Deuteronomy 10

Deuteronomy 10


“At that timeI the LordII saidIII to me,

Notes on verse 1a

I “time” = eth. Probably from anah (to answer, sing, announce); from ad (forever, all, old); from adah (to pass on, advance, decorate oneself). This is a period or season. It can also mean whenever or continually.
II “Lord” = YHVH. From havah (to be, become) or hayah (to come to pass, become, be). This is the name of the God of Israel, the self-existent and eternal one, the tetragrammaton. This pronunciation has been lost to time so “Lord” is generally used in its place.
III “said” = amar. This is to speak, say, answer, command, promise, report.

‘CarveIV out twoV tabletsVI of stoneVII

Notes on verse 1b

IV “carve” = pasal. 6x in OT. This is to hew or carve. It can refer to either wood or stone.
V “two” = shenayim. From sheni (double, again, another, second); from shanah (to fold, repeat, double, alter, or disguise). This is two, both, second, couple.
VI “tablets” = luach. Root likely means glistening, so this would refer to a tablet as being polished in some sense, whether it’s made of stone, wood, or metal.
VII “stone” = eben. This is a stone, weight, or mason. It is part of the word “Ebenezer.”

like the formerVIII ones, and come upIX to me on the mountain,X

Notes on verse 1c

VIII “former” = rishon. From rishah (beginning or early time); from rosh (head, captain, or chief; excellent or the forefront; first in position or in statue or in time). This is first, former, ancestor, beginning, ranked first.
IX “come up” = alah. This is to go up, approach, ascend, be high, be a priority; to arise in a literal or figurative sense.
X “mountain” = har. From harar (hill or mountain). This is mountain, hill, hilly region.

and makeXI an arkXII of wood.XIII 

Notes on verse 1d

XI “make” = asah. This is to make, do, act, appoint, become in many senses.
XII “ark” = aron. Perhaps from arah (to gather or pluck). This is a chest, box, or coffin. It is used for the Ark of the Covenant.
XIII “wood” = ets. Perhaps from atsah (to shut, fasten, firm up, to close one’s eyes). This is tree or other things related to trees like wood, sticks, or stalks. It can also refer to wood products like a plank or staff or gallows. Additionally, this can refer to a carpenter.

I will writeXIV on the tablets the wordsXV that wereXVI on the former tablets, which you smashed,XVII and you shall putXVIII them in the ark.’ 

Notes on verse 2

XIV “write” = kathab. This is to inscribe, write, record, or decree.
XV “words” = dabar. From dabar (to speak, declare, discuss). This is speech, a word, a matter, an affair, charge, command, message, promise, purpose, report, request. It is a word, which implies things that are spoken of in a wide sense.
XVI “were” = hayah. Related to “Lord” in v1. See note II above.
XVII “smashed” = shabar. This is break, collapse, destroy, break in pieces, tear. It is bursting in a literal or figurative sense.
XVIII “put” = sim. This is to put or place in a literal or figurative sense. It can be appoint, care, change, make, and may other things.

So I made an ark of acaciaXIX wood, cutXX two tablets of stone like the former ones, and went up the mountain with the two tablets in my hand.XXI Then he wrote on the tablets the same wordsXXII as before,XXIII

Notes on verses 3-4a

XIX “acacia” = shittah. This is acacia or shittim.
XX “cut” = pasal. Same as “carve” in v1. See note IV above.
XXI “hand” = yad. This is hand, ability, power. Hand in a literal sense, but also what one can do or the means by which one does it.
XXII “words” = miktab. Related to “write” in v2. 9x in OT. From kathab (see note XIV above). This si something written – a letter, document, edict, poem.
XXIII “before” = rishon. Same as “former” in v1. See note VIII above.

the tenXXIV commandmentsXXV that the Lord had spokenXXVI to you on the mountain out ofXXVII the fireXXVIII

Notes on verse 4b

XXIV “ten” = eser. Perhaps from asar (to tithe, render a tenth of). This is ten or -teen. While 7 is symbolically the number of perfection, ten is also symbolically a number of perfection (but to a lesser degree than 7 is).
XXV “commandments” = dabar. Same as “words” in v2. See note XV above.
XXVI “spoken” = dabar. Related to “words” in v2. See note XV above.
XXVII “out of” = tavek. This is among, middle, in the midst, the center. Perhaps, properly, to sever.
XXVIII “fire” = esh. This is fire, burning, flaming, hot. It is fire in a literal or figurative sense.

on the dayXXIX of the assembly,XXX and the Lord gaveXXXI them to me. So I turnedXXXII and came downXXXIII from the mountain and put the tablets in the ark that I had made, and there they are, as the Lord commandedXXXIV me.”

Notes on verses 4c-5

XXIX “day” = yom. Root may mean being hot. This is the day in a literal or figurative sense. It can also mean birth, age, daylight, continually or other references to time.
XXX “assembly” = qahal. This is an assembly, congregation, or multitude.
XXXI “gave” = natan. This is to give, put, set, offer. It is to give literally or figuratively.
XXXII “turned” = panah. This is to turn, regard, appear, look, prepare.
XXXIII “came down” = yarad. This is to go down, descend; going down in a literal or figurative sense. It can be going to the shore or a boundary, bringing down an enemy.
XXXIV “commanded” = tsavah. This is to charge, command, order, appoint, or enjoin. This is the root that the Hebrew word for “commandment” comes from (mitsvah).

(The IsraelitesXXXV journeyedXXXVI from Beeroth-bene-jaakanXXXVII to Moserah.XXXVIII

Notes on verse 6a

XXXV “Israelites” = ben + Yisrael. Literally, “children of Israel.” Ben is from banah (to build or obtain children). This is son, age, child. It is son in a literal or figurative sense. Yisrael is from sarah (to persist, exert oneself, contend, persevere, wrestle, prevail) + El (God or god). This is Israel, meaning God strives or one who strives with God; new name for Jacob and for his offspring. This refers to the people and to the land.
XXXVI “journeyed” = nasa. This is properly pulling up as when one pulls up tent pegs or stakes. This would imply striking tents in order to start a journey. So this could be bring, pullout, set out, journey, or cause to go away.
XXXVII “Beeroth-bene-jaakan” = Beeroth Bene-yaaqan. Related to “Israelites” in v6. 1x in OT. From beer (a well or pit); {from baar (to make plain; to dig; can also mean to engrave or figuratively to explain)} + ben (see note XXXV above) + Yaaqan (Yaaqan; perhaps meaning “he twists”); {from the same as Aqan (Aqan, perhaps meaning “tortuous”); from aqal (to bend, wrong, twist)}. This is Beeroth-bene-jakaan, meaning “wells of (the) sons of Jaakan” or “wells of the children of Jaakan” or “sons of he who twists.” See
XXXVIII “Moserah” = Moserah. 3x in OT. From moser (a band, chain; some kind of restraint or figuratively a chastisement); {from asar (to tie, yoke, bind, or fasten; can mean to harness an animal, to join in fighting a battle, or to imprison someone) or from yasar (to discipline, correct, train, teach, punish; literally with blows, but figuratively using words)}. This is Moseroth or Moserah, meaning “correction” or “corrections” or “bond” or “bonds.” See

There AaronXXXIX died,XL and there he was buried;XLI his sonXLII EleazarXLIII succeeded him as priest.XLIV 

Notes on verse 6b

XXXIX “Aaron” = Aharon. Derivation uncertain. May mean “bearer of martyrs” OR be related to Ancient Egyptian ꜥḥꜣ rw (warrior lion) OR elevated, exalted, high mountain. This is Aaron. See
XL “died” = mut. This is to die in a literal or figurative sense. It can also refer to being a dead body.
XLI “buried” = qabar. This is to bury or inter. It could also refer to the person who does the burying.
XLII “son” = ben. Same as “Israelites” in v6. See note XXXV above.
XLIII “Eleazar” = Elazar. Related to “Israelites” in v6. From El (see note XXXV above) + azar (to help, protect, support, ally; properly, to surround so as to provide aid). This is Elezar or Elazar, meaning “God has helped” or “God is helper.”
XLIV “succeeded…as priest” = kahantachat. Kahan is from kohen (a priest, one who officiates or acts as priest). This is officiating as a priest does over religious service. It can also figuratively mean donning regalia or formal ornamentation/attire. Tachat is underneath, below, the bottom, instead of.

From there they journeyed to Gudgodah,XLV and from Gudgodah to Jotbathah,XLVI a landXLVII with flowing streams.XLVIII 

Notes on verse 7

XLV “Gudgodah” = Gudgodah. 2x in OT. From gadad (to cut, gather, assemble, crowd; also, to gash as pushing in) OR from charar (to be hot, burn, glow, melt, be scorched; figuratively, to incite passion, be angry) + gadad (see above). This is Gudgodah, meaning “cleft,” “cavern of felicity,” “the central light of little fortunes,” “mount of Gadgad,” “cavern of Gidgad,” “cavern of thunder,” “cave of scrapes.” See
XLVI “Jotbathah” = Yotbathah. 3x in OT. From Yotbah (Jotbah, Yotbah; meaning “pleasantness”); from yatab (to be good or pleasing, joyful; doing good in an ethical sense or to be beautiful, happy, successful, or right). This is Jotbathah or Yotbathah, meaning “pleasantness.” See
XLVII “land” = erets. Root may mean to be firm. This is earth, ground, field land, or country.
XLVIII “flowing streams” = nachal + mayim. Literally, “rivers of water.” Nachal is from nachal (to take as heritage, inherit, or distribute). This is a river or stream. It could be a wadi or arroyo – sometimes a narrow valley with no water at all, but in strong rains or when winter snow melts, it swells or floods with water. Mayim is water, waters, or waterway in a general sense. Figuratively, it can also mean juice, urine, or semen.

At that time the Lord set apartXLIX the tribeL of LeviLI to carryLII the ark of the covenantLIII of the Lord,

Notes on verse 8a

XLIX “set apart” = badal. This is to divide, distinguish, select, differ, sever. It is to divine in a literal or figurative sense.
L “tribe” = shebet. This is a rod, staff, club, scepter, dart, or tribe. Literally a stick that can be used for punishing, writing, fighting, walking, ruling; thus, used figuratively for a clan.
LI “Levi” = Levi. Perhaps from lavah (to join, twine, unite, remain, borrow, lend). This is Levi, perhaps meaning “attached.” It can refer to Jacob’s son, his tribe, and descendants.
LII “carry” = nasa. This is to lift in a broad sense, literally and figuratively. So it could be to carry, take, or arise. It could also be bring forth, advance, accept.
LIII “covenant” = berit. Perhaps from barah (to eat, choose, make clear); perhaps from bar (grain, wheat); from barar (to select, purify, cleanse, test, brighten, polish). This is a compact, covenant, alliance, treaty, or league.

to standLIV beforeLV the Lord to ministerLVI to him and to blessLVII in his name,LVIII to this day. 

Notes on verse 8b

LIV “stand” = amad. This is to stand up in a literal or figurative sense. So it can be establish, continue, endure, take a stand, act, be a servant, stand still, remain, stand against an enemy.
LV “before” = paneh. Related to “turned” in v5. From panah (see note XXXII above). This is face in a literal or figurative sense. It could be face, presence, anger, respect. It can also be used of God to indicate divine favor or presence.
LVI “minister” = sharath. This is ministering, serving, or waiting on. It can refer to one offering service as a worshipper or one serving as a servant.
LVII “bless” = barak. This is to kneel, to bless. It is blessing God as part of worship and adoration or blessing humans to help them. It can be used as a euphemism to say curse God.
LVIII “name” = shem. Related to “put” in v2. May be from sim (see note XVIII above). This is name, fame, renown. A name was thought to indicate something essential about a person – something about their individuality. So, this word can also mean honor, authority, or character.

ThereforeLIX LeviLX hasLXI no allotmentLXII

Notes on verse 9a

LIX “therefore” = ken. Perhaps from kun (properly, in a perpendicular position; literally, to establish, fix, fasten, prepare; figuratively, it is certainty, to be firm, faithfulness, render sure or prosperous). This is to set upright. Generally used figuratively to mean thus, so, afterwards, rightly so.
LX “Levi” = Leviyyi. Related to “Levi” in v8. From Levi (see note LI above). This is Levite or Levitical.
LXI “has” = hayah. Same as “were” in v2. See note XVI above.
LXII “allotment” = cheleq. From chalaq (to be smooth in a figurative sense; can refer to the stones that were part of casting lots – hence, apportion, share, distribute; figuratively, it can also mean to flatter). This is a division, lot, inheritance, legacy, or portion. It can also refer to a smooth tongue.

or inheritanceLXIII with his kindred;LXIV the Lord is his inheritance, as the Lord your GodLXV promisedLXVI him.)

Notes on verse 9b

LXIII “inheritance” = nachalah. Related to “flowing streams” in v7. Related to nachal (see note XLVIII above). This is properly something that was inherited. It can mean occupancy generally or, more particularly, an heirloom or an estate. This can be an inheritance, gift, possession, or portion.
LXIV “kindred” = ach. This is brother, kindred, another, other, like. It is literally brother, but it can also be someone who is similar, resembling, or related to.
LXV “God” = Elohim. Related to “Israelites” and “Eleazar” in v6. See note XXXV above.
LXVI “promised” = dabar. Same as “spoken” in v4. See note XXVI above.

10 “I stayedLXVII on the mountain fortyLXVIII days and forty nights,LXIX as I had done the firstLXX time.LXXI

Notes on verse 10a

LXVII “stayed” = amad. Same as “stand” in v8. See note LIV above.
LXVIII “forty” = arbaim. From the same as arba (four); from raba (to make square or be four-sided); perhaps from raba (to lie down flat; can be to lie for mating). This is forty.
LXIX “nights” = layil. Properly, this refers to light twisting away. It is used for night or midnight. Figuratively, this can mean adversity.
LXX “first” = rishon. Same as “former” in v1. See note VIII above.
LXXI “time” = yom. Same as “day” in v4. See note XXIX above.

And once againLXXII the Lord listenedLXXIII to me. The Lord was unwillingLXXIV to destroyLXXV you. 

Notes on verse 10b

LXXII “once again” = gam + paam. Gam is also, moreover, again. Paam is from paam (to move, trouble; to tap in a regular rhythm; to agitate). This is a beat, stroke, footstep, or occurrence.
LXXIII “listened” = shama. This is to hear, call, consent, or consider. It implies listening intelligently, giving attention, and, because of these two factors, obedience and action are often implied.
LXXIV “was unwilling” = lo + abah. Abah is to breathe after, be willing, obey, accept, be content with, satisfy.
LXXV “destroy” = shachath. This is to go to ruin, perish, decay, batter, cast off, lose, one who destroys. This can be used in a literal or figurative sense.

11 The Lord said to me, ‘Get up,LXXVI goLXXVII on your journeyLXXVIII

Notes on verse 11a

LXXVI “get up” = qum. To arise, stand, accomplish, establish, abide. This is rising as in rising against, getting up after being sick or asleep, arising from one state to another, becoming powerful, or rising for action. It can also be standing in a figurative sense.
LXXVII “go” = halak. This is go, come, walk. It is walk literally and figuratively and includes people and animals. It can be used figuratively for one’s moral life – how we walk according to God’s way or against it. It can also refer to the walk of life as in the course one’s life takes, the choices we make, etc.
LXXVIII “journey” = massa. Related to “journeyed” in v6. 12x in OT– all in the first five books of the Bible. From nasa (properly pulling up as when one pulls up tent pegs or stakes; striking tents in order to start a journey; to bring, pull out, set out, journey, or cause to go away). This is a departure, striking camp, travelling by stages a station or march.

at the headLXXIX of the people,LXXX that they may go inLXXXI

Notes on verse 11b

LXXIX “head” = paneh. Same as “before” in v8. See note LV above.
LXXX “people” = am. From amam (to darken, hide, associate; creating shadows by huddling together). This is people or nation. It can be used specifically for a tribe, collectively of troops or armies, or figuratively to refer to a flock of animals.
LXXXI “go in” = bo. This is to enter, come in, advance, fulfill, bring offerings, enter to worship, attack. It can also have a sexual connotation.

and occupyLXXXII the land that I sworeLXXXIII to their ancestorsLXXXIV to give them.’

Notes on verse 11c

LXXXII “occupy” = yarash. This is inheriting or dispossessing. It refers to occupying or colonizing – taking territory by driving out the previous inhabitants and living there instead of them. By implication, it can mean to seize or rob, to expel, ruin, or impoverish.
LXXXIII “swore” = shaba. Perhaps from sheba (seven – the number of perfection/sacred fullness). This is to swear, curse, vow, make a covenant. Properly, it can mean to be complete. This is to seven oneself – as in affirming something so strongly it is as though it were said seven times.
LXXXIV “ancestors” = ab. This is father, chief, or ancestor. It is father in a literal or figurative sense.

12 “So now, O Israel, what does the LordLXXXV your God requireLXXXVI of you? Only to fearLXXXVII the LordLXXXVIII your God,

Notes on verse 12a

LXXXV “Lord” = YHVH. Related to “Lord” in v1 & “were” in v2. From the same as YHVH (see note II above). This is a secondary spelling of the Lord, the name of the God of Israel. It has the same meaning.
LXXXVI “require” = shaal. This is to ask, inquire, beg, borrow, desire, request. It can also mean to demand.
LXXXVII “fear” = yare. This is to fear, be afraid, dreadful. It can also refer to fearful reverence – to fear in a moral sense is to say to revere, respect.
LXXXVIII “Lord” = YHVH. Same as “Lord” in v12. See note LXXXV above.

to walkLXXXIX in allXC his ways,XCI to loveXCII him,

Notes on verse 12b

LXXXIX “walk” = halak. Same as “go” in v11. See note LXXVII above.
XC “all” = kol. From kalal (to complete). This is all or every.
XCI “ways” = derek. From darak (to tread, march, to walk. Can also mean affixing a string to a box since one needs to step on it to bend it in the process; so also an archer). This is a road as a thing that is walked on. Can be used figuratively for the path that one’s life takes or how one chooses to live one’s life.
XCII “love” = aheb. This is to love, beloved, friend. It is to have affection for sexually or otherwise.

to serveXCIII the LordXCIV your God with all your heartXCV and with all your soul,XCVI 

Notes on verse 12c

XCIII “serve” = abad. This is to work, serve, or compel. It can describe any kind of work or service (including religious devotion).  Also, till or cultivate. Used causatively, it can mean to enslave or keep in bondage.
XCIV “Lord” = YHVH. Same as “Lord” in v12. See note LXXXV above.
XCV “heart” = lebab. May be related to labab (to encourage; properly, to be encased as with fat; used in a good sense, this means to transport someone with love; used in a bad sense, it can mean to dull one’s senses). This is the heart, courage, one’s inner self, the mind, or the will. Heart is only used in a figurative sense in the Old and New Testaments.
XCVI “soul” = nephesh. Related to naphash (to refresh or be refreshed). This is soul, self, person, emotion. It is a breathing creature. Can also refer to appetites and desires.

13 and to keepXCVII the commandmentsXCVIII of the LordXCIX and his decreesC

Notes on verse 13a

XCVII “keep” = shamar. This is to keep, watch, or preserve. It means to guard something or to protect it as a thorny hedge protects something.
XCVIII “commandments” = mitsvah. Related to “commanded” in v5. From tsavah (see note XXXIV above). This is a commandment, law, ordinance obligation, or tradition. It is something commanded whether by God or by a human authority. This term is sometimes used collectively to refer to the Law.
XCIX “Lord” = YHVH. Same as “Lord” in v1. See note II above.
C “decrees” = chuqqah. From choq (statute, boundary, condition, custom, limit, ordinance; something that is prescribed or something that is owed); from chaqaq (to inscribe, carve, or decree; a lawmaker; literally, this is engraving, but it implies enacting a law because laws were carved into stone or metal). This is something prescribed such as a statue, custom, or ordinance.

that I am commanding you today,CI for your own well-being.CII 14 AlthoughCIII heavenCIV

Notes on verses 13b-14a

CI “today” = yom. Same as “day” in v4. See note XXIX above.
CII “well-being” = tob. From tob (to be pleasing, to be good). This is good, beautiful, pleasant, agreeable, bountiful, at ease. This word is used for goodness as a concept, a good thing, a good person. This can refer to prosperity and welfare as well as joy, kindness, sweetness, and graciousness. So, this is ethically good, but also enjoyably good.
CIII “although” = hen. This is a remark of surprise or excitement: lo! Behold! It can also mean if or though.
CIV “heaven” = shamayim. Root may mean being lofty. This is sky, the air, or heaven. It is in a dual noun form so this might refer to the part of the sky where the clouds move on the one hand and the part beyond that where the sun, moon, and stars are on the other hand.

and the heaven of heavens belong to the LordCV your God, the earthCVI with all that is in it, 15 yetCVII the LordCVIII set his heartCIX in love on your ancestors alone

Notes on verses 14b-15a

CV “Lord” = YHVH. Same as “Lord” in v1. See note II above.
CVI “earth” = erets. Same as “land” in v7. See note XLVII above.
CVII “yet” = raq. From the same as raq (thin, surely, only); perhaps from raqaq (to spit). This is but, except, at least. In the sense of being thin, it figuratively refers to some kind of limit.
CVIII “Lord” = YHVH. Same as “Lord” in v1. See note II above.
CIX “set…heart” = chashaq. 11x in OT. This is to cling, have a desire, love, join, deliver.

and choseCX you, their descendantsCXI afterCXII them, out of all the peoples, as it is today. 16 Circumcise,CXIII then, the foreskinCXIV of your heart,

Notes on verses 15b-16a

CX “chose” = bachar. This is to choose, appoint, try, excellent.
CXI “descendants” = zera. From zara (to sow or scatter seed; conceive or yield). This is seed or sowing. It can, thus, mean a fruit, plant, sowing time, child, offspring, or posterity.
CXII “after” = achar. From achar (to remain behind, linger, continue, be behind, or delay; can also imply procrastination). This is after or the last part, following.
CXIII “circumcise” = mul. This is to cut off, cut in pieces, or destroy. It is used for to circumcise. It can also mean to blunt.
CXIV “foreskin” = orlah. 16x in OT. Perhaps from arel (uncircumcised, unskilled, exposed, forbidden); from arel (to strip or expose, restrain; to remove in a literal or figurative sense). This is foreskin or uncircumcised. It can also mean forbidden.

and do not be stubbornCXV any longer.CXVI 17 For the LordCXVII your God is God of godsCXVIII and LordCXIX of lords,CXX

Notes on verses 16b-17a

CXV “be stubborn” = orephqashah. Oreph is the back of the neck – also used for stiff-necked. It is also used for the back more generally in a literal or figurative sense. Qashah is to be fierce, cruel, dense, tough, severe.
CXVI “any longer” = od. From ud (to admonish, repeat, duplicate, testify, restore, record, relieve). This is still, yet, again, more.
CXVII “Lord” = YHVH. Same as “Lord” in v1. See note II above.
CXVIII “gods” = elohim. Same as “God” in v9. See note LXV above.
CXIX “Lord” = Adonai. From adon (lord, master, owner); root means to rule or be sovereign. This is the actual Hebrew word for Lord used (in a different form) of humans and (in the present form) of God. It means someone who is in control.
CXX “lords” = adon. Related to “Lord” in v17. See note CXIX above.

the greatCXXI God,CXXII mightyCXXIII and awesome,CXXIV who is not partialCXXV and takesCXXVI no bribe,CXXVII 

Notes on verse 17b

CXXI “great” = gadol. From gadal (to grow up, become great, become wealthy – to advance. The root meaning may be to twist in the sense of the process of growing). This is great, high, bigger, noble, old, marvelous. It can also refer to someone who is powerful or distinguished.
CXXII “God” = El. Related to “Israelites” and “Eleazar” in v6 & “God” in v9. See note XXXV above.
CXXIII “mighty” = gibbor. From gabar (to be strong or mighty; to prevail or be insolent). This is strong, mighty, or powerful. This can imply a warrior, hero, or tyrant.
CXXIV “awesome” = yare. Same as “fear” in v12. See note LXXXVII above.
CXXV “partial” = nasa + paneh. Nasa is the same as “carry” in v8. See note LII above. Paneh is the same as “before” in v8. See note LV above.
CXXVI “takes” = laqach. This is to take, accept, carry away, receive. It can also have the sense of take a wife or take in marriage.
CXXVII “bribe” = shochad. From shachad (to give a present, reward, or bribe; to donate or hire). This is a present, reward, or bribe. It is some kind of donation positive or negative.

18 who executesCXXVIII justiceCXXIX for the orphanCXXX and the widow,CXXXI

Notes on verse 18a

CXXVIII “executes” = asah. Same as “make” in v1. See note XI above.
CXXIX “justice” = mishpat. From shaphat (to judge, defend, pronounce judgment, condemn, govern). This is a verdict or formal sentence whether from humans or from God. It includes the act of judging as well as the place that judging takes place, the suit itself, and the penalty. Abstractly, this is justice, which includes the rights of the participants.
CXXX “orphan” = yathom. This is a child without a father or more generally a person who is bereaved.
CXXXI “widow” = almanah. Related to alman (widowed); from alam (to be silent, bound). This is a widow or a house that is desolate.

and who loves the strangers,CXXXII providingCXXXIII them foodCXXXIV and clothing.CXXXV 

Notes on verse 18b

CXXXII “stranger” = ger. From gur (to abide or sojourn; to leave the road to lodge or for any other reason). This is sojourner, guest, stranger, foreigner.
CXXXIII “providing” = natan. Same as “gave” in v4. See note XXXI above.
CXXXIV “food” = lechem. From lacham (to eat, feed on). This is bread, food, loaf. It can refer to food more generally for people or for animals.
CXXXV “clothing” = simlah. Perhaps from semel (image, figure, likeness). This is mantle, clothes, wrapper.

19 You shall also love the stranger, for you were strangers in the land of Egypt.CXXXVI 20 You shall fear the LordCXXXVII your God;CXXXVIII him you shall serve; to him you shall hold fast;CXXXIX and by his name you shall swear. 

Notes on verses 19-20

CXXXVI “Egypt” = Mitsrayim. Perhaps from matsor (besieged or fortified place, bulwark, entrenchment; something hemmed in; a siege or distress or fastness); from tsur (to confine, besiege, to cramp). This is Egypt.
CXXXVII “Lord” = YHVH. Same as “Lord” in v1. See note II above.
CXXXVIII “God” = Elohim. Same as “God” in v9. See note LXV above.
CXXXIX “hold fast” = dabaq. This is to follow closely or abide fast, to cling or be joined together. Figuratively, it can mean to catch something by chasing after it, to overtake, or to stick. A man clings to his wife in Genesis 2:24, Shechem was deeply attracted to Dinah in Genesis 34:3, Ruth clung to Naomi in Ruth 1:14, Solomon clung to his foreign wives and concubines in 1 Kings 11:2. It is also used of a tongue sticking to the mouth, pursuing or overtaking as in battle, and also clinging to God.

21 He is your praise;CXL he is your GodCXLI who has doneCXLII for you these great and awesome thingsCXLIII that your own eyesCXLIV have seen.CXLV 

Notes on verse 21

CXL “praise” = tehillah. From halal (to praise, be boastful). This is praise or a song of praise. It is to offer God a hymn, to boast in God. This shares a root with “hallelujah.”
CXLI “God” = Elohim. Same as “God” in v9. See note LXV above.
CXLII “done” = asah. Same as “make” in v1. See note XI above.
CXLIII “awesome things” = yare. Same as “fear” in v12. See note LXXXVII above.
CXLIV “eyes” = ayin. This is eye in a literal or figurative sense so eye, appearance, favor, or a fountain (the eye of the landscape).
CXLV “seen” = raah. This is to see in a literal or figurative sense so stare, advise, think, view.

22 Your ancestors went downCXLVI to Egypt seventyCXLVII persons,CXLVIII

Notes on verse 22a

CXLVI “went down” = yarad. Same as “came down” in v5. See note XXXIII above.
CXLVII “seventy” = shibim. Related to “swore” in v11. From sheba (see note LXXXIII above). This is seventy.
CXLVIII “persons” = nephesh. Same as “soul” in v12. See note XCVI above.

and now the LordCXLIX your GodCL has madeCLI you as numerousCLII as the starsCLIII in heaven.

Notes on verse 22b

CXLIX “Lord” = YHVH. Same as “Lord” in v1. See note II above.
CL “God” = Elohim. Same as “God” in v9. See note LXV above.
CLI “made” = sim. Same as “put” in v2. See note XVIII above.
CLII “numerous” = rob. From rabab (to be or become much or many, multiply). This is any kind of abundance.
CLIII “stars” = kokab. Perhaps from the same as kavah (to prick, blister, burn, scorch). This is a star as shining, stargaze. Figuratively, can mean prince.

Image credit: “Moses” by Ivan Meštrović, 1952; cast 1990. Photo by DASonnenfeld, 2014.

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