusedLVIII by Jews! 

Notes on verse 7b

LIV “day” = hemera. Related to “today” in v2. See note XIV above.
LV “night” = nux. This is night in a literal or figurative sense.
LVI “hope” = elpis. Related to “hope” in v6. See note XLV above.
LVII “Excellency” = basileus. Same as “King” in v2. See note XI above.
LVIII “accused” = egkaleo. Same as “accusations” in v2. See note XVI above.

Why is it thoughtLIX incredibleLX by any of you that God raisesLXI the dead?LXII

Notes on verse 8

LIX “thought” = krino. Same as “on trial” in v6. See note XLIV above.
LX “incredible” = apistos. From a (not, without) + pistos (faithful, trustworthy, reliable, sure, or true; a fullness of faith); {from peitho (to have confidence, urge, be persuaded, agree, assure, believe, have confidence, trust)}. This is unbelieving, incredulous, faithless. It is someone who chooses to reject faith.
LXI “raises” = egeiro. This is to awake, raise up or lift up. It can be to get up from sitting or lying down, to get up from sleeping, to rise from a disease or from death. Figuratively, it can be rising from inactivity or from ruins.
LXII “dead” = nekros. Perhaps from nekus (corpse). This is dead or lifeless, mortal, corpse. It can also be used figuratively for powerless or ineffective. It is where the word “necrotic” comes from.

“Indeed,LXIII I myself was convincedLXIV that I oughtLXV to doLXVI

Notes on verse 9a

LXIII “indeed” = men. Same as {untranslated} in v4. See note XXVI above.
LXIV “convinced” = dokeo. From dokos (opinion). This is to have an opinion, seem, appear, think, suppose. It deals with a personal judgment. This is the root of the word “doxology.”
LXV “ought” = dei. Related to “beg” in v3. From deo (see note XXIII above). This is what is necessary or proper. It is what is needed or what one should do – a duty or something inevitable. This refers to something absolutely necessary.
LXVI “do” = prasso. This is to do or practice – something done on an on-going basis or by habit. It can also mean to accomplish, attend, or commit.

many thingsLXVII against the nameLXVIII of JesusLXIX of Nazareth.LXX 

Notes on verse 9b

LXVII “many things” = polus. This is much, often, plenteous – a large number or a great extent.
LXVIII “name” = onoma. Related to “familiar” in v3 & “known” in v5. May be from ginosko (see note XX above). This is a name, authority, cause, character, fame, reputation. The name was thought to include something of the essence of the person so it was not thought to be separate from the person.
LXIX “Jesus” = Iesous. From Hebrew Yehoshua (Joshua, the Lord is salvation); {from YHVH (proper name of the God of Israel; the self-existent and eternal one); {from havah (to become) or from hayah (to come to pass, become, be)} + yasha (to deliver, defend, help, preserve, rescue; properly, to be open, wide or free, which implies being safe. So, in a causative sense, this is to free someone)}. This is Jesus or Joshua in Greek – the Lord saves or the Lord is salvation.
LXX “Nazareth” = Nazoraios. 13x in NT. Probably from nazara (Nazareth); perhaps from netser (branch) OR from natsar (to watch, guard, protect). This is Nazarene. See

10 And that is what I didLXXI in Jerusalem; with authorityLXXII receivedLXXIII from the chief priests,LXXIV

Notes on verse 10a

LXXI “did” = poieo. This is to make, do, act, construct, abide, or cause.
LXXII “authority” = exousia. Related to “are” in v3. From exesti (to be permitted or lawful); {from ek (out, out of) + eimi (see note XVIII above)}. This is power to act or weight. It especially denotes moral authority or influence. It can mean domain, liberty, freedom, capacity, mastery, right, force, or strength.
LXXIII “received” = lambano. It does not refer to passive receiving of something, but active acceptance or taking of something whether it is offered or simply nearby. It focuses on individual decision and action.
LXXIV “chief priests” = archiereus. Related to “beginning” in v4. From archo (see note XXXI above) + hiereus (a priest literal or figurative – of any faith); {from hieros (sacred, something sacred, temple, holy, set apart; something consecrated to God or a god)} This is a high or chief priest.

I not only locked upLXXV many of the saintsLXXVI in prison,LXXVII

Notes on verse 10b

LXXV “locked up” = katakleio. 2x in NT. From kata (down, against, throughout, among) + kleio (to close, lock, shut). This is to confine, lock, incarcerate.
LXXVI “saints” = hagios. From hagnos (holy, sacred, pure ethically, ritually, or ceremonially; prepared for worship, chaste, unadulterated, pure to the core; undefiled by sin; figurative for innocent, modest, perfect). God is totally different from humanity and thus set apart. That which is consecrated to worship God (elements of worship) or to serve God (as the saints) are holy because they are now set apart for God’s purposes. Holy because important to God. This is sacred physically, pure. It can be morally blameless or ceremonially consecrated.
LXXVII “prison” = phulake. From phulasso (to guard something so that it doesn’t escape – to watch over it vigilantly; being on guard in a literal or figurative sense); related to phulaks (military guard, sentry, watcher). This is the act of guarding, the person who guards, the place where guarding occurs (i.e. a prison), or the times of guarding (the various watches).

but I also cast my voteLXXVIII againstLXXIX them when they were being condemned to death.LXXX 

Notes on verse 10c

LXXVIII “vote” = psephos. 3x in NT. From the same as psallo (to twang, play, sing psalms, pluck a stringed instrument such as a harp); {from psao (to rub) or pselaphao (to feel about for, investigate by touching; figuratively, to seek to discover); {from psallo (see above) + haphao (to handle)}}. This is a smooth pebble that was used to cast a vote or as a counter.
LXXIX “cast…against” = kataphero. 4x in NT– all in Acts. From kata (down, against, throughout, among) + phero (to bear, bring, lead, make known publicly; to carry in a literal or figurative sense). This is to bring down, overcome, vote or make a verdict, pull down into sleep.
LXXX “condemned to death” = anaireo. Related to “sect” in v5. From ana (up, back, among, again, anew) + haireo (see note XXXIX above). This is to take up or away, which implies taking with violence. So, this is used for murdering, executing, and slaying.

11 By punishingLXXXI them oftenLXXXII in all the synagoguesLXXXIII

Notes on verse 11a

LXXXI “punishing” = timoreo. 2x in NT. Perhaps from time (worth or something’s perceived value; literally, price, but figuratively, the honor or value one sees in someone or something else; also esteem or dignity; also precious or valuables); {from tino (to pay, be punished, pay a penalty or fine because of a crime); from tio (to pay respect, value)}. This it to punish, to protect honor.
LXXXII “often” = pollakis. Related to “many things” in v9. 18x in NT. From polus (see note LXVII above). This is often, many, frequently, again and again.
LXXXIII “synagogues” = sunagoge. Related to “Agrippa” in v1 & “consider” in v2 & “promise” in v6. From sun (with, together with, closely associated) + ago (see note I above). Literally, this is a bringing together, a place of assembly. The term can be used for the people or for the place where they assemble. It is also sometimes used of Christian churches in the New Testament. So, this is synagogue, assembly, congregation, or church. This is where the word “synagogue” comes from.

I tried to forceLXXXIV them to blaspheme,LXXXV and since I was so furiouslyLXXXVI enragedLXXXVII at them,

Notes on verse 11b

LXXXIV “force” = anagkazo. 9x in NT. From anagke (necessity – something that happensaper that requires an immediate response; generally associated with pain or distress.); {from ana (up, again, anew) + agcho (to press tightly, compress)} or {from ana (up, again, anew) + agkale (the arm, particularly one that is bent to carry a load); {from agkos (a bend)}}. This is to urge, compel, or force.
LXXXV “blaspheme” = blasphemeo. Related to “said” in v1. From blasphemos (blasphemer, reviler, reviling; speaking slander or evil); {from perhaps blapto (to harm or to hinder) + pheme (saying, news, rumor, fame) {from phemi (see note II above)}. This is to slander, malign, hurl abuse, speak against, blaspheme, or defame. It is speaking evil or abusive language – not acknowledging what is good or worth reverence/respect.
LXXXVI “furiously” = perissos. 17x in NT. From perissos (abundant, more, excessive, advantage, vehemently); from peri (all-around, encompassing, excess). This is abundantly, exceedingly, far more, or all the more. This is going beyond what is anticipated or past the upper limit.
LXXXVII “enraged” = emmainomai. 1x in NT. From en (in, on, at, by, with) + mainomai (to be insane, to rage. It is behaving like one has lost their mind, but only on a temporary basis); {from mao (to long for)}. This is to be mad at, fall into a frenzy, rave against.

I pursuedLXXXVIII them even to foreignLXXXIX cities.XC

Notes on verse 11c

LXXXVIII “pursued” = dioko. From dio (put to flight). This is chase or pursue in an aggressive fashion. By implication, it is persecute. It can also be used positively for eagerly pursuing something.
LXXXIX “foreign” = exo. From ek (from, from out of). This is literally out or outside. Figuratively, it could be without, strange, or foreign.
XC “cities” = polis. This is a city or its inhabitants. It is a town of variable size, but one that has walls. This is where “metropolis” and “police” come from.

12 “With this in mind,XCI I was travelingXCII to DamascusXCIII with the authority and commissionXCIV of the chief priests, 

Notes on verse 12

XCI “with this in mind” = en + hos. Literally, “during which.”
XCII “traveling” = poreuomai. From poros (ford, passageway). This is to go, travel, journey, or die. It refers to transporting things from one place to another and focuses on the personal significance of the destination.
XCIII “Damascus” = Damaskos. 15x in NT. From Hebrew Dammeseq (Damascus is Aram/Syria – foreign origin unclear). This is Damascus in Syria.
XCIV “commission” = epitrope. Related to “have permission” in v1. 1x in NT. From epitrepo (see note IV above). This is permission, authority – power to decide.

13 when at middayXCV along the road,XCVI Your Excellency, I sawXCVII

Notes on verse 13a

XCV “midday” = hemera + mesos. Hemera is the same as “day” in v7. See note LIV above. Mesos is perhaps from meta (with among, behind, beyond; implies a change following contact or action). This is middle, among, center, midst.
XCVI “road” = hodos. This is way, road, path, or journey. It can imply progress along a route.
XCVII “saw” = horao. To see, perceive, attend to, look upon, experience. Properly, to stare at and so implying clear discernment. This, by extension, would indicate attending to what was seen and learned. This is to see, often with a metaphorical sense. Can include inward spiritual seeing.

a lightXCVIII from heaven,XCIX brighterC

Notes on verse 13b

XCVIII “light” = phos. Related to “said” in v1 & “blaspheme” in v11. From phao (see note II above); from the same as phaino (to bring light, cause to appear, shine, become visible or clear). This is light, a source of light, fire, or radiance. This is light with specific reference to what it reveals. It is luminousness whether natural or artificial, abstract or concrete, literal or figurative.
XCIX “from heaven” = ouranothen. Related to “sect” in v5 & “condemned to death” in v10. 2x in NT. From ouranos (air, sky, the atmosphere, heaven; the sky that is visible; the spiritual heaven where God dwells; implies happiness, power, and eternity); perhaps from oros (mountain, hill); from airo (see note XXXIX above). This is from heaven or from the sky.
C “brighter” = lamprotes. 1x in NT. From lampros (literally, bright or shining; by analogy, splendid, gorgeous, fine quality, gleaming white); from the same as lampas (a torch or lantern that was hand held, perhaps made of clay with a flax wick and oil); from lampo (to give light literally or figuratively). This is brightness, splendor, or brilliancy.

than the sun,CI shining aroundCII me and my companions.CIII 14 When we had all fallenCIV to the ground,CV

Notes on verses 13c-14a

CI “sun” = helios. This is sun, which would imply light in general or the east.
CII “shining around” = perilampo. Related to “brighter” in v13. 2x in NT – also in Luke 2:9 of angel light shining around the shepherds. From peri (about, concerning, around, comprehensive) + lampo (see note C above). This is to illuminate around.
CIII “my companions” = ho + sun + ego + poreuomai. Literally, “those journeying with me.” Poreuomai is the same as “traveling” in v12. See note XCII above.
CIV “fallen” = katapipto. 3x in NT. From kata (down, against, throughout, among) + pipto (to fall literally or figuratively). This is to fall, fall down flat.
CV “ground” = ge. This is earth, land, soil, region, country, the inhabitants of an area.

I heardCVI a voiceCVII sayingCVIII to me in the HebrewCIX language,CX

Notes on verse 14b

CVI “heard” = akouo. Same as “listen” in v3. See note XXIV above.
CVII “voice” = phone. Related to “said” in v1 & “blaspheme” in v11 & “light” in v13. Probably from phemi (see note II above). This is a voice, sound, tone or noise. It can also be a language or dialect.
CVIII “saying” = lego. Same as “speak” in v1. See note V above.
CIX “Hebrew” = Hebrais. 3x in NT– all in Acts. From Hebrew Ibri (Hebrew, perhaps meaning “descendant of Eber” or “from the place beyond”); from Eber (the region beyond; Eber, the name of several Israelites including a descendant of Shem); from abar (to pass over, pass through, or pass by; cross over or to alienate; used for transitions). This is Hebrew language. In this case, it refers to Aramaic.
CX “language” = dialektos. Related to “speak” and “began to defend” in in v1. 6x in NT. From dialegomai (to discuss, preach, reason, argue, lecture); {from dia (through, across to the other side, thoroughly) + lego (see note V above)}. This is speech, language, tongue, or dialect. It can also be mode of discourse. It is the root where “dialect” and “dialogue” come from.

‘Saul,CXI Saul, why are you persecutingCXII me? It hurtsCXIII you to kickCXIV against the goads.’CXV 

Notes on verse 14c

CXI “Saul” = Saoul. 9x in NT. From Hebrew shaal (to ask, inquire, beg, borrow, desire, request; can also mean demand). This is Saul or Shaul, meaning “asked of the Lord.”
CXII “persecuting” = dioko. Same as “pursued” in v11. See note LXXXVIII above.
CXIII “hurts” = skleros. 6x in NT. From skello (to dry) OR from the base of skelos (leg); {perhaps from skello (to parch)}. This is hard because dried, rough, difficult, fierce, harsh. It can also be stubborn or unyielding – unyieldingly hard. This is where the word “sclera” comes from.
CXIV “kick” = laktizo. 2x in NT. From lax (heel-wise). This is to kick.
CXV “goads” = kentron. 5x in NT. From kenteo (to prick). This is a sting or sharp point. Figuratively, it could be poison or death.

15 I asked,CXVI ‘Who are you, Lord?’CXVII The Lord answered,CXVIII ‘I am Jesus whom you are persecuting. 16 But get upCXIX and stand on your feet,CXX

Notes on verses 15-16a

CXVI “asked” = eiron. This is to speak, answerd, command.
CXVII “Lord” = Kurios. From kuros (authority, supremacy). This is a respectful address meaning master or sir. It refers to one who has control or power greater than one’s own. So, it was also applied to God and Jesus as Master or Lord.
CXVIII “answered” = eiron. Same as “asked” in v15. See note CXVI above.
CXIX “get up” = anistemi. Related to “stand” in v6. From ana (upwards, up, again, back, anew) + histemi (see note XLIII above). This is to raise up, rise, appear. It is to stand up literally or figuratively. Can also mean to resurrect.
CXX “feet” = pous. This is foot in a literal or figurative sense.

for I have appearedCXXI to you for this purpose, to appointCXXII you to serveCXXIII and testifyCXXIV to the things in which you have seen me and to those in which I will appear to you. 

Notes on verse 16b

CXXI “appeared” = horao. Same as “saw” in v13. See note XCVII above.
CXXII “appoint” = procheirizo. Related to “hand” in v1. 3x in NT. From pro (before, first, in front of, earlier) + cheir (see note VII above). This is to put in hand. So, it can be to choose, appoint, determine, or purpose.
CXXIII “serve” = huperetes. From huper (by, under, subordinate to another) + eresso (to row). This is originally a rower or someone who crewed a boat on the lower deck. It came to mean underling, servant, or attendant. It is also used in the New Testament of disciples under the gospel.
CXXIV “testify” = martus. Related to “testify” in v5. See note XXXVII above.

17 I will rescueCXXV you from your peopleCXXVI and from the gentilesCXXVII—to whom I am sendingCXXVIII you 

Notes on verse 17

CXXV “rescue” = exaireo. Related to “sect” in v5 & “condemned to death” in v10 & “from heaven” in v13. 8x in NT. From ek (from, from out of) + haireo (see note XXXIX above). This is to remove, pluck, tear, or choose. Properly, it refers to a complete removal or a complete rescue.
CXXVI “people” = laos. This is the people or crowd – often used for the chosen people. This is where the word “laity” comes from.
CXXVII “gentiles” = ethnos. Same as “people” in v4. See note XXXII above.
CXXVIII “sending” = apostello. Related to “stand” in v6 & “get up” in v16. From apo (from, away from) + stello (to send, set, arrange, prepare, gather up); {probably from histemi (see note XLIII above)}. This is to send forth, send away, dismiss, send as a messenger. It implies one that is sent for a particular mission or purpose rather than a quick errand. This is where “apostle” comes from.

18 to openCXXIX their eyesCXXX so that they may turnCXXXI from darknessCXXXII to light and from the powerCXXXIII of SatanCXXXIV to God,

Notes on verse 18a

CXXIX “open” = anoigo. From ana (up, back, again, among, between, anew) + oigo (to open). This is to open in literal or figurative sense.
CXXX “eyes” = ophthalmos. Related to “saw” in v13. From optanomai (to appear, be seen by); from horao (see note XCVII above). This is eye or sight. It is used figuratively for the mind’s eye, a vision, or for envy.
CXXXI “turn” = epistrepho. Related to “have permission” in v1 & “commission” in v12. From epi (on, upon, among, what is fitting) + strepho (to turn, change, turn back, be converted; to turn around completely to take the opposite path or a completely different one); {from trope (see note IV above)}. This is to turn, return, or come again. It can also mean to revert. It is turning in a literal or figurative sense – also a moral turning.
CXXXII “darkness” = skotos. Perhaps from the base of skia (shadow, thick darkness, outline; figurative for a spiritual situation that is good or bad). This is darkness literal or figurative – as moral or spiritual darkness, sin and what comes from it. This can also mean obscurity.
CXXXIII “power” = exousia. Same as “authority” in v10. See note LXXII above.
CXXXIV “Satan” = Satanas. From Hebrew satan (adversary, Satan); from satan (to be an adversary, attack, accuse, resist). This is Satan, the adversary, or an adversary.

so that they may receive forgivenessCXXXV of sinsCXXXVI and a placeCXXXVII among those who are sanctifiedCXXXVIII by faithCXXXIX in me.’

Notes on verse 18b

CXXXV “forgiveness” = aphesis. 17x in NT. From aphiemi (to send away, release, abandon, lay aside, forgive); {from apo (from, away from) + hiemi (to send, to go)}. This is sending away – a release or letting go. So, it can be releasing someone from debt, slavery, or some other obligation – thus, freedom or liberty. Figuratively it can mean to pardon as releasing from the debt of sin.
CXXXVI “sins” = hamartia. From hamartano (to miss the mark, do wrong, make a mistake, sin); {from a (not) + meros (a part or share)}. Literally, this means not having one’s share or portion – like not receiving inheritance or what was allotted to you. This word means missing the mark so it is used for guilt, fault, and acts of sin.
CXXXVII “place” = kleros. 12x in NT. Perhaps from klero (casting a lot) or from klao (to break in pieces as one breaks bread). This lot, portion, heritage. It is that share assigned to you. It could also refer to a lot used to determine something by fate, chance, or divine will.
CXXXVIII “sanctified” = hagiazo. Related to “saints” in v10. From hagios (see note LXXVI above). This is to make holy, consecrate, sanctify, set apart as holy, purify, venerate.
CXXXIX “faith” = pistis. Related to “incredible” in v8. From peitho (see note LX above). This is less about knowing, believing, and repeating a list of doctrines then it is about trusting God. Faith means listening to God and seeking to live a holy life even (and especially) when we don’t understand how everything works or fits together. Faith is about being faithful (trusting and doing) rather than being all knowing.

19 “After that, King Agrippa, I wasCXL not disobedientCXLI to the heavenlyCXLII visionCXLIII 

Notes on verse 19

CXL “was” = ginomai. Same as “spent” in v4. See note XXX above.
CXLI “disobedient” = apeithes. Related to “incredible” in v8 & “faith” in v18. 6x in NT. From a (not, without) + peitho (see note LX above). This is literally not believing or deciding not to be persuaded. So, it implies disobedience or rebellion.
CXLII “heavenly” = ouranios. Related to “sect” in v5 & “condemned to death” in v10 & “from heaven” in v13 & “rescue” in v17. 9x in NT. This is heavenly or celestial. It can mean in, belonging to, or coming from heaven or the sky.
CXLIII “vision” = optasia. Related to “saw” in v13 & “eyes” in v18. 4x in NT. From optazomai (to be seen) OR related to optanomai (see note CXXX above). This is an appearing, vision, or apparition. Each time it refers to a divine appearance.

20 but declaredCXLIV firstCXLV to those in Damascus, then in Jerusalem and throughoutCXLVI the countrysideCXLVII of Judea,CXLVIII and also to the gentiles,

Notes on verse 20a

CXLIV “declared” = apaggello. Related to “Agrippa” in v1 & “consider” in v2 & “promise” in v6 & “synagogues” in v11. From apo (from, away from) + aggello (see note XLVI above). This is to report, declare, bring word. It is an announcement that emphasizes the source.
CXLV “first” = proton. From protos (what is first, which could be the most important, the first in order, the main one, the chief); from pro (before, first, in front of, earlier). This is firstly, before, in the beginning, formerly.
CXLVI “throughout” = pas. Same as “all” in v2. See note XV above.
CXLVII “countryside” = chora. From chasma (gap, gulf, chasm, open space); from chasko (to gape, yawn). This is space, land, region, fields, open area – the countryside in contrast to the town.
CXLVIII “Judea” = Ioudaia. Related to “Jews” in v2. From Hebrew Yehudah (see note XVII above). This is Judea, which was a Roman province.

that they should repentCXLIX and turn to God and doCL deedsCLI consistent withCLII repentance.CLIII 

Notes on verse 20b

CXLIX “repent” = metanoeo. Related to “familiar” in v3 & “known” in v5 & “name” in v9. From meta (with, among, after, beyond) + noieo (to perceive, think, understand); {from nous (mind, understanding, reasoning faculty, intellect, capacity to reflect); from ginosko (see note XX above)}. This is to change how one thinks, to reconsider, to repent. It refers to a change of thinking, which means a change of purpose and behavior.
CL “do” = prasso. Same as “do” in v9. See note LXVI above.
CLI “deed” = ergon. From ergo (to work, accomplish, do). This is work, task, deed, labor, effort.
CLII “consistent with” = axios. Related to “Agrippa” in v1 & “consider” in v2 & “promise” in v6 & “synagogues” in v11 & “declared” in v20. From ago (see note I above). This is related to weight or worth – deserving, suitable, corresponding, due reward.
CLIII “repentance” = metanoia. Related to “familiar” in v3 & “known” in v5 & “name” in v9 & “repent” in v20. From meta (with, among, after, beyond) + noieo (see note CXLIX above)}. This is literally to change one’s mind – to choose to think differently and so to act differently because of a moral compunction. It is an intentional change to the inner self. This word shares a root with the English “paranoia.”

21 For this reason the Jews seizedCLIV me in the templeCLV and triedCLVI to killCLVII me. 

Notes on verse 21

CLIV “seized” = sullambano. Related to “received” in v10. 16x in NT. From sun (with, together with) + lambano (see note LXXIII above). This is to take, take part in, conceive, help. It can also be clasp or seize as to arrest or take hold of someone.
CLV “temple” = hieron. Related to “chief priests” in v10. From hieros (see note LXXIV above). This is the word for temple.
CLVI “tried” = peiraomai. 1x in NT. From peira (trial, experiment, attempt, experience, assaying); from the base of peran (over, beyond, across); akin to pera (on the far side); from a derivative of peiro (to pierce). This is to try, test, attempt, or assay.
CLVII “kill” = diacheirizomai. Related to “hand” in v1 & “appoint” in v16. 2x in NT. From dia (through, for the sake of, across, thoroughly) + cheir (see note VII above). This is to put hands on someone else in a violent way – to kill.

22 To this day I have hadCLVIII helpCLIX from God, and so I stand here, testifyingCLX to

Notes on verse 22a

CLVIII “had” = tugchano. 12x in NT. Root means to become ready. This word is to hit, meet, happen, obtain, chance, perhaps. Properly, it means to hit the mark or be spot on. Thus, it is the opposite of the Greek word for sin hamartano, which literally means to miss the mark.
CLIX “help” = epikouria. 1x in NT. From epikouros (helper, ally) OR from epi (on, upon, what is fitting) + akin to korasion (little girl or maiden); {from kore (maiden)}. This is assistance or help, especially against enemies.
CLX “testifying” = marturomai. Related to “testify” in v5 & “testify” in v16. 5x in NT. From martus (see note XXXVII above). This is to witness, testify, call as a witness, affirm, charge, protest.

both smallCLXI and great,CLXII sayingCLXIII nothing butCLXIV what the prophetsCLXV

Notes on verse 22b

CLXI “small” = mikros. This is small in reference to a size or the number of something, least or less. Figuratively, it can refer to little dignity.
CLXII “great” = megas. Related to “patiently” in v3. See note XXV above.
CLXIII “saying” = lego. Same as “speak” in v1. See note V above.
CLXIV “but” = ektos. 8x in NT. From ek (from, from out of). This is the exterior, outside, beyond, except.
CLXV “prophets” = prophetes. Related to “said” in v1 & “blaspheme” in v11 & “light” in v13 & “voice” in v14. From pro (before, in front of, earlier than) + phemi (see note II above). This is a prophet or poet – one who speaks with inspiration from God.

and MosesCLXVI saidCLXVII wouldCLXVIII take place:CLXIX 

Notes on verse 22c

CLXVI “Moses” = Mouses. From Hebrew Mosheh (Moses); from mashah (to pull out in a literal or figurative sense, to draw out) OR from Egyptian mes or mesu (child, son i.e. child of…). This is Moses – the one drawn out from the water, which is to say, rescued. If derived from the Egyptian, his name would share a root with Rameses and Thutmose.
CLXVII “said” = laleo. From lalos (talkative). This is to talk, say, or preach.
CLXVIII “would” = mello. Same as “to” in v2. See note XII above.
CLXIX “take place” = ginomai. Same as “spent” in v4. See note XXX above.

23 that the MessiahCLXX must sufferCLXXI and that, by being the firstCLXXII

Notes on verse 23a

CLXX “Messiah” = Christos. From chrio (consecrate by anointing with oil; often done for prophets, priests, or kings). Literally, the anointed one, Christ. The Greek word for Messiah.
CLXXI “suffer” = pathetos. 1x in NT. From pathema (something that happens to you such as suffering, affliction, passion, or emotion; one’s capacity for deep feelings or enduring; hardship or pain); from pathos (passion, lust, suffering, something that happens to you, strong feelings); from pascho (to be acted on for good or ill; often used for negative treatment; properly, feeling strong emotions – especially suffering; can also be the ability to feel suffering). This is a person who suffers or has pain – either is able to or destined to.
CLXXII “first” = protos. Related to “first” in v20. See note CXLV above.

to riseCLXXIII from the dead, he would proclaimCLXXIV light both to our peopleCLXXV and to the gentiles.”

Notes on verse 23b

CLXXIII “rise” = anastasis. Related to “stand” in v6 & “get up” in v16 & “sending” in v17. From anistemi (see note CXIX above). This is literally standing up or standing again. It is used figuratively for recovering a spiritual truth. It can be raising up, rising, or resurrection.
CLXXIV “proclaim” = kataggello. Related to “Agrippa” in v1 & “consider” in v2 & “promise” in v6 & “synagogues” in v11 & “declared” and “consistent with” in v20. 18x in NT. From kata (down, against, according to, throughout, among, daily) + aggello (see note XLVI above). This is to proclaim openly and confidently a very specific message. It can also be celebrate, preach, or teach.
CLXXV “people” = laos. Same as “people” in v17. See note CXXVI above.

24 While he was making this defense, FestusCLXXVI exclaimed,CLXXVII “You are out of your mind,CLXXVIII Paul!

Notes on verse 24a

CLXXVI “Festus” = Phestos. 13x in NT– all in Acts. From Latin festus (festive, related to holidays). This is Festus, meaning “festal” or “festive” or “joyful.” See
CLXXVII “exclaimed” = megas + ho + phone + phemi. Literally, “in a loud voice said.” Megas is the same as “great” in v22. See note CLXII above. Phone is the same as “voice” in v14. See note CVII above. Phemi is the same as “said” in v1. See note II above.
CLXXVIII “out of…mind” = mainomai. Related to “enraged” in v11. 5x in NT. See note LXXXVII above.

Too muchCLXXIX learningCLXXX is drivingCLXXXI you insane!”CLXXXII 

Notes on verse 24b

CLXXIX “too much” = polus. Same as “many things” in v9. See note LXVII above.
CLXXX “learning” = gramma. 15x in NT. From grapho (to write, describe). This is something drawn or written. So, it could be a letter of the alphabet, an epistle, a book, literature, etc.
CLXXXI “driving” = peritrepo. Related to “have permission” in v1 & “commission” in v12 & “turn” in v18. 1x in NT. From peri (all-around, encompassing, excess) + the same as trope (see note IV above). This is to turn around, change – make (someone insane).
CLXXXII “insane” = mania. Related to “enraged” in v11 & “out of…mind” in v24. 1x in NT. From mainomai (see note CLXXVIII above). This is insanity, irrational rage, frenzy. It is where the word “mania” comes from.

25 But Paul said,CLXXXIII “I am not out of my mind, most excellentCLXXXIV Festus, but I am speakingCLXXXV

Notes on verse 25a

CLXXXIII “said” = phemi. Same as “said” in v1. See note II above.
CLXXXIV “most excellent” = Kratistos. 4x in NT. From kratus (strong) OR from kratos (strength, power, dominion; vigor in a literal or figurative sense; power that is exercised). This is strongest, noblest – high in dignity or honor; used to speak to a high ranking Roman. It can also differentiate an equestrian from a senator.
CLXXXV “speaking” = rhema + apophtheggomai. Literally, “I utter words.” Rhema is from rheo (to speak, command, make, say, speak of); from ereo (to all, say, speak of, tell; denotes ongoing speech). This is word, which implies a matter or thing spoken, a command, report, promise, thing, or business. Often used for narration, commands, or disputes. Apophtheggomai is related to “said” in v1 & “blaspheme” in v11 & “light” in v13 & “voice” in v14 & “prophets” in v22. 3x in NT. From apo (from, away from) + phtheggomai (to speak out loud; can also be to speak in a way that cannot be understood or generally to speak out); {related to pheggos (light, radiance, splendor); related to phos (see note XCVIII above)}. This is to declare, pronounce, or speak clearly.

the soberCLXXXVI truth.CLXXXVII 26 Indeed, the king knowsCLXXXVIII about these things,

Notes on verses 25b-26a

CLXXXVI “sober” = sophrosune. 3x in NT. From sophron (temperate, self-controlled, sound because in balance); from sozo (to save, heal, preserve, or rescue; taking someone from danger to safety; delivering or protecting literally or figuratively); from sos (safe, rescued, well). This is moderation that is appropriate to a particular situation. So, it can be sobriety, self-control, sanity, or discretion.
CLXXXVII “truth” = aletheia. From alethes (true, unconcealed; true because it is in concert with fact and reality – attested; literally, what cannot be hidden; truth stands up to test and scrutiny and is undeniable, authentic). {from a (not, without) + lanthano (unnoticed, concealed)}. Truth is literally that which is not or cannot be concealed. This word covers more than the sense of true versus false. It spoke of truth as that which corresponds to reality – reality as opposed to illusion. Thus, it includes, sincerity, straightforwardness, and reality itself.
CLXXXVIII “knows” = epistamai. Related to “stand” in v6 & “get up” in v16 & “sending” in v17 & “rise” in v23. 14x in NT. From epihistemi (to stand upon, be present, stand by, be urgent; to attack, confront, appear); {from epi (on, upon, against, what is fitting) + histemi (see note XLIII above)}. This is to know, stand on, get knowledge face to face or with personal effort, comprehend, be acquainted. It is related to “epistemology.”

and to him I speak freely,CLXXXIX for I am certainCXC that none of these things has escapedCXCI his notice,

Notes on verse 26b

CLXXXIX “speak freely” = parresiazomai + laleo. Parresiazomai is related to “all” in v2 & to “speaking” in v25. 9x in NT– 7 in the book of Acts. From parresia (confidence, openness, boldness, outspokenness; can imply assurance – free speech); {from pas (see note XV above) + rhesis (speech); {from rheo (see note CLXXXV above)}}. This is to be confident, speak freely or with boldness. It can also refer to a confident spirit or manner. Laleo is the same as “said” in v22. See note CLXVII above.
CXC “am certain” = peitho. Related to “incredible” in v8 & “faith” in v18 & “disobedient” in v19. See note LX above.
CXCI “escaped” = lanthano. Related to “truth” in v25. 6x in NT. See note CLXXXVII above.

for this was not doneCXCII in a corner.CXCIII 27 King Agrippa, do you believeCXCIV the prophets? I knowCXCV that you believe.” 

Notes on verses 26c-27

CXCII “done” = prasso. Same as “do” in v9. See note LXVI above.
CXCIII “corner” = gonia. 9x in NT. From gonu (knee, foot). This is an angle or corner. It could also figuratively refer to somewhere that is secret.
CXCIV “believe” = pisteuo. Related to “incredible” in v8 & “faith” in v18 & “disobedient” in v19 & “am certain” in v26. From pistis (see note CXXXIX above). This is to believe, entrust, have faith it, affirm, have confidence in. This is less to do with a series of beliefs or doctrines that one believes and more to do with faithfulness, loyalty, and fidelity. It is trusting and then acting based on that trust.
CXCV “know” = eido. Same as “know” in v4. See note XXVII above.

28 Agrippa said to Paul, “Are you so quicklyCXCVI persuadingCXCVII me to becomeCXCVIII a Christian?”CXCIX 

29 Paul replied, “Whether quicklyCC or not,CCI

Notes on verses 28-29a

CXCVI “so quickly” = oligos. This is few or small – it can be a short time or extent, low light, amount, or worth.
CXCVII “persuading” = peitho. Same as “am certain” in v26. See note CXC above.
CXCVIII “become” = poieo. Same as “did” in v10. See note LXXI above.
CXCIX “Christian” = Christianos. Related to “Messiah” in v23. 3x in NT. From Christos (see note CLXX above). This is one who follows Christ.
CC “quickly” = en + oligos. Literally, “in a little.” Oligos is the same as “so quickly” in v28. See note CXCVI above.
CCI {untranslated} = en + megas. Literally, “in much.” Megas is the same as “great” in v22. See note CLXII above.

I prayCCII to God that not onlyCCIII you but also all who are listening to me today might becomeCCIV such as I am—exceptCCV for these chains.”CCVI

Notes on verse 29b

CCII “pray” = euchomai. 7x in NT. This is to wish, make a request, or pray.
CCIII “only” = monon. From monos (alone, single, remaining, mere, desolate); from meno (to stay, abide, wait, endure). This is merely, only, simply, sole. It can also imply alone.
CCIV “become” = ginomai. Same as “spent” in v4. See note XXX above.
CCV “except” = parektos. Related to “but” in v22. 3x in NT. From para (from beside, by) + ektos (see note CLXIV above). This is in addition, outside, apart from, besides.
CCVI “chains” = desmos. Related to “beg” in v3 & “ought” in v9. 18x in NT. From deo (see note XXIII above). This is a chain, bond, infirmity, impediment.

30 Then the king got up and with him the governorCCVII and BerniceCCVIII and those who had been seated withCCIX them, 

Notes on verse 30

CCVII “governor” = hegemon. Related to “Agrippa” in v1 & “consider” in v2 & “promise” in v6 & “synagogues” in v11 & “declared” and “consistent with” in v20 & “proclaim” in v23. From hegeaomai (see note IX above). This is a leader in general, but also specifically a governor or commander. This is where “hegemony” comes from.
CCVIII “Bernice” = Bernike. Related to “cast…against” in v10. 3x in NT– all in Acts. Perhaps a Macedonian form of the words phero (see note LXXIX above) + nike (victory, conquest; figurative for what makes one successful). This is Bernice or Berenice, whose name means “victorious” or “bringer of victory.”
CCIX “seated with” = sugkathemai. Related to “today” in v2 & “day” in v7. 2x in NT. From sun (with, together with) + kathemai (to sit, be enthroned, or reside); fFrom kata (down, against, throughout, among) + hemai (see note XIV above)}. This is to sit together – in someone’s company.

31 and as they were leavingCCX they saidCCXI to one another,CCXII

Notes on verse 31a

CCX “leaving” = anachoreo. Related to “countryside” in v20. 14x in NT. From ana (up, again, back, among, anew) + choreo (to make space, receive, have room for, progress, depart so as to make room; figuratively, living open-heartedly); {from choros (a particular space or place); from chora (see note CXLVII above)}.  This is to withdraw, depart, retire, or leave. It can give a sense of seeking safety from harm or of retiring.
CCXI “said” = laleo. Same as “said” in v22. See note CLXVII above.
CCXII {untranslated} = lego. Same as “speak” in v1. See note V above.

“This manCCXIII is doingCCXIV nothing to deserveCCXV deathCCXVI or imprisonment.”CCXVII 

Notes on verse 31b

CCXIII “man” = anthropos. Related to “saw” in v13 & “eyes” in v18 & “vision” in v19. Probably from aner (man, male, husband) + ops (eye, face); {from optanomai (see note CXXX above)}. This is human, humankind. Used for all genders.
CCXIV “doing” = prasso. Same as “do” in v9. See note LXVI above.
CCXV “deserve” = axios. Same as “consistent with” in v20. See note CLII above.
CCXVI “death” = thanatos. From thnesko (to die, be dead). This is death, whether literal or spiritual. It can also refer to something that is fatal.
CCXVII “imprisonment” = desmos. Same as “chains” in v29. See note CCVI above.

32 Agrippa saidCCXVIII to Festus, “This man couldCCXIX have been set freeCCXX if he had not appealedCCXXI to the emperor.”CCXXII

Notes on verse 32

CCXVIII “said” = phemi. Same as “said” in v1. See note II above.
CCXIX “could” = dunamai. This is to be able, or something that is possible. It can also be empowered or being powerful. The Greek word for “miracle” (dunamis) comes from this root.
CCXX “set free” = apoluo. From apo (from, away from) + luo (to loose, release, untie; figuratively, to break, destroy, or annul; releasing what had been withheld). This is letting go, setting free, or releasing. So, it can be to discharge, dismiss, divorce, pardon, or set at liberty.
CCXXI “appealed” = epikaleo. Related to “accusations” in v2. From epi (on, upon, among, what is fitting) + kaleo (see note XVI above). This is to call on, appeal to, worship, invoke for help.
CCXXII “emperor” = Kaisar. From Latin (Caesar); perhaps from Punic caesai (elephant) OR from Latin a cesiis oculis (because of the blue eyes) OR from Latin a caesarie (because of the hair) OR from Latin a caeso matris utero (born by Caesarean section) OR from Latin caedo (to cut). This is Caesar, at first a last name, then taken as a title by Roman emperors. See

Image credit: “Paul’s Defense before Festus and Agrippa” by Siku and Ed Chatelier of the Edge Group.

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