Deuteronomy 8

Deuteronomy 8


“The entireI commandmentII that I commandIII you todayIV

Notes on verse 1a

I “entire” = kol. From kalal (to complete). This is all or every.
II “commandment” = mitsvah. From tsavah (to charge, command, order, enjoin). This is a commandment, law, ordinance obligation, or tradition. It is something commanded whether by God or by a human authority. This term is sometimes used collectively to refer to the Law.
III “command” = tsavah. Related to “commandment” in v1. See note II above.
IV “today” = yom. Root may mean being hot. This is the day in a literal or figurative sense. It can also mean birth, age, daylight, continually or other references to time.

you must diligently observe,V so that you may liveVI and increaseVII and go inVIII and occupyIX

Notes on verse 1b

V “diligently observe” = shamar + asah. Shamar is to keep, watch, or preserve. It means to guard something or to protect it as a thorny hedge protects something. Asah is to make, do, act, appoint, become in many senses.
VI “live” = chayah. This is to live or keep alive in a literal or figurative sense. So, it can be revive, nourish, or save.
VII “increase” = rabah. This is increasing in any aspect whether quantity, authority, size, quality, greatness, etc.
VIII “go in” = bo. This is to enter, come in, advance, fulfill, bring offerings, enter to worship, attack. It can also have a sexual connotation.
IX “occupy” = yarash. This is inheriting or dispossessing. It refers to occupying or colonizing – taking territory by driving out the previous inhabitants and living there instead of them. By implication, it can mean to seize or rob, to expel, ruin, or impoverish.

the landX that the LordXI promised on oathXII to your ancestors.XIII 

Notes on verse 1c

X “land” = erets. Root may mean to be firm. This is earth, ground, field land, or country.
XI “Lord” = YHVH. From havah (to be, become) or hayah (to come to pass, become, be). This is the name of the God of Israel, the self-existent and eternal one, the tetragrammaton. This pronunciation has been lost to time so “Lord” is generally used in its place.
XII “promised on oath” = shaba. Perhaps from sheba (seven – the number of perfection/sacred fullness). This is to swear, curse, vow, make a covenant. Properly, it can mean to be complete. This is to seven oneself – as in affirming something so strongly it is as though it were said seven times.
XIII “ancestors” = ab. This is father, chief, or ancestor. It is father in a literal or figurative sense.

RememberXIV the longXV wayXVI that the Lord your GodXVII has ledXVIII you

Notes on verse 2a

XIV “remember” = zakar. This is to remember, to mark something so that it can be recalled, to be mindful of, to mention.
XV “long” = kol. Same as “entire” in v1. See note I above.
XVI “way” = derek. From darak (to tread, march, to walk. Can also mean affixing a string to a box since one needs to step on it to bend it in the process; so also an archer). This is a road as a thing that is walked on. Can be used figuratively for the path that one’s life takes or how one chooses to live one’s life.
XVII “God” = Elohim.
XVIII “led” = halak. This is go, come, walk. It is walk literally and figuratively and includes people and animals. It can be used figuratively for one’s moral life – how we walk according to God’s way or against it. It can also refer to the walk of life as in the course one’s life takes, the choices we make, etc.

these fortyXIX yearsXX in the wilderness,XXI in order to humbleXXII you,

Notes on verse 2b

XIX “forty” = arbaim. From the same as arba (four); from raba (to make square or be four-sided); perhaps from raba (to lie down flat; can be to lie for mating). This is forty.
XX “years” = shanah. From shana (to change, alter). This is a year, age, old. It can also mean yearly.
XXI “wilderness” = midbar. From dabar (to speak, command, declare). This is mouth or speech. It can also be desert or wilderness. Additionally, it can be used for a pasture to which one drives cattle.
XXII “humble” = anah. This is to be occupied with. It can also be bowed down. It can refer to a sense of humility or to a sense of being browbeaten, oppressed, afflicted, or depressed. This can be literal or figurative – depressed in mood or circumstance.

testingXXIII you to knowXXIV what was in your heart,XXV whether or not you would keepXXVI his commandments. 

Notes on verse 2c

XXIII “testing” = nasah. This is to test, prove, try, tempt, or attempt.
XXIV “know” = yada. This is to know, acknowledge, advise, answer, be aware, be acquainted with. Properly, this is to figure something out by seeing. It includes ideas of observation, recognition, and care about something. It can be used causatively for instruction, designation, and punishment.
XXV “heart” = lebab. May be related to labab (to encourage; properly, to be encased as with fat; used in a good sense, this means to transport someone with love; used in a bad sense, it can mean to dull one’s senses). This is the heart, courage, one’s inner self, the mind, or the will. Heart is only used in a figurative sense in the Old and New Testaments.
XXVI “keep” = shamar. Same as “diligently observe” in v1. See note V above.

He humbled you by letting you hunger,XXVII then by feedingXXVIII you with manna,XXIX with which neither youXXX nor your ancestors were acquainted,XXXI

Notes on verse 3a

XXVII “letting…hunger” = raeb. 17x in OT. This is to be hungry or famished.
XXVIII “feeding” = akal. This is to eat, devour, burn up, or otherwise consume. It can be eating in a literal or figurative sense.
XXIX “manna” = man. 14x in OT. From mah (what, how, how long, why – a question or exclamation). This is manna, literally a whatzit.
XXX {untranslated} = yada. Same as “know” in v2. See note XXIV above.
XXXI “acquainted” = yada. Same as “know” in v2. See note XXIV above.

in order to make you understandXXXII that oneXXXIII does not live by breadXXXIV aloneXXXV

Notes on verse 3b

XXXII “make…understand” = yada. Same as “know” in v2. See note XXIV above.
XXXIII “one” = adam. Perhaps from adam (to be red, make ruddy); related to adamah (ground, dirt, earth). This is man, humankind, also Adam’s name. It refers to a human individual or humanity.
XXXIV “bread” = lechem. From lacham (to eat, feed on). This is bread, food, loaf. It can refer to food more generally for people or for animals.
XXXV “alone” = bad. From badad (to divide or be separated; alone, solitary, lonely, isolated, straggler). This is apart, alone, separation, body part, tree branch, except. It can also be a city’s chief.

but by everyXXXVI word that comes fromXXXVII the mouthXXXVIII of the Lord.XXXIX 

Notes on verse 3c

XXXVI “every” = kol. Same as “entire” in v1. See note I above.
XXXVII “word that comes from” = motsa. From yatsa (to go or come out, bring forth, appear; to go out in a literal or figurative sense). This is going forth as an act or the site from which something goes forth. It could mean exiting a place or the place where one exits. It can also be a source or a produce. Specifically, it can be a spring or fountain, the dawn as the rising of the sin, an export, gate mine, and so on.
XXXVIII “mouth” = peh. This is mouth in a literal or figurative sense. So, more literally, it can be beak or jaws. More figuratively, it refers to speech, commands, or promises.
XXXIX {untranslated} = chayah + adam. Literally, “one lives.” Chayah is the same as “live” in v1. See note VI above. Adam is the same as “one” in v3. See note XXXIII above.

The clothesXL on your back did not wear out,XLI and your feetXLII did not swellXLIII these forty years. 

Notes on verse 4

XL “clothes” = simlah. Perhaps from semel (image, figure, likeness). This is mantle, clothes, wrapper.
XLI “wear out” = balah. 17x in OT. This is to grow old, wear out, consume, waste, enjoy, fail, decay.
XLII “feet” = regel. This is foot, endurance, or journey. It is a foot as the means of walking and so it implies a step or a greater journey. It can be used euphemistically for private parts.
XLIII “swell” = batseq. 2x in OT. This is to swell or blister.

Know, then, in your heart that, as a parentXLIV disciplinesXLV a child,XLVI so the Lord your God disciplines you. Therefore keep the commandments of the LordXLVII your God by walkingXLVIII in his ways and by fearingXLIX him. 

Notes on verses 5-6

XLIV “parent” = ish. Perhaps from enosh (human, humankind, mortal); from anash (to be weak, sick, or frail). This is man, husband, another, or humankind.
XLV “disciplines” = yasar. This is to discipline, correct, train, teach, punish. Literally, it is disciplining with blows, but figuratively using words.
XLVI “child” = ben. From banah (to build or obtain children). This is son, age, child. It is son in a literal or figurative sense.
XLVII “Lord” = YHVH. Related to “Lord” in v1. From the same as YHVH (see note XI above). This is a secondary spelling of the Lord, the name of the God of Israel. It has the same meaning.
XLVIII “walking” = halak. Same as “led” in v2. See note XVIII above.
XLIX “fearing” = yare. This is to fear, be afraid, dreadful. It can also refer to fearful reverence – to fear in a moral sense is to say to revere, respect.

For the LordL your God is bringingLI you into a goodLII land,

Notes on verse 7a

L “Lord” = YHVH. Same as “Lord” in v1. See note XI above.
LI “bringing” = bo. Same as “go in” in v1. See note VIII above.
LII “good” = tob. From tob (to be pleasing, to be good). This is good, beautiful, pleasant, agreeable, bountiful, at ease. This word is used for goodness as a concept, a good thing, a good person. This can refer to prosperity and welfare as well as joy, kindness, sweetness, and graciousness. So, this is ethically good, but also enjoyably good.

a land with flowing streams,LIII with springsLIV and underground watersLV

Notes on verse 7b

LIII “flowing streams” = nachal + mayim. Literally, “streams of water.” Nachal is from nachal (to take as heritage, inherit, or distribute). This is a river or stream. It could be a wadi or arroyo – sometimes a narrow valley with no water at all, but in strong rains or when winter snow melts, it swells or floods with water. Mayim is water, waters, or waterway in a general sense. Figuratively, it can also mean juice, urine, or semen.
LIV “springs” = ayin. This is eye in a literal or figurative sense so eye, appearance, favor, or a fountain (the eye of the landscape).
LV “underground waters” = tehom. Perhaps from hum (to roar, murmur, cause an uproar, agitate; to defeat in battle, destroy). This is the deep or the abyss. Either understood as a formless empty place of nothingness or as a place of confusion filled with water – the deep the feeds the waters of the earth.

welling upLVI in valleysLVII and hills,LVIII a land of wheatLIX and barley,LX

Notes on verses 7c-8a

LVI “welling up” = yatsa. Related to “word that comes from” in v13. See note XXXVII above.
LVII “valleys” = biqah. From baqa (to divide, split open, tear, breach, break open, dash to pieces). This is a valley or plain. Properly, it refers to a place where the mountains have split – a wide, flat valley between them.
LVIII “hills” = har. From harar (hill or mountain). This is mountain, hill, hilly region.
LIX “wheat” = chittah. Perhaps from chanat (to spice, ripen, embalm). This is wheat, referring to the plant or its product.
LX “barley” = seorah. From the same as sear (hair, hairy, rough); perhaps from sa’ar (to storm, scattered by a storm, blow away, rage, storm tossed; this is to toss in a literal or figurative sense). This is barley, perhaps as hairy.

of vinesLXI and fig trees and pomegranates,LXII a land of oliveLXIII oilLXIV and honey,LXV 

Notes on verse 8b

LXI “vines” = gephen. Root may mean to twine or bend. So, it is a vine, particularly referring to grapes.
LXII “pomegranates” = rimmon. Of foreign origin OR from ramam (to rise in a literal or figurative sense; to get up or exalt). This is a pomegranate or a decoration in that shape. It can also refer to the pomegranate tree.
LXIII “olive” = zayit. This is olive tree, grove, or other parts of the olive tree like the branch or berry.
LXIV “oil” = shemen. From shamen (to shine, which implies being oily, growing fat). This is fat, oil, grease, olive oil – often with perfume. Used figuratively for fertile, lavish, rich.
LXV “honey” = debash. Root may mean being gummy. This is honey or honeycomb because it is so sticky. It can also refer to syrup.

a land where you may eatLXVI bread without scarcity,LXVII where you will lackLXVIII nothing,LXIX a land whose stonesLXX are ironLXXI

Notes on verse 9a

LXVI “eat” = akal. Same as “feeding” in v3. See note XXVIII above.
LXVII “scarcity” = miskenuth. 1x in OT. From the same as misken (poor, poor person); maybe akin to sikluth (foolishness, silliness); from sakal (to be foolish); from kasal (being or becoming stupid or foolish; properly, being fat and so figuratively silly or foolish). This is poverty or scarcity.
LXVIII “lack” = chaser. This is to lack, abate, have need of, bereave, fail.
LXIX “nothing” = lokol. Kol is the same as “entire” in v1. See note I above.
LXX “stones” = eben. This is a stone, weight, or mason. It is part of the word “Ebenezer.”
LXXI “iron” = barzel. From the same as Birzoth (a name meaning holes). Root may mean to pierce. This is iron as something used as a cutting implement. It can also specifically mean ax head.

and from whose hillsLXXII you may mineLXXIII copper.LXXIV 

Notes on verse 9b

LXXII “hills” = harar. Related to “hills” in v7. 12x in OT. See note LVIII above.
LXXIII “mine” = chatsab. This is to hew or cut material like wood or stone. It can also be to dig, quarry, split, or engrave.
LXXIV “copper” = nechosheth. Perhaps from nechushah (copper, bronze, brass – something made from this metal like a coin or fetter; something that is considered base in contrast to gold or silver.; from nachush (made of bronze or brass, coppery; figuratively, hard); from nachash (to divine, interpret omens, learn from experience, observe; to hiss). This is bronze, copper, steel, brass or something made from copper. So, it could be a coin or chains. It can also figuratively mean something considered lesser in contrast to gold or silver.

10 You shall eat your fillLXXV and blessLXXVI the LordLXXVII your God for the good land that he has givenLXXVIII you.

Notes on verse 10

LXXV “fill” = saba. To be satisfied or full in a literal or figurative sense. Also, to have plenty of.
LXXVI “bless” = barak. This is to kneel, to bless. It is blessing God as part of worship and adoration or blessing humans to help them. It can be used as a euphemism to say curse God.
LXXVII “Lord” = YHVH. Same as “Lord” in v1. See note XI above.
LXXVIII “given” = natan. This is to give, put, set, offer. It is to give literally or figuratively.

11 “Take careLXXIX that you do notLXXX forgetLXXXI the LordLXXXII your God

Notes on verse 11a

LXXIX “take care” = shamar. Same as “diligently observe” in v1. See note V above.
LXXX “not” = pen. Perhaps from panah (to turn, face, appear). This is lest, if, or.
LXXXI “forget” = shakach. This is to forget because of not remembering something or not paying attention to it. It can also mean to mislay.
LXXXII “Lord” = YHVH. Same as “Lord” in v1. See note XI above.

by failingLXXXIII to keep his commandments, his ordinances,LXXXIV and his statutesLXXXV that I am commanding you today. 

Notes on verse 11b

LXXXIII “failing” = bilti. Related to “wear out” in v4. From balah (see note XLI above). This is nothing, not, lest, or except. From its root, it means “a failure of” – used for negative particles.
LXXXIV “ordinances” = mishpat. From shaphat (to judge, defend, pronounce judgment, condemn, govern). This is a verdict or formal sentence whether from humans or from God. It includes the act of judging as well as the place that judging takes place, the suit itself, and the penalty. Abstractly, this is justice, which includes the rights of the participants.
LXXXV “statutes” = chuqqah. From choq (statute, boundary, condition, custom, limit, ordinance; something that is prescribed or something that is owed); from chaqaq (to inscribe, carve, or decree; a lawmaker; literally, this is engraving, but it implies enacting a law because laws were carved into stone or metal). This is something prescribed such as a statue, custom, or ordinance.

12 WhenLXXXVI you have eaten your fill and have builtLXXXVII fineLXXXVIII housesLXXXIX and liveXC in them 

Notes on verse 12

LXXXVI “when” = pen. Same as “not” in v11. See note LXXX above.
LXXXVII “built” = banah. Related to “child” in v5 & “houses” in v12. See note XLVI above.
LXXXVIII “fine” = tob. Same as “good” in v7. See note LII above.
LXXXIX “houses” = bayit. Related to “child” in v5. Probably from banah (see note XLVI above). This is house, court, family, palace, temple.
XC “live” = yashab. This is to sit and so to remain and so to dwell. It is sitting for any reason – as a judge, in order to ambush, or just sitting quietly. Causatively, this can mean settling or marrying. This can also mean continue, endure, or establish.

13 and when your herdsXCI and flocksXCII have multipliedXCIII and your silverXCIV and goldXCV is multiplied and allXCVI that you have is multiplied, 

Notes on verse 13

XCI “herds” = baqar. From baqar (to plow, break forth; figuratively, to inquire, inspect, consider). This is cattle – an animal used for plowing.
XCII “flocks” = tson. This is a flock of sheep and goats.
XCIII “multiplied” = rabah. Same as “increase” in v1. See note VII above.
XCIV “silver” = keseph. From kasaph (to long for, be greedy; to become pale). This is silver or money.
XCV “gold” = zahab. Root may mean to shimmer. This is gold or something that has the color of gold like oil. It can also refer to a clear sky – to good weather.
XCVI “all” = kol. Same as “entire” in v1. See note I above.

14 then do not exaltXCVII yourself,XCVIII forgetting the LordXCIX your God, who broughtC you out of the land of Egypt,CI out of the house of slavery,CII 

Notes on verse 14

XCVII “exalt” = rum. This is to rise or raise, to be high literally or figuratively. So it can also mean to exalt or extol.
XCVIII “yourself” = lebab. Same as “heart” in v2. See note XXV above.
XCIX “Lord” = YHVH. Same as “Lord” in v1. See note XI above.
C “brought” = yatsa. Same as “welling up” in v7. See note LVI above.
CI “Egypt” = Mitsrayim. Perhaps from matsor (besieged or fortified place, bulwark, entrenchment; something hemmed in; a siege or distress or fastness); from tsur (to confine, besiege, to cramp). This is Egypt.
CII “slavery” = ebed. From abad (to work, serve, compel; any kind of work; used causatively, can mean to enslave or keep in bondage). This is a servant, slave, or bondservant.

15 who led you through the greatCIII and terribleCIV wilderness, an aridCV wastelandCVI

Notes on verse 15a

CIII “great” = gadol. From gadal (to grow up, become great, become wealthy – to advance. The root meaning may be to twist in the sense of the process of growing). This is great, high, bigger, noble, old, marvelous. It can also refer to someone who is powerful or distinguished.
CIV “terrible” = yare. Same as “fearing” in v6. See note XLIX above.
CV “arid” = asher + ayin + mayim. Literally, “where there was no water.” Ayin is perhaps from a word that means to be nothing. This means nothing, none, non-existent. It can also simply mean not or are not. Mayim is the same as “flowing streams” in v7. See note LIII above.
CVI “wasteland” = tsimmaon. 3x in OT. From tsame (to thirst in a literal or figurative sense). This is a place that is thirsty. So, it could refer to a drought or desert.

with poisonousCVII snakesCVIII and scorpions.CIX He made waterCX flowCXI for you from flintCXII rock.CXIII 

Notes on verse 15b

CVII “poisonous” = saraph. 7x in OT. From saraph (to burn or kindle). This is burning or fiery, i.e. poisonous. It can be a serpent or a seraph.
CVIII “snakes” = nachash. Related to “copper’ in v9. Perhaps from nachash (see note LXXIV above). This is a serpent or snake. Used for the Serpent in the garden of Eden.
CIX “scorpions” = aqrab. 6x in OT. From aqar (to uproot, pluck out, dig out by the roots, to hamstring; figuratively, to exterminate). This is scorpion, whip.
CX “water” = mayim. Same as “flowing streams” in v7. See note LIII above.
CXI “made…flow” = yatsa. Same as “welling up” in v7. See note LVI above.
CXII “flint” = challamish. 5x in OT. Perhaps from chalam (properly, to bind solidly and so to be plump; to be healthy or strong, to recover; figuratively, to dream). This is flint or a flint rock.
CXIII “rock” = tsur. Related to “Egypt” in v14. From tsur (see note CI above). This is rock, stone, cliff, boulder, rocky. It can also be a refuge, a way to refer to God.

16 He fed you in the wilderness with manna that your ancestors did not know, to humble you and to test you and in the endCXIV to do you good.CXV 17 Do not sayCXVI to yourself,CXVII ‘My powerCXVIII

Notes on verses 16-17a

CXIV “end” = acharith. From achar (to be behind, delay, be late, procrastinate, continue). This is the last, length, remnant, end, reward, future.
CXV “do…good” = yatab. This is to be good or pleasing, joyful. It can also mean doing good in an ethical sense or be beautiful, happy, successful, or right.
CXVI “say” = amar. This is to speak, say, answer, command, promise, report.
CXVII “yourself” = lebab. Same as “heart” in v2. See note XXV above.
CXVIII “power” = koach. Root may mean to be firm. This is power, strength, force. It can be literal or figurative, positive or negative. It can also mean capacity or means – what something produces. Additionally, it could refer to some kind of small reptile.

and the mightCXIX of my own handCXX have gottenCXXI me this wealth.’CXXII 

Notes on verse 17b

CXIX “might” = otsem. 3x in OT. From atsam (vast, numerous, strong; to close one’s eyes, to make powerful; to break bones). This is bones, strength, power, body, substance, frame.
CXX “hand” = yad. This is hand, ability, power. Hand in a literal sense, but also what one can do or the means by which one does it.
CXXI “gotten” = asah. Same as “diligently observe” in v1. See note V above.
CXXII “wealth” = chayil. From chul (to be firm, strong, prosperous; to endure). This is strength, wealth, ability, activity. It can refer to soldier or a company of soldiers as well as goods. It is a force of people, means, or goods. It can speak of valor, virtue, or strength.

18 But remember the LordCXXIII your God, for it is he who gives you power to get wealth, so that he may confirmCXXIV his covenantCXXV that he sworeCXXVI to your ancestors, as he is doing today. 

Notes on verse 18

CXXIII “Lord” = YHVH. Same as “Lord” in v1. See note XI above.
CXXIV “confirm” = qum. To arise, stand, accomplish, establish, abide. This is rising as in rising against, getting up after being sick or asleep, arising from one state to another, becoming powerful, or rising for action. It can also be standing in a figurative sense.
CXXV “covenant” = berit. Perhaps from barah (to eat, choose, make clear); perhaps from bar (grain, wheat); from barar (to select, purify, cleanse, test, brighten, polish). This is a compact, covenant, alliance, treaty, or league.
CXXVI “swore” = shaba. Same as “promised on oath” in v1. See note XII above.

19 CXXVIIIf you do forgetCXXVIII the LordCXXIX your God and followCXXX otherCXXXI godsCXXXII

Notes on verse 19a

CXXVII {untranslated} = hayah. Related to “Lord” in v1 & “Lord” in v6. See note XI above.
CXXVIII “forget” = shakach + shakach. Same as “forget” in v11. See note LXXXI above. The word is repeated twice – the first time as an Infinitive Absolute. The Infinitive Absolute serves to emphasize the sentiment of the word. It is rather like Foghorn Leghorn’s speech pattern, “I said, I said.”
CXXIX “Lord” = YHVH. Same as “Lord” in v1. See note XI above.
CXXX “follow” = halak + achar. Halak is the same as “led” in v2. See note XVIII above. Achar is related to “end” in v16. From achar (to remain behind, linger, continue, be behind, or delay; can also imply procrastination). This is after or the last part, following.
CXXXI “other” = acher. Related to “end” in v16 & “follow” in v19.
CXXXII “gods” = elohim. Same as “God” in v2. See note XVII above.

to serveCXXXIII and worshipCXXXIV them, I solemnly warnCXXXV you today that you shall surely perish.CXXXVI 

Notes on verse 19b

CXXXIII “serve” = abad. Related to “slavery” in v14. See note CII above.
CXXXIV “worship” = shachah. This is to bow down, make a humble entreaty, to do homage to royalty or to God.
CXXXV “solemnly warn” = ud. This is to repeat, return, do again. This implies testifying something since that is a repetition. It can also mean to charge, admonish, protest, relieve, restore, or lift up.
CXXXVI “surely perish” = abad + abad. To wander off, lose self. This implies to perish, destroy, die, vanish, or be broken or corrupt. The word is repeated twice – the first time as an Infinitive Absolute. The Infinitive Absolute serves to emphasize the sentiment of the word. It is rather like Foghorn Leghorn’s speech pattern, “I said, I said.”

20 Like the nationsCXXXVII that the LordCXXXVIII is destroyingCXXXIX beforeCXL you, soCXLI shall you perish,

Notes on verse 20a

CXXXVII “nations” = goy. From the same root as gevah (the back, person, or body); related to gev (among); related to gaah (to rise up). This is nation or people. Often used to refer to Gentiles or foreign nations. It can also be used figuratively for a group of animals. This is where the Yiddish “goy” comes from.
CXXXVIII “Lord” = YHVH. Same as “Lord” in v1. See note XI above.
CXXXIX “destroying” = abad. Same as “surely perish” in v19. See note CXXXVI above.
CXL “before” = paneh. Related to “not” in v11. From panah (see note LXXX above). This is face in a literal or figurative sense. It could be face, presence, anger, respect. It can also be used of God to indicate divine favor or presence.
CXLI “so” = ken. Perhaps from kun (properly, in a perpendicular position; literally, to establish, fix, fasten, prepare; figuratively, it is certainty, to be firm, faithfulness, render sure or prosperous). This is to set upright. Generally used figuratively to mean thus, so, afterwards, rightly so.

becauseCXLII you would not obeyCXLIII the voiceCXLIV of the LordCXLV your God.

Notes on verse 20b

CXLII “because” = eqeb. 15x in OT. Perhaps from aqab (to assail, supplant, overreach, follow or grab someone’s heel, to trip someone up); perhaps from aqeb (heel, hind part, hoof, rear guard of an army, one who lies in wait, usurper). This is a heel as the final part of something i.e. the result, consequence, or reward. It can also be used as an adverb to mean as ever.
CXLIII “obey” = shama. This is to hear, call, consent, or consider. It implies listening intelligently, giving attention, and, because of these two factors, obedience and action are often implied.
CXLIV “voice” = qol. This is a sound, used often for human voices. Also used when God speaks or angels, animals or instruments. It can be a cry or a noise, thunder or earthquakes and so on.
CXLV “Lord” = YHVH. Same as “Lord” in v1. See note XI above.

Image credit: “Flowing with Milk and Honey” by Julie Jablonski, 2016.

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