Acts 6

Acts 6


6:1 Now during those days, when the disciplesI were increasingII in number, the HellenistsIII complainedIV

Notes on verse 6:1a

I “disciples” = mathetes. From matheteuo (to make a disciple of); from manthano (to learn key facts, gain knowledge from experience; generally implies reflection as part of the learning process); from math– (thinking things through). This is a disciple, learner, or student. It is where we get “mathematics” from.
II “increasing” = plethuno. 12x in NT. From plethos (fullness, multitude, great number); from pletho (to fill, accomplish, supply; to fill to maximum capacity). This is to increase, multiply, or abound. It is filling to its greatest potential or utmost capacity.
III “Hellenists” = Hellenistes. 3x in NT. From hellenizo (to Hellenize); from Hellen (Greek; used for Gentiles, broader populations that spoke Greek and were a part of Greek culture regardless of their heritage); from Hellas (Hellas, what Greeks called themselves); perhaps from helane (torch) OR from selene (moon). This is Hellenist – a Jew who spoke Greek and adhered to some degree to Greek culture. See
IV “complained” = ginomai + goggusmos. Literally “there arose a complaint.” Ginomai is to come into being, to happen, become, be born. It can be to emerge from one state or condition to another or is coming into being with the sense of movement or growth. Goggusmos is 4x in NT. From gogguzo (to murmur or grumble; an onomatopoeia to sound similar to the cooing of doves; figuratively, it is simmering displeasure that is muffled – a dull, constant murmuring). This is murmuring, complaint.

against the HebrewsV because their widowsVI were being neglectedVII in the daily distributionVIII of food. 

Notes on verse 6:1b

V “Hebrews” = Hebraios. 4x in NT. From Eber (Heber, one of Christ’s ancestors); from Hebrew Eber (the region beyond; Eber, the name of several Israelites including a descendant of Shem); from abar (to pass over, pass through, or pass by; cross over or to alienate; used for transitions). This is Hebrew or Jew.
VI “widows” = chera. Perhaps from the base of chasma (chasm, gap, gulf); from chasko (to yawn). This is widow literally or figuratively.
VII “being neglected” = paratheoreo. 1x in NT. From para (beside, by, in the presence of) + theoreo (gazing, beholding, experiencing, discerning; looking at something to analyze it and concentrate on what it means; the root of the word “theatre” in that people concentrate on the action of the play to understand its meaning); {from theaomai (to behold, look upon, see, contemplate, visit); from thaomai (to gaze at a spectacle; to look at or contemplate as a spectator; to interpret something in efforts to grasp its significance); from theoros (a spectator or envoy)}. This is to overlook, neglect, compare.
VIII “distribution” = diakonia. Perhaps from dia (through, across to the other side, thoroughly) + konis (dust) OR from dioko (to chase after, put to flight; by implication, to persecute or to purse like a hunter after its prey; this can be earnestly pursue or zealously persecute) {related to dio (put to flight)}. This is service, ministry, attending someone, service. It can mean serving someone at a table or otherwise as their servant/slave. It is also used for people who serve/minister in temples, as well as the work of Christian ministry. Figuratively, this word can mean money given for charity. This shares a root with “deacon” and is where the word “diaconate” comes from.

2 And the twelve called togetherIX the whole communityX of the disciples and said, “It is not rightXI that we should neglectXII

Notes on verse 6:2a

IX “called together” = proskaleo. From pros (at, to, toward, with) + kaleo (to call by name, invite, to name, bid, summon, call aloud); {related to keleuo (to command, order, direct); from kelomai (to urge on)}. This is to call to oneself, summon.
X “whole community” = plethos. Related to “increasing” in v6:1. See note II above.
XI “right” = arestos. 4x in NT. From aresko (to please or be agreeable; implies voluntarily serving others, satisfying others, or making good to win their favor or approval; often used for moral agreement; being agreeable or trying to be agreeable); perhaps from airo (raise, take up, lift, remove). This is what is pleasing, satisfactory, or desirable. It can also be satisfactory because it is moral.
XII “neglect” = kataleipo. From kata (down, against, throughout, among) + leipo (to leave behind, remain, lack, abandon, fall behind while racing). This is to leave or leave behind, abandon, forsake, leave in reserve.

 the wordXIII of GodXIV in order to wait onXV tables.XVI 

Notes on verse 6:2b

XIII “word” = logos. From lego (to speak, tell, mention). This is word, statement, speech, analogy. It is a word that carries an idea or expresses a thought, a saying. It could refer to a person with a message or reasoning laid out in words. By implication, this could be a topic, line of reasoning, or a motive. It can be used for a divine utterance or as Word – Christ.
XIV “God” = Theos. From Proto-Indo-European origins, meaning do, put, place. This is God or a god in general.
XV “to wait on” = diakoneo. Related to “distribution” in v6:1. From diakonos (servant, minister, waiter, or attendant; a person who performs a service, including religious service); {perhaps from dia (through, across to the other side, thoroughly) + konis (see note VIII above) OR from dioko (see note VIII above)}. This is to wait at table, to serve generally, to minister or administer, to be in the office of deacon. To wait on someone as a slave, friend, or host.
XVI “tables” = trapeza. 15x in NT. Probably from tessares (four; figuratively, can mean total inclusion or universality) + peze (by foot or land) or pezos (by foot or land); {from pous (foot)}. This is a table – whether for eating or conducting business. Literally, four feet. This is where the word “trapeze” comes from.

Therefore, friends,XVII selectXVIII from among yourselves seven menXIX of good standing,XX

Notes on verse 6:3a

XVII “friends” = adelphos. From a (with, community, fellowship) + delphus (womb). This is a brother in a literal or figurative sense. It is also used of another member of the Church.
XVIII “select” = episkeptomai. 11x in NT. From epi (on, upon, at, what is fitting) + the base of skopos (a mark or goal like the marker at the end of a race; figuratively, other goals or destinations; also, a watch or sentry); {from skeptomai (to peer out, consider, gaze carefully); perhaps related to skapto (to dig or excavate)}. This is to look at, look out for, see, select, visit.
XIX “men” = aner. This is man, male, husband, or fellow. It can also refer to an individual.
XX “of good standing” = martureo. From martus (a witness whether having heard or seen something; witness literally, judicially, or figuratively; by analogy, a martyr). This is to bear witness, testify, give evidence. It is to testify in a literal or figurative sense.

fullXXI of the SpiritXXII and of wisdom,XXIII whom we may appointXXIV to this task,XXV 

Notes on verse 6:3b

XXI “full” = pleres. Related to “increasing” in v6:1 & “whole community” in v6:2. 16x in NT. From pletho (see note II above). This is to be full, complete, abounding in, or occupied with.
XXII “Spirit” = pneuma. From pneo (to blow, breath, breathe hard). This is wind, breath, or ghost. A breeze or a blast or air, a breath. Figuratively used for a spirit, the human soul or part of us that is rational. It is also used supernaturally for angels, demons, God, and the Holy Spirit. This is where pneumonia comes from.
XXIII “wisdom” = sophia. From sophos (wise, clever, skilled, learned, cultivated); related to saphes (clear). This is skill, wisdom, insight, intelligence, clarity. It is wisdom as applied through a practical skill or shrewdness. It is not thoughtfulness or the mere gaining of intelligence for its own sake. Sophia is wisdom in action for everyday living.
XXIV “appoint” = kathistemi. From kata (down, against, throughout, among) + histemi (to make to stand, place, set up, establish, appoint, stand by, stand still, stand ready, stand firm, be steadfast). This is to appoint, set in order or set in place, constitute, give standing or authority, put in charge, designate.
XXV “task” = chreia. From chraomai (to use, make use of, give what is needed, act in a specific way, request); related to chre (what is proper, fitting, or necessary). This is the is task, business, or affair. It can also be need, want, or destitution.

4 while we, for our part, will devoteXXVI ourselves to prayerXXVII and to servingXXVIII the word.” 

Notes on verse 6:4

XXVI “devote” = proskartereo. 10x in NT. From pros (at, to, toward, with) + kartereo (to be strong, endure; figuratively to be steadfast, to persevere, to be patient); {from kratos (strength, power, dominion; vigor in a literal or figurative sense; power that is exercised)}. This is to show strength consistently in the face of trials. It can also mean to persist, stand ready, be earnest, or attend to something.
XXVII “prayer” = proseuche. From proseuchomai (to pray or pray for, to worship or supplicate; more literally exchanging one’s own wishes for God’s); {from pros (advantageous for, at, toward) + euchomai (to wish, make a request, pray)}. This is prayer, worship, or a place where one prays.
XXVIII “serving” = diakonia. Same as “distribution” in v6:1. See note VIII above.

What they saidXXIX pleasedXXX the whole community, and they choseXXXI Stephen,XXXII

Notes on verse 6:5a

XXIX “said” = logos. Same as “word” in v6:2. See note XIII above.
XXX “pleased” = aresko. Perhaps related to “right” in v6:2. 17x in NT. Perhaps from airo (see note XI above). This is to please or be agreeable. It implies voluntarily serving others, satisfying others, or making good to win their favor or approval. It is often used for moral agreement. It can mean being agreeable or trying to be agreeable. Used 9x of pleasing people in a negative way, 5x of pleasing people in a positive way, and 3x of pleasing God.
XXXI “chose” = eklego. Related to “word” in v6:2. From ek (from, from out of) + lego (see note XIII above). This is to choose, select, elect.
XXXII “Stephen” = Stephanos. 7x in NT. From stephanos (something that surrounds i.e. a crown or garland; properly, the wreath or garland that the winner of athletic games would win; symbolized victory and honor from skill as contrasted with a royal crown, which is diadema in Greek); stepho (to twine, encircle). This is Stephen or Stephanus, meaning “crown.”

a man full of faithXXXIII and the HolyXXXIV Spirit, together with Philip,XXXV Prochorus,XXXVI

Notes on verse 6:5b

XXXIII “faith” = pistis. From peitho (to have confidence, urge, be persuaded, agree, assure, believe, have confidence, trust). This is less about knowing, believing, and repeating a list of doctrines then it is about trusting God. Faith means listening to God and seeking to live a holy life even (and especially) when we don’t understand how everything works or fits together. Faith is about being faithful (trusting and doing) rather than being all knowing.
XXXIV “Holy” = hagios. From hagnos (holy, sacred, pure ethically, ritually, or ceremonially; prepared for worship, chaste, unadulterated, pure to the core; undefiled by sin; figurative for innocent, modest, perfect). God is totally different from humanity and thus set apart. That which is consecrated to worship God (elements of worship) or to serve God (as the saints) are holy because they are now set apart for God’s purposes. Holy because important to God. This is sacred physically, pure. It can be morally blameless or ceremonially consecrated.
XXXV “Philip” = Philippos. From philos (dear, beloved, a friend, an associate; friendship with personal affection, a trusted confidante; love from personal experience with another person) + hippos (horse). This is Philip, meaning one who loves horses or is fond of horses.
XXXVI “Prochorus” = Prochoros. 1x in NT. From pro (before, first, in front of, earlier) + choros (a dance, ring, a chor dances in a round pattern). This is Prochorus, meaning “before the dance.”

Nicanor,XXXVII Timon,XXXVIII Parmenas,XXXIX and Nicolaus,XL a proselyteXLI of Antioch.XLII 

Notes on verse 6:5c

XXXVII “Nicanor” = Nikanor. Related to “men” in v6:3. 1x in NT. Probably from nikao (to have victory, overcome, conquer, or prevail; implies a victory that follows a battle); {from nike (victory, conquest; figurative for what makes one successful)} + aner (see note XIX above). This is Nicanor, meaning “conqueror.”
XXXVIII “Timon” = Timon. 1x in NT. From time (worth or something’s perceived value; literally, price, but figuratively, the honor or value one sees in someone or something else; also esteem or dignity; also precious or valuables); {from tino (to pay, be punished, pay a penalty or fine because of a crime); from tio (to pay respect, value)}. This is Timon, meaning “valuable.”
XXXIX “Parmenas” = Parmenas. 1x in NT. Probably from Parmenides (Parmenides); {from para (beside, by, in the presence of) + meno (to stay, remain, wait, await, continue, abide, endure; to literally stay in a place or to remain in a condition; to continue with hope and expectation)}. This is Parmenas, meaning “constant.”
XL “Nicolaus” = Nikolaos. Related to “Nicanor” in v6:5. 1x in NT. From nikos (victory, triumph – especially a conquest); {from nike (see note XXXVII above)} + laos (the people or crowd – often used for the chosen people). This is Nicolaus, meaning “victorious over the people.”
XLI “proselyte” = proselutos. 4x in NT. From proserhcomai (to approach, draw near, come up to; figuratively to worship); {from pros (for, at, towards) + erchomai (to come, go)}. This is a proselyte as a newcomer to Judaism. A convert to Judaism would have been circumcised and begun to follow the Law. It could also be a foreigner.
XLII “of Antioch” = Antiocheus. From Antiocheia (Antioch, Antiochia – city name); from Antiochos (Antiochos, proper name, Syrian kings). This is Antioch – someone from Antioch.

They had these men standXLIII beforeXLIV the apostles,XLV who prayedXLVI and laidXLVII their handsXLVIII on them.

Notes on verse 6:6

XLIII “stand” = histemi. Related to “appoint” in v6:3. See note XXIV above.
XLIV “before” = enopion. From en (in, on, at, by with) + ops (eye, face); {from optanomai (to appear, be seen)}. This is literally “in the eye of” and is used for before or in the presence of.
XLV “apostles” = apostolos. From apostello (to send, send away, send forth as a messenger, to commission); {from apo (from, away from) + stello (to set, arrange, prepare, provide for)}. This is a messenger – someone sent out on a mission as an envoy or delegate. It can also refer to someone set at liberty. Generally, this is a messenger who is meant to be a representative of the one who sent them. They are thus, set apart on a mission literally or figuratively.
XLVI “prayed” = proseuchomai. Related to “prayer” in v6:4. See note XXVII above.
XLVII “laid” = epitithemi. From epi (on, upon, what is fitting) + tithemi (to put, place, set, fix, establish in a literal or figurative sense; properly, this is placing something in a passive or horizontal position). This is to lay on or place on, whether in a friendly or aggressive way.
XLVIII “hands” = cheir. This is the hand in a literal sense. Figuratively, the hand is the means a person uses to accomplish things so it can also mean power, means, or instrument.

The word of God continued to spread;XLIX the numberL of the disciples increased greatlyLI in Jerusalem,LII and a great many of the priestsLIII became obedientLIV to the faith.

Notes on verse 6:7

XLIX “continued to spread” = auxano. From auksano (to grow or enlarge, whether literal or figurative). This is growing whether in size or mature or greatness or some other metric.
L “number” = arithmos. Perhaps related to “right” in v6:2 & “pleased” in v6:5. 18x in NT. Perhaps from airo (see note XI above). This is a number or group.
LI “greatly” = sphodra. 11x in NT. From sphodros (exceeding, very much, all out, violent). This is exceedingly, greatly, deeply. This is going all out, with total effort, done to the fullest extent.
LII “Jerusalem” = Ierousalem. From Hebrew yerushalaim (probably foundation of peace); {from yarah (to throw, shoot, be stunned; to flow as water so figuratively to instruct or teach) + shalem (to make amends, to be complete or sound)}. This is Jerusalem, dwelling of peace.
LIII “priests” = hiereus. From hieros (sacred, something sacred, temple, holy, set apart; something consecrated to God or a god). This is a priest, used for Jewish and Gentile priests.
LIV “became obedient” = hupakouo. From hupo (by, under, about, subordinate to) + akouo (listen, hear, understand through hearing). This is to listen, to attend to, or obey. It is acting subordinate to one who speaks – heeding a command or authority.

Stephen, full of graceLV and power,LVI didLVII great wondersLVIII and signsLIX among the people.LX 

Notes on verse 6:8

LV “grace” = charis. From chairo (to rejoice, be glad; used to say hello; properly, delighting in the grace of God or experiencing God’s favor); from char– (to extend favor, lean towards, be inclined to be favorable towards). This is grace, kindness, favor, gratitude, thanks. It is the sense of being inclined to or favorable towards – leaning towards someone to share some good or benefit. This can be literal, figurative, or spiritual. It is grace as abstract concept, manner, or action.
LVI “power” = dunamis. From dunamai (to be able, have power or ability). This is might, strength, physical power, efficacy, energy, and miraculous power. It is force literally or figuratively – the power of a miracle or the miracle itself.
LVII “did” = poieo. This is to make, do, act, construct, abide, or cause.
LVIII “wonders” = teras. 16x in NT. This is a wonder or marvel performed to get bystanders to react. It could also be a portent or omen.
LIX “signs” = semeion. From the same as semaino (to give a sign, signify, indicate, make known); from sema (a sign or mark). It is literally a sign of any kind. It also refers to a sign given by God to confirm or authenticate a message or prophecy. It is not necessarily miraculous, but it can be. The Gospel of John generally uses this word instead of miracle.
LX “people” = laos. Related to “Nicolaus” in v6:5. See note XL above.

Then some of those who belonged to the synagogueLXI of the FreedmenLXII (as it was called), Cyrenians,LXIII Alexandrians,LXIV

Notes on verse 6:9a

LXI “synagogue” = sunagoge. From sun (with, together with, closely associated) + ago (to lead, bring, carry, guide, go, drive). Literally, this is a bringing together, a place of assembly. The term can be used for the people or for the place where they assemble. It is also sometimes used of Christian churches in the New Testament. So, this is synagogue, assembly, congregation, or church. This is where the word “synagogue” comes from.
LXII “Freedmen” = Libertinos. 1x in NT. From Latin libertinus (of a freedman); from libertus (freedman, someone liberated from slavery); from Proto-Indo-European hlewdh (to grow, people) + -inus (related to). This is a Libertine or freedman – freed slave.
LXIII “Cyrenians” = Kurenaios. 6x in NT. From Kurene (Cyrene, a Greek mythological figure; perhaps meaning sovereign queen). This is from Cyrene. See
LXIV “Alexandrians” = Alexandreus. Related to “men” in v6:3 & “Nicanor” in v6:5. 2x in NT. From Alexandreia (Alexandria); {from Alexandros (Alexander); {from alexo (to defend) + aner (see note XIX above)} + -eia (suffix to make something a noun or to make a feminine noun)}. This is Alexandrian – someone from Alexandria. See

and others of those from CiliciaLXV and Asia,LXVI stood upLXVII and arguedLXVIII with Stephen. 10 But they couldLXIX not withstandLXX the wisdom and the Spirit with which he spoke. 

Notes on verses 6:9b-10

LXV “Cilicia” = Kilikia. 8x in NT. This is Cilicia – origin uncertain.
LXVI “Asia” = Asia. 18x in NT. Perhaps from Hittite assuwa (22 allied ancient states in Anatolia) OR Aegean asis (muddy, silty) OR Semitic root asu (rising or light; Asia as land to the east). This is Asia, the Roman province, which consisted of western Asia Minor. See
LXVII “stood up” = anistemi. Related to “appoint” in v6:3 & “stand” in v6:6. From ana (upwards, up, again, back, anew) + histemi (see note XXIV above). This is to raise up, rise, appear. It is to stand up literally or figuratively. Can also mean to resurrect.
LXVIII “argued” = suzeteo. 10x in NT. From sun (with, together with) + zeteo (to seek, search for, desire. searching for something by inquiring or investigation; to seek in a literal or figurative sense; to worship God). This is to seek together so a joint investigation, to argue, discuss, or debate.
LXIX “could” = ischuo. From ischus (strength, might, power, force, ability; power that engages immediate resistance). This is to be strong or have power. It can also refer to being healthy and vigorous. Further, it can mean to prevail. It is strength in action against resistance, exercising force in a literal or figurative sense.
LXX “withstand” = antihistemi. Related to “appoint” in v6:3 & “stand” in v6:6 & “stood up” in v6:9. 14x in NT. From anti (opposite, instead of, against) + histemi (see note XXIV above). This is to stand against, to take an entirely opposite stance, resist, oppose, or withstand. Figuratively, it is publicly holding your ground. It has its roots as a military term for resisting one’s enemy.

11 Then they secretly instigatedLXXI some men to say, “We have heardLXXII him speak blasphemousLXXIII wordsLXXIV against MosesLXXV and God.” 

Notes on verse 6:11

LXXI “secretly instigated” = hupoballo. 1x in NT. From hupo (by, under, about, subordinate to) + ballo (to throw, cast, place, put, drop). This is to throw under, submit, secretly instigate, suggest, whisper, act by collusion.
LXXII “heard” = akouo. Related to “became obedient” in v6:7. See note LIV above.
LXXIII “blasphemous” = blasphemos. 4x in NT. From blapto (to harm or to hinder) + pheme (saying, news, rumor, fame) {from phemi (to say, declare, speak comparatively through contrasts, bring to light); from phao (to shine)}. This is blasphemer, reviler, reviling; speaking slander or evil.
LXXIV “words” = rhema. From rheo (to speak, command, make, say, speak of); from ereo (to all, say, speak of, tell; denotes ongoing speech). This is word, which implies a matter or thing spoken, a command, report, promise, thing, or business. Often used for narration, commands, or disputes.
LXXV “Moses” = Mouses. From Hebrew Mosheh (Moses); from mashah (to pull out in a literal or figurative sense, to draw out) OR from Egyptian mes or mesu (child, son i.e. child of…). This is Moses – the one drawn out from the water, which is to say, rescued. If derived from the Egyptian, his name would share a root with Rameses and Thutmose.

12 They stirred upLXXVI the people as well as the eldersLXXVII and the scribes;LXXVIII

Notes on verse 6:12a

LXXVI “stirred up” = sugkineo. 1x in NT. Form sun (with, together with) + kineo (to move, excite, or provoke; to stir in a literal or figurative sense); {from kio (to go) OR from sparasso (to shake, convulse, mangle, tear); {akin to spairo (to gasp); from spao (to pull, draw out a sword)}}. This is to move together, excite, agitate, stir up.
LXXVII “elders” = presbuteros. From presbus (old man). This is an elder as one of the Sanhedrin and also in the Christian assembly in the early church.
LXXVIII “scribes” = grammateus. From gramma (what is drawn or written so a letter of the alphabet, correspondence, literature, learning); from grapho (to write). This is a writer, scribe, or secretary. Within Judaism, it was someone learned in the Law, a teacher. Also used in the Bible of the town-clerk of Ephesus. See Sirach 38:24-39:11 for a lengthier, positive passage about who scribes were and what they meant in society.

then they suddenly confrontedLXXIX him, seizedLXXX him, and broughtLXXXI him before the council.LXXXII 

Notes on verse 6:12b

LXXIX “confronted” = ephistemi. Related to “appoint” in v6:3 & “stand” in v6:6 & “stood up” in v6:9 & “withstand” in v6:10. From epi (on, upon, what is fitting) + histemi (see note XXIV above). This is to stand upon, happen, be present. Usually, it is used in a literal sense.
LXXX “seized” = sunarpazo. 4x in NT – all in Luke and Acts. From sun (with, together with) + harpazo (to seize by force, snatch away); from haireo (to choose, take). This is to seize, drag with force, catch.
LXXXI “brought” = ago. Related to “synagogue” in v6:9. See note LXI above.
LXXXII “council” = sunedrion. From sun (with, together with) + hedra (convening, siting together, being firm and faithful); {from aphedron (seat, well-seated; figuratively, this is firm in purpose, steadfast); from hedra (a seat)}. This is Sanhedrin – literally a sitting together. It was the high court for Jews and had 71 members. This term could also mean council or meeting place and was used for the lower courts that were throughout the land and had 23 members.

13 They set upLXXXIII falseLXXXIV witnessesLXXXV who said,

Notes on verse 6:13a

LXXXIII “set up” = histemi. Same as “stand” in v6:6. See note XLIII above.
LXXXIV “false” = pseudes. 3x in NT. From pseudomai (to lie, deceive, falsify). This is lying, false, wicked.
LXXXV “witnesses” = martus. Related to “of good standing” in v6:3. See note XX above.

“This manLXXXVI never stopsLXXXVII saying thingsLXXXVIII against this holy placeLXXXIX and the law;XC 

Notes on verse 6:13b

LXXXVI “man” = anthropos. Related to “men” in v6:3 & “Nicanor” in v6:5 & “Alexandrians” in v6:9 & “before” in v6:6. Probably from aner (see note XIX above) + ops (see note XLIV above). This is human, humankind. Used for all genders.
LXXXVII “stops” = pauo. 15x in NT. To stop, refrain, pause, restrain, quit, or come to an end.
LXXXVIII “things” = rhema. Same as “words” in v6:11. See note LXXIV above.
LXXXIX “place” = topos. This is a place or region. It is a smaller space that can only hold a limited number of people whereas chora is a larger place. Figuratively it could be an opportunity.
XC “law” = nomos. From nemo (to parcel out). Literally, this is that which is assigned. It can be usage, custom, or law. This word can be used for human or divine law. It can be used specifically for the law of Moses or as a name for the Torah (the first five books of the Bible). Sometimes it is used for scripture as a whole, used of the Gospel, or of any theology. It is also used for the “tradition of the elders,” which would be the oral Torah – the tradition of the laws plus their interpretations as they were passed down over time. We must carefully consider which meaning of “law” is meant when we interpret passages the word is found in.

14 for we have heard him say that this JesusXCI of NazarethXCII will destroyXCIII this place and will changeXCIV the customsXCV that Moses handed onXCVI to us.” 

Notes on verse 6:14

XCI “Jesus” = Iesous. From Hebrew Yehoshua (Joshua, the Lord is salvation); {from YHVH (proper name of the God of Israel; the self-existent and eternal one); {from havah (to become) or from hayah (to come to pass, become, be)} + yasha (to deliver, defend, help, preserve, rescue; properly, to be open, wide or free, which implies being safe. So, in a causative sense, this is to free someone)}. This is Jesus or Joshua in Greek – the Lord saves or the Lord is salvation.
XCII “Nazareth” = Nazoraios. 13x in NT. Probably from nazara (Nazareth); perhaps from netser (branch) OR from natsar (to watch, guard, protect). This is Nazarene. See
XCIII “destroy” = kataluo. 17x in NT. From kata (down, against, throughout, among) + luo (to loose, release, untie; figuratively, to break, destroy, or annul; releasing what had been withheld). Literally, this means thoroughly loosening. It can mean unharnessing or unyoking animals and so to lodge somewhere for a night. It can also mean to disintegrate or demolish in a literal or figurative sense. So, it can be destroy, overthrow, abolish, or tear down.
XCIV “change” = allasso. 6x in NT. From allos (other, another; another of a similar kind or type). This is to change, transform, or exchange.
XCV “customs” = ethos. 12x in NT. From etho (custom, what is customary). This is custom habit, rite – also, doing something that the law requires. It can be an unwritten custom, acting in accordance with tradition.
XCVI “handed on” = paradidomi. From para (from beside, by) + didomi (give, offer, place, bestow, deliver; give in a literal or figurative sense). This is literally to hand over – hence to deliver, abandon, or betray. It implies a personal involvement.

15 And all who satXCVII in the council looked intentlyXCVIII at him, and they sawXCIX that his faceC was like the face of an angel.CI

Notes on verse 6:15

XCVII “sat” = kathezomai. Related to “council” in v6:12. 7x in NT. From kata (down, against, according to, among) + hezomai (to sit); {from aphedron (see note LXXXII above)}. This is to sit down.
XCVIII “looked intently” = atenizo. 14x in NT. From a (has an intensive sense) + teino (to stretch, extend, strain). This is to gaze or look steadily at with one’s full attention and fascination.
XCIX “saw” = horao. To see, perceive, attend to, look upon, experience. Properly, to stare at and so implying clear discernment. This, by extension, would indicate attending to what was seen and learned. This is to see, often with a metaphorical sense. Can include inward spiritual seeing.
C “face” = prosopon. Related to “before” in v6:6 & “man” in v6:13 & “saw” in v6:15. From pros (at, towards, with) + ops (see note XLIV above). This is the face, surface, or front. It can imply presence more generally.
CI “angel” = aggelos. Related to “synagogue” in v6:9 & “brought” in v6:12. Probably from ago (see note LXI above) + agele (flock, herd, drove); {also from ago (see note LXI above)}. This is angel or messenger. Properly, it is one sent with news or to perform a specific task. This messenger can be human or an angel from heaven. More commonly, it is used for angels in the New Testament.

Image credit: Mosaic from St. Stephan’s Protestant Church in Wandsbek in Hamburg, Germny.

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