Deuteronomy 7

Deuteronomy 7


“When the LordI your GodII bringsIII you into the landIV that you are about to enterV

Notes on verse 1a

I “Lord” = YHVH. From havah (to be, become) or hayah (to come to pass, become, be). This is the name of the God of Israel, the self-existent and eternal one, the tetragrammaton. This pronunciation has been lost to time so “Lord” is generally used in its place.
II “God” = Elohim.
III “brings” = bo. This is to enter, come in, advance, fulfill, bring offerings, enter to worship, attack. It can also have a sexual connotation.
IV “land” = erets. Root may mean to be firm. This is earth, ground, field land, or country.
V “enter” = bo. Same as “brings” in v1. See note III above.

and occupyVI and he clears awayVII manyVIII nationsIX

Notes on verse 1b

VI “occupy” = yarash. This is inheriting or dispossessing. It refers to occupying or colonizing – taking territory by driving out the previous inhabitants and living there instead of them. By implication, it can mean to seize or rob, to expel, ruin, or impoverish.
VII “clears away” = nashal. 7x in OT. To pluck off, clear, remove, eject, or drop.
VIII “many” = rab. From rabab (increasing in any aspect whether quantity, authority, size, quality, greatness, etc.). This is abundance, many, elder, exceedingly, great. It refers to abundance of amount, rank, or status.
IX “nations” = goy. From the same root as gevah (the back, person, or body); related to gev (among); related to gaah (to rise up). This is nation or people. Often used to refer to Gentiles or foreign nations. It can also be used figuratively for a group of animals. This is where the Yiddish “goy” comes from.

beforeX you—the Hittites,XI the Girgashites,XII the Amorites,XIII

Notes on verse 1c

X “before” = paneh. From panah (to turn, face, appear). This is face in a literal or figurative sense. It could be face, presence, anger, respect. It can also be used of God to indicate divine favor or presence.
XI “Hittites” = Chitti. From cheth (Heth or Cheth; one of Canaan’s sons from whom perhaps the Hittites descend) OR from hatat (terror, lacking strength or courage); perhaps from hata (to seize; often used of coals from a fire). This is Hittite – perhaps meaning terrors or terrible. See
XII “Girgashites” = Girgashi. 7x in OT. Perhaps from Chaldean (clay, clod) OR related to an Arabic word (black mud) OR related to Hebrew garar (to drag out or dray away). This is Girgashite – those who live in a place that has clay soil or black mud. See
XIII “Amorites” = Emori. From amar (to speak, say, answer, command, promise, report). This is Amorite or Emori, perhaps meaning talkers.

the Canaanites,XIV the Perizzites,XV the Hivites,XVI

Notes on verse 1d

XIV “Canaanites” = Knaaniy. From Kanaan (Canaan, his descendants, and the land where they settled; perhaps meaning lowlands, describing their land or subjugated in reference to being conquered by Egypt); from kana (to be humble, subdue; properly, bend the knee). This is Canaanite, which in some instances would imply a peddler or sometimes used in place of Ishmaelite. See
XV “Perizzites” = Perizzi. Perhaps from perazi (rural area, unwalled land); from the same as perazah (rural, village without walls, open country); from the same as paraz (root may mean to separate; perhaps warriors, chieftan, or throng). This is Perizzite, perhaps meaning rural or wild one.
XVI “Hivites” = Chivvi. Probably from the same as chavyah (life-giving, which implies the place where one lives like a village or place where one camps); probably from the same as Chavvah (Eve, life-giver); from chavah (show, tell, live, declare). This is Hivite, perhaps meaning villagers or tent villagers.

and the Jebusites,XVII sevenXVIII nations more numerousXIX and mightierXX than you— 

Notes on verse 1e

XVII “Jebusites” = Yebusi. From yebus (threshing place; one of the former names of Jerusalem); from bus (to trample down, tread in a literal or figurative sense; to loathe, pollute, squirm). This is Jebusite, meaning treaders or threshers.
XVIII “seven” = sheba. From shaba (to swear, curse, vow, make a covenant; properly, to be complete; this is to seven oneself – as in affirming something so strongly it is as though it were said seven times. This is seven or by sevenfold. It can also be used to imply a week or an indefinite number. Symbolically, this is the number of fullness, sacredness, perfection.
XIX “more numerous” = rab. Same as “many” in v1. See note VIII above.
XX “mightier” = atsum. From atsom (to be many or mighty; could also refer to breaking bones). This is mighty or mighty one. It means powerful, which implies large numbers.

and when the Lord your God givesXXI them overXXII to you and you defeatXXIII them, then you must utterly destroyXXIV them.

Notes on verse 2a

XXI “gives” = natan. This is to give, put, set, offer. It is to give literally or figuratively.
XXII “over” = paneh. Same as “before” in v1. See note X above.
XXIII “defeat” = nakah. This is to hit whether lightly or severely. It can be used in a literal or figurative sense. So, this could be beat, punish, give wounds, kill, or slaughter.
XXIV “utterly destroy” = charam + charam. This is to ban, destroy, devote, seclude. It is to dedicate to a religious purpose, often for destruction. The word is repeated twice – the first time as an Infinitive Absolute. The Infinitive Absolute serves to emphasize the sentiment of the word. It is rather like Foghorn Leghorn’s speech pattern, “I said, I said.”

MakeXXV no covenantXXVI with them and show them no mercy.XXVII 

Notes on verse 2b

XXV “make” = karat. This is to cut down, cut off, or make a covenant (idiom for making a covenant is “to cut a covenant”). It can also mean to destroy, fail, or consume.
XXVI “covenant” = berit. Perhaps from barah (to eat, choose, make clear); perhaps from bar (grain, wheat); from barar (to select, purify, cleanse, test, brighten, polish). This is a compact, covenant, alliance, treaty, or league.
XXVII “show…mercy” = chanan. This is to beseech, show favor, be gracious. Properly, it is to bend in kindness to someone with less status.

Do not intermarryXXVIII with them, giving your daughtersXXIX to their sonsXXX or takingXXXI their daughters for your sons, 

Notes on verse 3

XXVIII “intermarry” = chathan. Perhaps from chathan (bridegroom, son-in-law; someone who is related through marriage; figuratively can be a child who is circumcised). This is to intermarry, make an alliance through marriage, father-in-law, son-in-law, give one’s daughter in marriage.
XXIX “daughters” = bat. From ben (son literal or figurative; also, grandson, subject, nation); from banah (to build or obtain children). This is daughter in a literal or figurative sense.
XXX “sons” = ben. Related to “daughters” in v3. See note XXIX above.
XXXI “taking” = laqach. This is to take, accept, carry away, receive. It can also have the sense of take a wife or take in marriage.

for that would turn awayXXXII your childrenXXXIII from followingXXXIV me, to serveXXXV otherXXXVI gods.XXXVII

Notes on verse 4a

XXXII “turn away” = sur. This is to turn aside in a literal or figurative sense – to depart, decline, rebel, remove, or withdraw.
XXXIII “children” = ben. Same as “sons” in v3. See note XXX above.
XXXIV “following” = achar. From achar (to remain behind, linger, continue, be behind, or delay; can also imply procrastination). This is after or the last part, following.
XXXV “serve” = abad. This is to work, serve, or compel. It can describe any kind of work or service (including religious devotion).  Also, till or cultivate. Used causatively, it can mean to enslave or keep in bondage.
XXXVI “other” = acher. Related to “following” in v4. From achar (see note XXXIV above). This is following, next, strange, other.
XXXVII “gods” = elohim. Same as “God” in v1. See note II above.

Then the angerXXXVIII of the Lord would be kindledXXXIX against you, and he would destroyXL you quickly.XLI 

Notes on verse 4b

XXXVIII “anger” = aph. From anaph (to be angry; properly, breathing hard as a signifier of being enraged). This properly refers to the nose or nostril and by extension the face. It can specifically refer to anger or wrath as one breathes hard and nostrils flare in times of great anger.
XXXIX “kindled” = charah. Perhaps related to charar (to be hot, burn, glow, melt, be scorched; figuratively, to incite passion, be angry). This is to be displeased, burn with anger, glow, become warn. Figuratively it is a blaze of anger, zeal, or jealousy.
XL “destroy” = shamad. This is to demolish, destroy, perish, overthrow, pluck down.
XLI “quickly” = maher. 18x in OT. From mahar (being liquid, which implies flowing; so, hurrying forward, whether in a positive or negative sense). This is speedy, quickly, soon, suddenly, or at once.

But this is how you must dealXLII with them: break downXLIII their altars,XLIV smashXLV their pillars,XLVI

Notes on verse 5a

XLII “deal” = asah. This is to make, do, act, appoint, become in many senses.
XLIII “break down” = nathats. This is to pull down, demolish, break down, raze, overthrow.
XLIV “altars” = mizbeach. From zabach (to kill, slay, offer; slaughtering an animal to offer as a sacrifice). This is an altar.
XLV “smash” = shabar. This is break, collapse, destroy, break in pieces, tear. It is bursting in a literal or figurative sense.
XLVI “pillars” = matstsebah. From natsab (to station, appoint, establish, take a stand). This is literally something that is stationed. So, it could refer to a column, a stump, some kind of image or idol, or a garrison.

cut downXLVII their sacred poles,XLVIII and burnXLIX their idolsL with fire.LI 

Notes on verse 5b

XLVII “cut down” = gada. This is to cut or chop as one cuts down a tree. It is used more generally for cutting off or destroying things.
XLVIII “sacred poles” = asherah. Perhaps from Ugaritic atrt (Athirat, Asherah, goddess who is wife of El) OR from Phoenician sattar (Astarte) OR from asher (to go straight). This is asherah – sacred pole or goddess Asherah or Astarte. It may mean “progression” or “happiness” or “fortuna.” See &
XLIX “burn” = saraph. This is to burn or kindle. This is the root that “seraphim” comes from.
L “idols” = pasil. From pasal (to hew, carve; used for wood or stone). This is an idol or other image.
LI “fire” = esh. This is fire, burning, flaming, hot. It is fire in a literal or figurative sense.

For you are a peopleLII holyLIII to the Lord your God; the Lord your God has chosenLIV you out of allLV the peoples

Notes on verse 6a

LII “people” = am. From amam (to darken, hide, associate; creating shadows by huddling together). This is people or nation. It can be used specifically for a tribe, collectively of troops or armies, or figuratively to refer to a flock of animals.
LIII “holy” = qadosh. From qodesh (set apart and so sacred; God is different from us and so God is holy/set apart; things we dedicate to God’s service are set apart for God and so they, too, are holy); related to qadash (set apart, consecrated, hallowed, sanctified; something or someone set apart for a holy purpose or use – ceremonially or morally clean). This is sacred or holy in a ritual or moral sense. As a noun, it refers to a holy one (like a saint or angel), a holy place (the sanctuary), or God (the Holy One).
LIV “chosen” = bachar. This is to choose, appoint, try, excellent.
LV “all” = kol. From kalal (to complete). This is all or every.

onLVI earthLVII to beLVIII his people, his treasured possession.LIX

Notes on verse 6b

LVI {untranslated} = paneh. Same as “before” in v1. See note X above.
LVII “earth” = adamah. From the same as adam (man, humankind); perhaps from ‘adom (to be red). This is ground, earth, soil as red, or land.
LVIII “be” = hayah. Related to “Lord” in v1. See note I above.
LIX “treasured possession” = segullah. 8x in OT. Root may mean to shut up – as treasure or wealth that is kept. Could be property, jewel, or any possession.

“It was not because you were more numerousLX than any otherLXI people that the Lord set his heartLXII on you and chose you, for you were the fewestLXIII of all peoples. 

Notes on verse 7

LX “were more numerous” = rob. Related to “many” in v1. From rabab (see note VIII above). This is any kind of abundance.
LXI “any other” = kol. Same as “all” in v6. See note LV above.
LXII “set…heart” = chashaq. 11x in OT. This is to cling, have a desire, love, join, deliver.
LXIII “fewest” = me’at. From ma’at (being or becoming small, decrease, diminish, pare off). This is a little or few, lightly little while, very small matter.

It was because the Lord lovedLXIV you and keptLXV the oathLXVI that he sworeLXVII to your ancestorsLXVIII that the Lord has brought you outLXIX

Notes on verse 8a

LXIV “loved” = ahabah. From ahab (love or affection); from aheb (to love, beloved, friend; to have affection for sexually or otherwise). This is love as a noun.
LXV “kept” = shamar. This is to keep, watch, or preserve. It means to guard something or to protect it as a thorny hedge protects something.
LXVI “oath” = shebuah. Related to “seven” in v1. From sheba (see note XVIII above). This is oath or curse.
LXVII “swore” = shaba. Related to “seven” in v1 & “oath” in v8. See note XVIII above.
LXVIII “ancestors” = ab. This is father, chief, or ancestor. It is father in a literal or figurative sense.
LXIX “brought…out” = yatsa. This is to go or come out, bring forth, appear. It is to go out in a literal or figurative sense.

with a mightyLXX handLXXI and redeemedLXXII you

Notes on verse 8b

LXX “mighty” = chazaq. From chazaq (to strengthen, seize, be courageous, repair, bind, heal, conquer, harden). This is strong, hard, powerful, loud, bold, violent, impudent. It is usually strong in a negative sense.
LXXI “hand” = yad. This is hand, ability, power. Hand in a literal sense, but also what one can do or the means by which one does it.
LXXII “redeemed” = padah. This is to sever, which is to say to ransom. To secure someone’s release (by paying their debt to free them from slavery) and thus redeem, rescue, deliver, preserve. Can also be the redemption price.

from the houseLXXIII of slavery,LXXIV from the hand of PharaohLXXV kingLXXVI of Egypt.LXXVII 

Notes on verse 8c

LXXIII “house” = bayit. Related to “daughters” and “sons” in v3. Probably from banah (see note XXIX above). This is house, court, family, palace, temple.
LXXIV “slavery” = ebed. Related to “serve” in v4. From abad (see note XXXV above). This is a servant, slave, or bondservant.
LXXV “Pharaoh” = Paroh. From Egyptian pr (palace, pharaoh; literally house + great). This is Pharaoh, a title for Egyptian kings. See
LXXVI “king” = melek. From malak (to be or become king or queen, to rise to the throne, to be crowned; by implication, to take counsel). This is king or royal.
LXXVII “Egypt” = Mitsrayim. Perhaps from matsor (besieged or fortified place, bulwark, entrenchment; something hemmed in; a siege or distress or fastness); from tsur (to confine, besiege, to cramp). This is Egypt.

Know,LXXVIII therefore, that the Lord your God is God, the faithfulLXXIX GodLXXX

Notes on verse 9a

LXXVIII “know” = yada. This is to know, acknowledge, advise, answer, be aware, be acquainted with. Properly, this is to figure something out by seeing. It includes ideas of observation, recognition, and care about something. It can be used causatively for instruction, designation, and punishment.
LXXIX “faithful” = aman. This is to believe, endure, fulfill, confirm, support, be faithful. It is to put one’s trust in, be steadfast. Figuratively, this is to be firm, steadfast, or faithful, trusting, believing, being permanent, morally solid. This is where the word “amen” comes from.
LXXX “God” = El. Related to “God” in v1. See note II above.

who maintainsLXXXI covenant loyaltyLXXXII with those who loveLXXXIII him

Notes on verse 9b

LXXXI “maintains” = shamar. Same as “kept” in v8. See note LXV above.
LXXXII “loyalty” = chesed. From chasad (being good, kind, merciful; may mean bowing one’s neck as is done in the presence of an equal for courtesy’s sake; so, if one in a superior position is treating you like an equal, that is what is captured here). This is favor, goodness, kindness, loving kindness, pity, reproach, or a good deed. When done by God to humanity, this is mercy/loving kindness. When done by humanity to God, it is piety.
LXXXIII “love” = aheb. Related to “loved” in v8. See note LXIV above.

and keep his commandments,LXXXIV to a thousandLXXXV generations,LXXXVI 

Notes on verse 9c

LXXXIV “commandments” = mitsvah. From tsavah (to charge, command, order, enjoin). This is a commandment, law, ordinance obligation, or tradition. It is something commanded whether by God or by a human authority. This term is sometimes used collectively to refer to the Law.
LXXXV “thousand” = eleph. Perhaps from the same as eleph (herd, cattle); from alaph (to learn, speak, associate with). This is thousand.
LXXXVI “generations” = dor. From dur (to move in a circle, which implies living somewhere or remaining there; it can also be the sense of piling or heaping up). This is a revolution of time, which is to say, an age or generation. It can also be a dwelling or one’s posterity.

10 and who repaysLXXXVII, LXXXVIII in their own personLXXXIX

Notes on verse 10a

LXXXVII “repays” = shalam. From shalam (to be complete or sound; to have safety mentally, physically, or extending to one’s estate; so, if these things are safe and complete, the implication is that one would be friendly; and, if being friendly, one would make amends and that friendship would be reciprocated). This is completeness, soundness, welfare, favor, friend, good health. It is to be safe and figuratively well, happy, at peace, friendly. Abstractly, it includes the ideas of welfare and prosperity (not in excessive wealth, but in having enough).
LXXXVIII {untranslated} = abad. To wander off, lose self. This implies to perish, destroy, die, vanish, or be broken or corrupt.
LXXXIX “person” = paneh. Same as “before” in v1. See note X above.

those who rejectXC him. He does not delayXCI but repays in their own person those who reject him. 11 Therefore, observe diligentlyXCII the commandment—the statutesXCIII

Notes on verses 10b-11a

XC “reject” = sane. This is to hate, an enemy. It is a personal hatred and not an abstract one.
XCI “delay” = achar. Related to “following” and “other” in v4. 17x in OT. See note XXXIV above.
XCII “observe diligently” = shamar. Same as “kept” in v8. See note LXV above.
XCIII “statutes” = choq. From chaqaq (to inscribe, carve, or decree; a lawmaker; literally, this is engraving, but it implies enacting a law because laws were carved into stone or metal). This is statute, boundary, condition, custom, limit, ordinance It is something that is prescribed or something that is owed.

and the ordinancesXCIV—that I am commandingXCV youXCVI today.XCVII

Notes on verse 11b

XCIV “ordinances” = mishpat. From shaphat (to judge, defend, pronounce judgment, condemn, govern). This is a verdict or formal sentence whether from humans or from God. It includes the act of judging as well as the place that judging takes place, the suit itself, and the penalty. Abstractly, this is justice, which includes the rights of the participants.
XCV “commanding” = tsavah. Related to “commandments” in v9. See note LXXXIV above.
XCVI {untranslated} = asah. Same as “deal” in v5. See note XLII above.
XCVII “today” = yom. Root may mean being hot. This is the day in a literal or figurative sense. It can also mean birth, age, daylight, continually or other references to time.

12 XCVIIIIfXCIX you heedC these ordinances by diligently observingCI them, the Lord your GodCII will maintain with you the covenant loyalty that he swore to your ancestors;

Notes on verse 12

XCVIII {untranslated} = hayah. Same as “be” in v6. See note LVIII above.
XCIX “if” = eqeb. 15x in OT. Perhaps from aqab (to assail, supplant, overreach, follow or grab someone’s heel, to trip someone up); perhaps from aqeb (heel, hind part, hoof, rear guard of an army, one who lies in wait, usurper). This is a heel as the final part of something i.e. the result, consequence, or reward. It can also be used as an adverb to mean as ever.
C “heed” = shama. This is to hear, call, consent, or consider. It implies listening intelligently, giving attention, and, because of these two factors, obedience and action are often implied.
CI “diligently observing” = shamar + asah. Shamar is the same as “kept” in v8. See note LXV above. Asah is the same as “deal” in v5. See note XLII above.
CII “God” = Elohim. Same as “God” in v1. See note II above.


13 he will loveCIII you, blessCIV you, and multiplyCV you; he will bless the fruitCVI of your wombCVII and the fruit of your ground,CVIII

Notes on verse 13a

CIII “love” = aheb. Same as “love” in v9. See note LXXXIII above.
CIV “bless” = barak. This is to kneel, to bless. It is blessing God as part of worship and adoration or blessing humans to help them. It can be used as a euphemism to say curse God.
CV “multiply” = rabah. This is increasing in any aspect whether quantity, authority, size, quality, greatness, etc.
CVI “fruit” = peri. From parah (to bear fruit, grow, be fruitful, increase; bearing fruit in a literal or figurative sense). This is fruit or reward.
CVII “womb” = beten. Root may mean to be hollow. This is the belly or womb. It can also refer to a body more broadly.
CVIII “ground” = adamah. Same as “earth” in v9. See note LVII above.

your grainCIX and your wineCX and your oil,CXI the increaseCXII of your cattleCXIII

Notes on verse 13b

CIX “grain” = dagan. Perhaps from dagah (to multiply, move quickly, breed greatly, grow). This is grain or other cereal.
CX “wine” = tirosh. Related to “occupy” in v1. From yarash (see note VI above).  This is new wine or sweet wine – wine that is freshly squeezed. Sometimes used for fermented wine.
CXI “oil” = yitshar. From tsahar (to press oil or glisten). This is fresh oil, anointed. It is oil as that which is burned to make light; used figuratively to talk about anointing.
CXII “increase” = sheger. 5x in OT. This may come from to eject. This is firstborn, increase, offspring.
CXIII “cattle” = eleph. Related to “thousand” in v9. 8x in OT. See note LXXXV above.

and the issueCXIV of your flock,CXV in the landCXVI that he swore to your ancestors to give you. 14 You shall be the mostCXVII blessed of peoples, with neitherCXVIII sterilityCXIX

Notes on verses 13c-14a

CXIV “issue” = ashtaroth. 5x in OT. From ashath (to think) OR from ashar (to gain wealth, become rich, enrich; to accumulate). This is young, flock, issue.
CXV “flock” = tson. This is a flock of sheep and goats.
CXVI “land” = adamah. Same as “earth” in v9. See note LVII above.
CXVII “most” = kol. Same as “all” in v6. See note LV above.
CXVIII {untranslated} = hayah. Same as “be” in v6. See note LVIII above.
CXIX “sterility” = aqar. 12x in OT. From the same as eqer (stock, member, offshoot; figuratively, could be a descendant or someone who is transplanted like an immigrant who takes up permanent residence); from aqar (to uproot, pluck out, dig out by the roots, to hamstring; figuratively, to exterminate). This is barrenness or a woman who is barren.

nor barrennessCXX among you or your livestock.CXXI 15 The Lord will turn away from you everyCXXII illness;CXXIII

Notes on verses 14b-15a

CXX “barrenness” = aqar. Same as “sterility” in v14. See note CXIX above.
CXXI “livestock” = behemah. This is animal or cattle. It is often used of large quadrupeds.
CXXII “every” = kol. Same as “all” in v6. See note LV above.
CXXIII “illness” = choli. From chalah (properly, this is to be worn; hence, being weak, sick, or afflicted; it can also mean to grieve or, positively, to flatter or entreat). This is sickness, affliction, grief, worry, or calamity.

all the dreadCXXIV diseasesCXXV of Egypt that you experienced,CXXVI

Notes on verse 15b

CXXIV “dread” = ra’. From ra’a’ (to be evil, bad, afflict; properly, to spoil – to destroy by breaking into pieces; figuratively, to cause something to be worthless; this is bad in a physical, social, or moral sense; that which displeases, to do harm or mischief, to punish or vex). This is bad, disagreeable, that which causes pain, misery, something having little or no value, something that is ethically bad, wicked, injury, calamity. This refers to anything that is not what it ought to be – a natural disaster, a disfigurement, an injury, a sin.
CXXV “diseases” = madveh. 2x in OT – both in Deuteronomy. From davah (to be sick or unwell). This is sickness or a disease.
CXXVI “experienced” = yada. Same as “know” in v9. See note LXXVIII above.

he will not inflictCXXVII on you, but he will layCXXVIII them on all who hateCXXIX you. 16 You shall devourCXXX all the peoples that the Lord your GodCXXXI is giving over to you,

Notes on verses 15c-16a

CXXVII “inflict” = sim. This is to put or place in a literal or figurative sense. It can be appoint, care, change, make, and may other things.
CXXVIII “lay” = natan. Same as “gives” in v2. See note XXI above.
CXXIX “hate” = sane. Same as “reject” in v10. See note XC above.
CXXX “devour” = akal. This is to eat, devour, burn up, or otherwise consume. It can be eating in a literal or figurative sense.
CXXXI “God” = Elohim. Same as “God” in v1. See note II above.

showing them no pity;CXXXII you shall not serve their gods, for that would be a snareCXXXIII to you.

17 “If you sayCXXXIV to yourself,CXXXV

Notes on verses 16b-17a

CXXXII “showing…pity” = chus + ayin. Chus is properly to cover. In a figurative sense it means looking with compassion, pitying, regarding, or sparing someone. Ayin is eye in a literal or figurative sense so eye, appearance, favor, or a fountain (the eye of the landscape).
CXXXIII “snare” = moqesh. From yaqosh (ensnare, lay bait, lure, trapper; to snare literally or figuratively). This is bait, barb, snare, trap; a noose or hook to trap animals in a literal or figurative sense.
CXXXIV “say” = amar. Related to “Amorites” in v1. See note XIII above.
CXXXV “yourself” = lebab. May be related to labab (to encourage; properly, to be encased as with fat; used in a good sense, this means to transport someone with love; used in a bad sense, it can mean to dull one’s senses). This is the heart, courage, one’s inner self, the mind, or the will. Heart is only used in a figurative sense in the Old and New Testaments.

‘These nations are more numerous than I; how canCXXXVI I dispossessCXXXVII them?’ 18 do not be afraidCXXXVIII of them. Just rememberCXXXIX what the Lord your GodCXL didCXLI to Pharaoh and to all Egypt, 

Notes on verses 17b-18

CXXXVI “can” = yakol. This is to be able, endure, overcome, prevail.
CXXXVII “dispossess” = yarash. Same as “occupy” in v1. See note VI above.
CXXXVIII “be afraid” = yare. This is to fear, be afraid, dreadful. It can also refer to fearful reverence – to fear in a moral sense is to say to revere, respect.
CXXXIX “just remember” = zakar + zakar. This is to remember, to mark something so that it can be recalled, to be mindful of, to mention. The word is repeated twice – the first time as an Infinitive Absolute. The Infinitive Absolute serves to emphasize the sentiment of the word. It is rather like Foghorn Leghorn’s speech pattern, “I said, I said.”
CXL “God” = Elohim. Same as “God” in v1. See note II above.
CXLI “did” = asah. Same as “deal” in v5. See note XLII above.

19 the greatCXLII trialsCXLIII that your eyesCXLIV saw,CXLV

Notes on verse 19a

CXLII “great” = gadol. From gadal (to grow up, become great, become wealthy – to advance. The root meaning may be to twist in the sense of the process of growing). This is great, high, bigger, noble, old, marvelous. It can also refer to someone who is powerful or distinguished.
CXLIII “trials” = massah. 5x in OT. From nasah (to test, prove, try, tempt, or attempt). This is testing, trial, calamity, despair. It can be used of human trials or God’s testing. It can also be Massah.
CXLIV “eyes” = ayin. Same as “showing…pity” in v16. See note CXXXII above.
CXLV “saw” = raah. This is to see in a literal or figurative sense so stare, advise, think, view.

the signsCXLVI and wonders,CXLVII the mightyCXLVIII hand

Notes on verse 19b

CXLVI “signs” = oth. From avah (to mark, sign, point out); OR from uth (to agree). This is a sign in a literal or figurative sense. It could be a flag or monument. It could be evidence or a mark. It could also be an omen or a miracle. 
CXLVII “wonders” = mophet. Perhaps from yaphah (to be beautiful, decorate; root means being bright, which implies being beautiful). This is a wonder, miracle, symbol, sign, or omen.
CXLVIII “mighty” = chazaq. Same as “mighty” in v8. See note LXX above.

and the outstretchedCXLIX armCL by which the Lord your GodCLI brought you out.CLII

Notes on verse 19c

CXLIX “outstretched” = natah. This is to stretch or spread out, to extend, or bend. In can also imply moral deflection.
CL “arm” = zeroa. Perhaps from zara (to sow, scatter seed, conceive). This is the arm, shoulder, or foreleg of an animal. It is figuratively used for power, force, might, or help.
CLI “God” = Elohim. Same as “God” in v1. See note II above.
CLII “brought…out” = yatsa. Same as “brought…out” in v8. See note LXIX above.

The Lord your GodCLIII will do the sameCLIV to all the peoples of whomCLV you are afraid.CLVI 

Notes on verse 19d

CLIII “God” = Elohim. Same as “God” in v1. See note II above.
CLIV “same” = ken. Perhaps from kun (properly, in a perpendicular position; literally, to establish, fix, fasten, prepare; figuratively, it is certainty, to be firm, faithfulness, render sure or prosperous). This is to set upright. Generally used figuratively to mean thus, so, afterwards, rightly so.
CLV {untranslated} = paneh. Same as “before” in v1. See note X above.
CLVI “afraid” = yare. Related to “be afraid” in v18. From the same as yare (see note CXXXVIII above). This is fearful or morally reverent.

20 Moreover,CLVII the Lord your GodCLVIII will sendCLIX swarms of hornetsCLX against them

Notes on verse 20a

CLVII “moreover” = gam. This is also, moreover, again.
CLVIII “God” = Elohim. Same as “God” in v1. See note II above.
CLIX “send” = shalach. This is to send out, away, send for, forsake. It can also mean to divorce or set a slave free.
CLX “hornets” = tsirah. 3x in OT. From the same as tsaraat (leprosy or a mark); from tsara (to have leprosy, be a leper). This is hornet or wasp.

until even the survivorsCLXI and the fugitivesCLXII, CLXIII are destroyed.CLXIV 21 Have no dreadCLXV ofCLXVI them,

Notes on verses 20b-21a

CLXI “survivors” = shaar. Properly, this is swelling up i.e. being left over, a remnant, remaining, being redundant.
CLXII “fugitives” = sathar. This is hide, conceal, or be absent. It is hiding because something is covered – used in a literal or figurative sense.
CLXIII {untranslated} = paneh. Same as “before” in v1. See note X above.
CLXIV “destroyed” = abad. Same as {untranslated} in v10. See note LXXXVIII above.
CLXV “have…dread” = arats. 15x in OT. This is to fear, terrify, be in awe, oppress, make one tremble, harass, shock.
CLXVI “of” = paneh. Same as “before” in v1. See note X above.

for the Lord your God,CLXVII who is present withCLXVIII you, is a great and awesomeCLXIX God.CLXX 

Notes on verse 21b

CLXVII “God” = Elohim. Same as “God” in v1. See note II above.
CLXVIII “with” = qereb. Perhaps from qarab (to come near or approach). This is among, in the midst, before, the center It is the inward part, whether literal or figurative. It can also be used for the heart, the site of thoughts and feelings. This word is also used as a technical term for the entrails of the animals who are sacrificed.
CLXIX “is…awesome” = yare. Same as “be afraid” in v18. See note CXXXVIII above.
CLXX “God” = El. Same as “God” in v9. See note LXXX above.

22 The Lord your GodCLXXI will clear away these nations beforeCLXXII you littleCLXXIII by little; you will not be ableCLXXIV to make a quickCLXXV endCLXXVI of them,

Notes on verse 22a

CLXXI “God” = Elohim. Same as “God” in v1. See note II above.
CLXXII “before” = paneh. Same as “before” in v1. See note X above.
CLXXIII “little” = me’at. Same as “fewest” in v7. See note LXIII above.
CLXXIV “be able” = yakol. Same as “can” in v17. See note CXXXVI above.
CLXXV “quick” = maher. Same as “quickly” in v4. See note XLI above.
CLXXVI “make a…end” = kalah. This is to end, be finished, complete, prepare, consume, spent, or completely destroyed.

otherwiseCLXXVII the wildCLXXVIII animalsCLXXIX would become too numerousCLXXX for you. 

Notes on verse 22b

CLXXVII “otherwise” = pen. Related to “before” in v1. Perhaps from panah (see note X above). This is lest, if, or.
CLXXVIII “wild” = sadeh. This is literally field, ground, soil, or land. It can be used to mean wild like a wild animal.
CLXXIX “animals” = chay. From chayah (to live or keep alive literally or figuratively). This is alive, living, lifetime. It can also be used to describe someone’s age. It can refer to animals, plants, water, or a company or congregation of people. It is life in a very broad sense.
CLXXX “become too numerous” = rabah. Same as “multiply” in v13. See note CV above.

23 But the Lord your GodCLXXXI will give them overCLXXXII to you and throwCLXXXIII them into great panicCLXXXIV until they are destroyed.CLXXXV 

Notes on verse 23

CLXXXI “God” = Elohim. Same as “God” in v1. See note II above.
CLXXXII “over” = paneh. Same as “before” in v1. See note X above.
CLXXXIII “throw” = hamam. 14x in OT. This is being noisy, confused, thrown into confusion, trouble, cause a commotion, disturb, rout, damage, destroy.
CLXXXIV “panic” = mehumah. 12x in OT. From hum (to roar, murmur, cause an uproar, agitate, be distraught; to defeat in battle, destroy). This is panic, confusion, disturbance, trouble, or tumult.
CLXXXV “destroyed” = shamad. Same as “destroy” in v4. See note XL above.

24 He will handCLXXXVI their kings overCLXXXVII to you, and you shall blot outCLXXXVIII their nameCLXXIX from underCXC

Notes on verse 24a

CLXXXVI “hand” = natan. Same as “gives” in v2. See note XXI above.
CLXXXVII “over” = yad. Same as “hand” in v8. See note LXXI above.
CLXXXVIII “blot out” = abad. Same as {untranslated} in v10. See note LXXXVIII above.
CLXXXIX “name” = shem. Related to “inflict” in v15. May be from sim (see note CXXVII above). This is name, fame, renown. A name was thought to indicate something essential about a person – something about their individuality. So, this word can also mean honor, authority, or character.
CXC “under” = tachat. This is underneath, below, the bottom, instead of.

heaven;CXCI no oneCXCII will be able to standCXCIII againstCXCIV you until you have destroyedCXCV them. 

Notes on verse 24b

CXCI “heaven” = shamayim. Root may mean being lofty. This is sky, the air, or heaven. It is in a dual noun form so this might refer to the part of the sky where the clouds move on the one hand and the part beyond that where the sun, moon, and stars are on the other hand.
CXCII “one” = ish. Perhaps from enosh (human, humankind, mortal); from anash (to be weak, sick, or frail). This is man, husband, another, or humankind.
CXCIII “stand” = yatsab. This is to set oneself, take a stand, remain, continue, to station or set something in place.
CXCIV “against” = paneh. Same as “before” in v1. See note X above.
CXCV “destroyed” = shamad. Same as “destroy” in v4. See note XL above.

25 The imagesCXCVI of their gods you shall burn with fire. Do not covetCXCVII the silverCXCVIII or the goldCXCIX that is on them and take it for yourself,

Notes on verse 25a

CXCVI “images” = pasil. Same as “idols” in v5. See note L above.
CXCVII “covet” = chamad. This is to desire, covet, see something as precious, lust.
CXCVIII “silver” = keseph. From kasaph (to long for, be greedy; to become pale). This is silver or money.
CXCIX “gold” = zahab. Root may mean to shimmer. This is gold or something that has the color of gold like oil. It can also refer to a clear sky – to good weather.

becauseCC you could be ensnaredCCI by it, for it is abhorrentCCII to the Lord your God.CCIII 

Notes on verse 25b

CC “because” = pen. Same as “otherwise” in v22. See note CLXXVII above.
CCI “ensnared” = yaqosh. Related to “snare” in v16. 8x in OT. See note CXXXIII above.
CCII “abhorrent” = toebah. Perhaps from taab (to abhor or morally detest). This is something that instills one with moral contempt or disgust. It can mean abhorrence and is often in reference to idolatry or idols.
CCIII “God” = Elohim. Same as “God” in v1. See note II above.

26 Do not bringCCIV an abhorrent thing into your house, or you will be set apart for destructionCCV like it. You must utterly detestCCVI and abhorCCVII it, for it is set apart for destruction.

Notes on verse 26

CCIV “bring” = bo. Same as “brings” in v1. See note III above.
CCV “set apart for destruction” = cherem. Related to “utterly destroy” in v2. From charam (see note XXIV above). This is something shut in like a net. Figuratively, it refers to something that is devoted to God or under a ban, often for destruction.
CCVI “utterly detest” = shaqats + shaqats. 7x in OT. Perhaps from sheqets (abhorrent, detestable thing; filth; figuratively an object used for idolatry). This is to detest, be filthy, pollute, cause to be abominable. The word is repeated twice – the first time as an Infinitive Absolute. The Infinitive Absolute serves to emphasize the sentiment of the word. It is rather like Foghorn Leghorn’s speech pattern, “I said, I said.”
CCVII “abhor” = taab + taab. Related to “abhorrent” in v25. See note CCII above. The word is repeated twice – the first time as an Infinitive Absolute. The Infinitive Absolute serves to emphasize the sentiment of the word. It is rather like Foghorn Leghorn’s speech pattern, “I said, I said.”

Image credit: “Joshua and the Longest Day” from the Lion Comic Book Hero Bible by Jeff Anderson, Siku, and Richard Thomas of The Edge Group – Lion Hudson, 2015.

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