Exodus 14

Exodus 14


Then the LordI saidII to Moses:III 

Notes on verse 1

I “Lord” = YHVH. From havah (to be, become) or hayah (to come to pass, become, be). This is the name of the God of Israel, the self-existent and eternal one, the tetragrammaton. This pronunciation has been lost to time so “Lord” is generally used in its place.
II “said” = dabar. This is generally to speak, answer, declare, or command. It might mean to arrange and so to speak in a figurative sense as arranging words.
III “Moses” = Mosheh. From mashah (to pull out in a literal or figurative sense, to draw out) OR from Egyptian mes or mesu (child, son i.e. child of…). This is Moses – the one drawn out from the water, which is to say, rescued. If derived from the Egyptian, his name would share a root with Rameses and Thutmose.

2 TellIV the IsraelitesV to turn backVI and campVII in front ofVIII Pi-hahiroth,IX

Notes on verse 2a

IV “tell” = dabar. Same as “said” in v1. See note II above.
V “Israelites” = ben + Yisrael. Literally, “children of Israel.” Ben is from banah (to build or obtain children). This is son, age, child. It is son in a literal or figurative sense. Yisrael is from sarah (to persist, exert oneself, contend, persevere, wrestle, prevail) + el (God or god). This is Israel, meaning God strives or one who strives with God; new name for Jacob and for his offspring. This refers to the people and to the land.
VI “turn back” = shub. To turn back, return, turn away – literally or figuratively. Doesn’t necessarily imply going back to where you started from. This is also the root verb for the Hebrew word for repentance “teshubah.”
VII “camp” = chanah. This is decline, bending down, or living in tents. It can be camping to create a home or camping as a part of battle.
VIII “in front of” = paneh. From panah (to turn, face, appear). This is face in a literal or figurative sense. It could be face, presence, anger, respect. It can also be used of God to indicate divine favor or presence.
IX “Pi-hahiroth” = Pi Hachiroth. 4x in OT. Perhaps from Egyptian pr (house) + uncertain OR perhaps from peh (mouth in a literal or figurative sense; literally, beak or jaws; figuratively, speech, commands, or promises); {from pa’ah (to cut in pieces, scatter, blow away)} + the same as chor (a hole, den, cavity); {from the same as chur (hole; a hole that was bored; a crevice where a snake lives; the cell of a prison)}. This is Pi-hahiroth or Hahiroth. It may mean “mouth of the gorges” or “mouth of the caverns” or “edge of the hollows” or “rudiments of nobility” or “place of meadows.” See https://www.abarim-publications.com/Meaning/Pi-hahiroth.html

betweenX MigdolXI and the sea,XII in front of Baal-zephon;XIII you shall camp oppositeXIV it, by the sea. 

Notes on verse 2b

X “between” = bayin. From bin (to discern, consider, attend to; distinguishing things in one’s mind or, more generally, to understand). This is among, between, interval.
XI “Migdol” = Migdol. 6x in OT. Probably from gadal (to grow up, become great, become wealthy – to advance. The root meaning may be to twist in the sense of the process of growing) OR it may be from Egyptian. This is Migdol, which may mean “tower.”
XII “sea” = yam. Root may mean to roar. This is the sea, often referring to the Mediterranean. It comes from the root in the sense of the roar of crashing surf. This word is sometimes used for rivers or other sources of water. It can mean to the west or to the south.
XIII “Baal-zephon” = Baal Tsephon. 3x in OT. From Baal (Baal, used for several Canaanite gods; literally, “lord”); {from the same as baal (owner, master, husband); from baal (to marry, have dominion over, to master)}} + perhaps tsaphon (properly hidden, dark, or gloomy; the north); {from tsaphan (to hide, hoard, reserve; to cover over or figuratively to deny; also to lurk).}. This is Baal-zephon or Baal Tsephon. A place whose name means, “Baal of winter” or “Lord of the Hidden Things” or “Lord of the North” or “Lord of Darkness” or “Place of Typhon.” See https://www.abarim-publications.com/Meaning/Baal-zephon.html
XIV “opposite” = nekach. 2x in OT. From the same as nokach (before, ahead of, the front). This is opposite or before.

PharaohXV will say of the Israelites, “They are wandering aimlesslyXVI in the land;XVII the wildernessXVIII has closed inXIX on them.” 

Notes on verse 3

XV “Pharaoh” = Paroh. From Egyptian pr (palace, pharaoh; literally house + great). This is Pharaoh, a title for Egyptian kings. See https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/pharaoh
XVI “wandering aimlessly” = buk. 3x in OT. This is to confuse or involve. It can also refer to wandering without a destination. This can be used literally or figuratively.
XVII “land” = erets. Root may mean to be firm. This is earth, ground, field land, or country.
XVIII “wilderness” = midbar. Related to “said” in v1. From dabar (see note II above). This is mouth or speech. It can also be desert or wilderness. Additionally, it can be used for a pasture to which one drives cattle.
XIX “closed in” = sagar. This is to shut up, imprison, lock, hand over, or figuratively surrender.

4 I will hardenXX Pharaoh’s heart,XXI and he will pursueXXII them, so that I will gain gloryXXIII for myself

Notes on verse 4a

XX “harden” = chazaq. This is to strengthen, seize, be courageous, repair, bind, heal, conquer, harden.
XXI “heart” = leb. May be related to labab (to encourage; properly, to be encased as with fat; used in a good sense, this means to transport someone with love; used in a bad sense, it can mean to dull one’s senses). This is the heart, courage, one’s inner self, the mind, or the will. Heart is only used in a figurative sense in the Old and New Testaments.
XXII “pursue” = radaph. This is to chase after, pursue, hunt, or persecute. It is running after someone or something, generally with hostile motives.
XXIII “gain glory” = kabad. To be heavy, weighty, or severe. It can also be positive abounding in, rich, or honorable. The Hebrew word for “glory,” kabod, is taken from this root.

over Pharaoh and allXXIV his army;XXV and the EgyptiansXXVI shall knowXXVII that I am the Lord. And they didXXVIII so.XXIX

Notes on verse 4b

XXIV “all” = kol. From kalal (to complete). This is all or every.
XXV “army” = chel. From chul (whirling around so dancing as in a circle or writhing in pain; used particularly for the pain of childbirth or from writhing due to fear; can also be falling in pain or waiting) OR from chayil (strength, wealth, ability, activity; a soldier or a company of soldiers; goods; a force of people, means, or goods; valor, virtue, or strength); from chul (to be firm, strong, prosperous; to endure). This is an army, entrenchment, fortress, wall, or host.
XXVI “Egyptians” = Mitsri. From the same as mitsrayim (Egypt); perhaps from matsor (besieged or fortified place, bulwark, entrenchment; something hemmed in; a siege or distress or fastness); from tsur (to confine, besiege, to cramp). This is Egyptian.
XXVII “know” = yada. This is to know, acknowledge, advise, answer, be aware, be acquainted with. Properly, this is to figure something out by seeing. It includes ideas of observation, recognition, and care about something. It can be used causatively for instruction, designation, and punishment.
XXVIII “did” = asah. This is to make, do, act, appoint, become in many senses.
XXIX “so” = ken. Perhaps from kun (properly, in a perpendicular position; literally, to establish, fix, fasten, prepare; figuratively, it is certainty, to be firm, faithfulness, render sure or prosperous). This is to set upright. Generally used figuratively to mean thus, so, afterwards, rightly so.

When the kingXXX of EgyptXXXI was toldXXXII that the peopleXXXIII had fled,XXXIV

Notes on verse 5a

XXX “king” = melek. From malak (to be or become king or queen, to rise to the throne, to be crowned; by implication, to take counsel). This is king or royal.
XXXI “Egypt” = Mitsrayim. Related to “Egyptians” in v4. See note XXVI above.
XXXII “told” = nagad. This is to declare, make conspicuous, stand in front, manifest, predict, explain.
XXXIII “people” = am. From amam (to darken, hide, associate; creating shadows by huddling together). This is people or nation. It can be used specifically for a tribe, collectively of troops or armies, or figuratively to refer to a flock of animals.
XXXIV “fled” = barach. This is to flee, drive away, hurry, to bolt.

the mindsXXXV of Pharaoh and his officialsXXXVI were changedXXXVII toward the people, and they said, “What have we done, letting Israel leaveXXXVIII our service?”XXXIX 

Notes on verse 5b

XXXV “minds” = lebab. Related to “heart” in v4. Related to leb (see note XXI above). This word has the same meaning.
XXXVI “officials” = ebed. From abad (to work, serve, compel; any kind of work; used causatively, can mean to enslave or keep in bondage). This is a servant, slave, or bondservant.
XXXVII “changed” = haphak. This is to turn, overturn, change, return, turn over, pervert.
XXXVIII “letting…leave” = shalach. This is to send out, away, send for, forsake. It can also mean to divorce or set a slave free.
XXXIX “service” = abad. Related to “officials” in v5. See note XXXVI above.

So he had his chariotXL made ready,XLI and tookXLII his armyXLIII with him; 7 he took sixXLIV hundredXLV pickedXLVI chariots and all the other chariots of Egypt with officersXLVII over all of them. 

Notes on verses 6-7

XL “chariot” = rekeb. From rakab (to ride an animal or in some vehicle; also, bringing on a horse). This is a vehicle, wagon, or chariot. It can be cavalry or an individual rider.
XLI “made ready” = asar. This is to tie, yoke, bind, or fasten. It can mean to harness an animal, to join in fighting a battle, or to imprison someone.
XLII “took” = laqach. This is to take, accept, carry away, receive. It can also have the sense of take a wife or take in marriage.
XLIII “army” = am. Same as “people” in v5. See note XXXIII above.
XLIV “six” = shesh. This is six. Figuratively, it can be a surplus since it is one more than the number of fingers on the hand.
XLV “hundred” = meah. This is hundred or some number times one hundred (i.e. hundredfold or the base of two hundred, three hundred, etc.).
XLVI “picked” = bachur. From bachar (to choose, appoint, try, excellent). This is choice, chosen, selected. It is a youth or young man.
XLVII “officers” = shaliysh. 17x in OT. From shalosh (three, fork, triad). This is literally a third. So, it could refer to some kind of musical instrument like a triangle or a lute with three strings. It could also refer to a triple measure. Additionally, it could be a highly ranked person like a captain, lord, or prince.

8 The Lord hardened the heart of Pharaoh king of Egypt and he pursued the Israelites, whoXLVIII were going outXLIX boldly.L The Egyptians pursued them, all Pharaoh’s horsesLI and chariots, his chariot driversLII and his army;LIII they overtookLIV them camped by the sea, by Pi-hahiroth, in front of Baal-zephon.

Notes on verses 8-9

XLVIII {untranslated} = ben + Yisrael. Same as “Israelites” in v2. See note V above.
XLIX “going out” = yatsa. This is to go or come out, bring forth, appear. It is to go out in a literal or figurative sense.
L “boldly” = yad + rum. Yad is hand, ability, power. Hand in a literal sense, but also what one can do or the means by which one does it. Rum is to rise or raise, to be high literally or figuratively. So it can also mean to exalt or extol.
LI “horses” = sus. Root may mean to skip as in jump for joy. This is a crane or a swift bird. It is also a horse as leaping.
LII “chariot drivers” = parash. From parash (to make distinct, separate, scatter; can also imply to wound). This is a horse or a person who rides a horse. A chariot driver or cavalry as a collective.
LIII “army” = chayil. From chul (to be firm, strong, prosperous; to endure). This is strength, wealth, ability, activity. It can refer to soldier or a company of soldiers as well as goods. It is a force of people, means, or goods. It can speak of valor, virtue, or strength.
LIV “overtook” = nasag. This is to reach in a literal or figurative sense. It is to overtake, catch, or be able to.

10 As Pharaoh drew near,LV the Israelites lookedLVI back, andLVII there were the Egyptians advancingLVIII on them. In greatLIX fearLX the Israelites cried outLXI to the Lord. 

Notes on verse 10

LV “drew near” = qarab. This is to come near, offer, make ready, approach, take.
LVI “looked” = nasa + ben + Yisrael + et + ayin. Literally, “the children of Israel lifted their eyes.” Nasa is to lift in a broad sense, literally and figuratively. So it could be to carry, take, or arise. It could also be bring forth, advance, accept. Ayin is eye in a literal or figurative sense so eye, appearance, favor, or a fountain (the eye of the landscape).
LVII {untranslated} = hinneh. From hen (lo! Behold! If, though; an expression of surprise). This is to draw attention, show suddenness or surprise, or to emphasize the importance of the coming statement. See! Lo! Behold!
LVIII “advancing” = nasa. This is properly pulling up as when one pulls up tent pegs or stakes. This would imply striking tents in order to start a journey. So this could be bring, pullout, set out, journey, or cause to go away.
LIX “great” = meod. Perhaps from the same as uwd (firebrand, a poker). This is very, greatly, exceedingly. It can also mean vehemence, force, abundance.
LX “fear” = yare. This is to fear, be afraid, dreadful. It can also refer to fearful reverence – to fear in a moral sense is to say to revere, respect.
LXI “cried out” = tsaaq. This is to cry out or call together, to shriek. It can mean, by implication, calling for an assembly.

11 They said to Moses, “Was it becauseLXII there were no gravesLXIII in Egypt that you have taken us awayLXIV to dieLXV in the wilderness? What have you done to us, bringingLXVI us out of Egypt? 

Notes on verse 11

LXII “because” = beli. From balah (to grow old, wear out, waste away, consume, spend). This is properly a failure. So, it could mean without, not yet, unawares, lacking, something that wears out, or because not.
LXIII “graves” = qeber. From qabar (to bury). This is a place where one is buried such as a grave or tomb.
LXIV “taken…away” = laqach. Same as “took” in v6. See note XLII above.
LXV “die” = mut. This is to die in a literal or figurative sense. It can also refer to being a dead body.
LXVI “bringing” = yatsa. Same as “going out” in v8. See note XLIX above.

12 Is this not the very thingLXVII we told you in Egypt, ‘Let us aloneLXVIII and let us serveLXIX the Egyptians’? For it would have been betterLXX for us to serve the Egyptians than to die in the wilderness.” 

Notes on verse 12

LXVII “thing” = dabar. Related to “said” in v1 & “wilderness” in v3. From dabar (see note II above). This is speech, a word, a matter, an affair, charge, command, message, promise, purpose, report, request. It is a word, which implies things that are spoken of in a wide sense.
LXVIII “let…alone” = chadal. This is properly to be flabby – it implies, to stop, fall, end, rest, leave alone, forsake, or desist. Figuratively this can be lacking or idle.
LXIX “serve” = abad. Same as “service” in v5. See note XXXIX above.
LXX “better” = tob. From tob (to be pleasing, to be good). This is good, beautiful, pleasant, agreeable, bountiful, at ease. This word is used for goodness as a concept, a good thing, a good person. This can refer to prosperity and welfare as well as joy, kindness, sweetness, and graciousness. So, this is ethically good, but also enjoyably good.

13 But Moses said to the people, “Do not be afraid,LXXI stand firm,LXXII and seeLXXIII the deliveranceLXXIV that the Lord will accomplishLXXV for you today;LXXVI

Notes on verse 13a

LXXI “be afraid” = yare. Same as “fear” in v10. See note LX above.
LXXII “stand firm” = yatsab. This is to set oneself, take a stand, remain, continue, to station or set something in place.
LXXIII “see” = raah. This is to see in a literal or figurative sense so stare, advise, think, view.
LXXIV “deliverance” = yeshuah. From yasha (to deliver, defend, help, preserve, rescue, be safe. Properly, to be open, wide or free, which implies being safe. Used causatively, it means to free). This is salvation, deliverance, health, victory, prosperity.
LXXV “accomplish” = asah. Same as “did” in v4. See note XXVIII above.
LXXVI “today” = yom. Root may mean being hot. This is the day in a literal or figurative sense. It can also mean birth, age, daylight, continually or other references to time.

for the Egyptians whom you see today you shall neverLXXVII see again.LXXVIII 14 The Lord will fightLXXIX for you, and you have only to keep still.”LXXX

Notes on verses 13b-14

LXXVII {untranslated} = yasaph. This is to add, increase, continue, exceed.
LXXVIII {untranslated} = ad + olam. Literally, “even to forever.” Olam is a long scope of time whether in the past (antiquity, ancient time) or in the future (eternal, everlasting).
LXXIX “fight” = lacham. This is to eat or feed on. Figuratively, it is to battle as a kind of consumption/destruction.
LXXX “keep still” = charash. This is to scratch, which implies etching or plowing. It can mean to manufacture regardless of materials used. Figuratively, it can be to devise or conceal. It can also have a sense of secrecy. Hence, being silent or left alone. It can also be speechless.

15 Then the Lord said to Moses, “Why do you cry out to me? Tell the Israelites to go forward.LXXXI 16 But you lift upLXXXII your staff,LXXXIII and stretch outLXXXIV your handLXXXV over the sea and divideLXXXVI it,

Notes on verses 15-16a

LXXXI “go forward” = nasa. Same as “advancing” in v10. See note LVIII above.
LXXXII “lift up” = rum. Same as “boldly” in v8. See note L above.
LXXXIII “staff” = matteh. From natah (to stretch or spread out, extend, bend). This is a staff, rod, branch, or tribe. It could be a rod for discipline or correction. It could be a scepter to indicate authority, a throwing lance, or a walking staff. Figuratively, it could also be something that supports life (like bread).
LXXXIV “stretch out” = natah. Related to “staff” in v16. See note LXXXIII above.
LXXXV “hand” = yad. Same as “boldly” in v8. See note L above.
LXXXVI “divide” = baqa. This is to break open, breach, divide, rip, shake, tear. It can also mean dash into pieces or being ready to burst.

that the Israelites may goLXXXVII intoLXXXVIII the sea on dry ground.LXXXIX 17 Then IXC will harden the hearts of the Egyptians so that they will go in after them; and so I will gain glory for myself over Pharaoh and all his army,XCI his chariots, and his chariot drivers. 18 And the Egyptians shall know that I am the Lord, when I have gained glory for myself over Pharaoh, his chariots, and his chariot drivers.”

Notes on verses 16b-18

LXXXVII “go” = bo. This is to enter, come in, advance, fulfill, bring offerings, enter to worship, attack. It can also have a sexual connotation.
LXXXVIII “into” = tavek. This is among, middle, in the midst, the center. Perhaps, properly, to sever.
LXXXIX “dry ground” = yabbashah. 14x in OT– word used for dry land in Genesis 1:9-10. From yabesh (to dry up, be withered, be dry; to be ashamed, confused, or disappointed). This is dry land or dry ground.
XC {untranslated} = hen. Related to {untranslated} in v10. See note LVII above.
XCI “army” = chel. Same as “army” in v4. See note XXV above.

19 The angelXCII of GodXCIII who was goingXCIV beforeXCV

Notes on verse 19a

XCII “angel” = malak. This is a messenger, an angel, or a deputy of some kind. Can be used for human messengers literally or for prophets, priests, or teachers as messengers of God. Also used for supernatural messengers i.e. angels.
XCIII “God” = Elohim. Related to “Israelites” in v2. See note V above.
XCIV “going” = halak. This is go, come, walk. It is walk literally and figuratively and includes people and animals. It can be used figuratively for one’s moral life – how we walk according to God’s way or against it. It can also refer to the walk of life as in the course one’s life takes, the choices we make, etc.
XCV “before” = paneh. Same as “in front of” in v2. See note VIII above.

the Israelite armyXCVI movedXCVII and went behind them; and the pillarXCVIII of cloudXCIX moved from in front of them and took its placeC behind them. 20 It cameCI between the armyCII of Egypt and the armyCIII of Israel.

Notes on verses 19b-20a

XCVI “army” = machaneh. Related to “camp” in v2. From chanah (see note VII above). This is an encampment, whether of people traveling together or soldiers. So, it can be a camp band, or company as well as an army of soldiers. Also can be used of other groups like animals, angels or stars.
XCVII “moved” = nasa. Same as “advancing” in v10. See note LVIII above.
XCVIII “pillar” = ammud. From amad (to stand up in a literal or figurative sense; to establish, continue, endure, take a stand, act, be a servant, stand still, remain, stand against an enemy). This is a pillar, stand, or platform.
XCIX “cloud” = anan. May be from anan (cover, cloud over; figuratively, acting in a secret way, practicing magic or soothsaying). This is a cloud as something that covers the sky.
C “took its place” = amad. Related to “pillar” in v19. See note XCVIII above.
CI “came” = bo. Same as “go” in v16. See note LXXXVII above.
CII “army” = machaneh. Same as “army” in v19. See note XCVI above.
CIII “army” = machaneh. Same as “army” in v19. See note XCVI above.

And so the cloud wasCIV there with the darkness,CV and it lit upCVI the night;CVII one did not come nearCVIII the other all night.

Notes on verse 20b

CIV “was” = hayah. Related to “Lord” in v1. See note I above.
CV “darkness” = choshek. From chashak (to be or become dark). This is literal darkness is contrast to light. Figuratively, it can be obscurity, sorrow, misery, blindness, wickedness, destruction, death. It can also be hiding places. Additionally, it can mean judgment, mourning, ignorance, evil, or sin.
CVI “lit up” = or. This is to light, shine, set on fire – to be luminous in a literal or figurative sense.
CVII “night” = layil. Properly, this refers to light twisting away. It is used for night or midnight. Figuratively, this can mean adversity.
CVIII “come near” = qarab. Same as “drew near” in v10. See note LV above.

21 Then Moses stretched out his hand over the sea. The Lord drove the sea backCIX by a strongCX eastCXI windCXII all night, and turnedCXIII the sea into dry land;CXIV and the watersCXV were divided. 

Notes on verse 21

CIX “drove…back” = halak. Same as “going” in v19. See note XCIV above.
CX “strong” = az. From azaz (to be strong, become fixed, be bold, prevail, be impudent; it means to be stout literally or figuratively; a Late Hebrew word). This is strong or mighty. It can also refer to power or vehemence or mean greedy.
CXI “east” = qadim. From the same as qedem (front, formerly, before, east, eternal, everlasting, antiquity). This is the front part and so eastward. Sometimes used as a shorthand for the east wind.
CXII “wind” = ruach. This is breath, wind, air, cool, spirit. This is wind, which resembles the breath and so this can be used figuratively for life itself or being frail/mortal/impermanent. It can refer to the air of the sky or the spirit.
CXIII “turned” = sim. This is to put or place in a literal or figurative sense. It can be appoint, care, change, make, and may other things.
CXIV “dry land” = charabah. 8x in OT. From chareb (to be waste or desolate, destroyer). This is dry ground, dry, or desert.
CXV “waters” = mayim. This is water, waters, or waterway in a general sense. Figuratively, it can also mean juice, urine, or semen.

22 The Israelites wentCXVI into the sea on dry ground, the waters forming a wallCXVII for them on their rightCXVIII and on their left.CXIX 23 The Egyptians pursued, and wentCXX into the sea after them, all of Pharaoh’s horses, chariots, and chariot drivers. 

Notes on verses 22-23

CXVI “went” = bo. Same as “go” in v16. See note LXXXVII above.
CXVII “wall” = chomah. From the same as cham (father-in-law – one’s husband’s father; perhaps from a root meaning to join). This is a wall – a wall as used for protection.
CXVIII “right” = yamin. May be from yamam (to go or choose the right, use the right hand; to be physically fit or firm). This can mean right hand, right side, or south. Since most people are right-handed, the metaphorical usage of this word presumes that the right hand is stronger and more agile. Thus, it is the instrument of power and action.
CXIX “left” = semol. Perhaps from the same as simlah (mantle, clothes, wrapper); perhaps from semel (image, figure, likeness). This is left, left side, or north as the part that is dark.
CXX “went” = bo. Same as “go” in v16. See note LXXXVII above.

24 CXXIAt the morningCXXII watchCXXIII the Lord in the pillar of fireCXXIV and cloud looked downCXXV upon the Egyptian army,CXXVI and threw the Egyptian armyCXXVII into panic.CXXVIII 

Notes on verse 24

CXXI {untranslated} = hayah. Same as “was” in v20. See note CIV above.
CXXII “morning” = boqer. From baqar (to seek, plow, break forth, admire, care for). This refers to the break of day. So it is dawn, early, morning, or morrow.
CXXIII “watch” = ashmoreth. 7x in OT. From shamar (to keep, watch, or preserve; to guard something or to protect it as a thorny hedge protects something). This is a watch.
CXXIV “fire” = esh. This is fire, burning, flaming, hot. It is fire in a literal or figurative sense.
CXXV “looked down” = shaqaph. This is to look down or look out. Properly, it is looking by leaning out a window. It can be peeping or gazing.
CXXVI “army” = machaneh. Same as “army” in v19. See note XCVI above.
CXXVII “army” = machaneh. Same as “army” in v19. See note XCVI above.
CXXVIII “threw…into panic” = hamam. 14x in OT. This is being noisy, confused, thrown into confusion, trouble, cause a commotion, disturb, rout, damage, destroy.

25 He cloggedCXXIX their chariotCXXX wheelsCXXXI so that they turnedCXXXII with difficulty.CXXXIII

The Egyptians said, “Let us fleeCXXXIV fromCXXXV the Israelites, for the Lord is fighting for them against Egypt.”

Notes on verse 25

CXXIX “clogged” = sur. This is to turn aside in a literal or figurative sense – to depart, decline, rebel, remove, or withdraw.
CXXX “chariot” = merkabah. Related to “chariot” in v6. From merkab (chariot, saddle, covering; any seat in a vehicle); from rakab (see note XL above). This is a chariot.
CXXXI “wheels” = ophan. Root might be to revolve so this is a wheel.
CXXXII “turned” = nahag. This is to drive as in driving flocks, but also driving in animal or vehicle like a chariot. It can mean to carry away, lead, drive away, proceed, or guide. It can also relate to behavior and what one is accustomed to.
CXXXIII “difficulty” = kebeduth. Related to “gain glory” in v4. 1x in OT. From kabad (see note XXIII above). This is heaviness or difficulty.
CXXXIV “flee” = nus. This is to flee, vanish away, hide, escape, be displayed.
CXXXV {untranslated} = paneh. Same as “in front of” in v2. See note VIII above.

26 Then the Lord said to Moses, “Stretch out your hand over the sea, so that the water may come backCXXXVI upon the Egyptians, upon their chariots and chariot drivers.” 

27 So Moses stretched out his hand over the sea, and at dawnCXXXVII the sea returnedCXXXVIII to its normal depth.CXXXIX As the Egyptians fled beforeCXL it, the Lord tossedCXLI the Egyptians into the sea. 

Notes on verses 26-27

CXXXVI “come back” = shub. Same as “turn back” in v2. See note VI above.
CXXXVII “dawn” = boqer. Same as “morning” in v24. See note CXXII above.
CXXXVIII “returned” = shub + panah. Shub is the same as “turn back” in v2. See note VI above. Panah is related to “in front of” in v2. See note VIII above.
CXXXIX “normal depth” = ethan. 13x in OT. Root might mean to continue. This is mighty, strong, ever-flowing, enduring, or permanence.
CXL “before” = qirah. From the same as qara (to happen, meet, bring about). This is any kind of encounter, whether peaceful, hostile, or incidental. It can also mean help or seek.
CXLI “tossed” = naar. 11x in OT. This is to shake, toss up and down, tumble around, overthrow, shake off.

28 The waters returned and coveredCXLII the chariotsCXLIII and the chariot drivers, the entireCXLIV armyCXLV of Pharaoh that had followedCXLVI them into the sea; not oneCXLVII of them remained.CXLVIII 

Notes on verse 28

CXLII “covered” = kasah. This is to cover, conceal, overwhelm. It is to cover as clothes do or to hide a secret.
CXLIII “chariots” = rekeb. Same as “chariot” in v6. See note XL above.
CXLIV “entire” = kol. Same as “all” in v4. See note XXIV above.
CXLV “army” = chel. Same as “army” in v4. See note XXV above.
CXLVI “followed” = bo. Same as “go” in v16. See note LXXXVII above.
CXLVII “one” = echad. Perhaps from achad (to unify, continue on a path; figuratively, to gather one’s thoughts). This is the number one, first, united. It can also be alone, altogether, a certain, a few.
CXLVIII “remained” = shaar. Properly, this is swelling up i.e. being left over, a remnant, remaining, being redundant.

29 But the Israelites walkedCXLIX on dry ground throughCL the sea, the waters forming a wall for them on their right and on their left. 30 Thus the Lord savedCLI Israel that day fromCLII the Egyptians; and Israel saw the Egyptians dead on the seashore.CLIII 

Notes on verses 29-30

CXLIX “walked” = halak. Same as “going” in v19. See note XCIV above.
CL “through” = tavek. Same as “into” in v16. See note LXXXVIII above.
CLI “saved” = yasha. Related to “deliverance” in v13. See note LXXIV above.
CLII {untranslated} = yad. Same as “boldly” in v8. See note L above.
CLIII “seashore” = saphah + yam. Saphah is lip, edge, border, bank – used for a boundary. It can also be speech or language. Yam is the same as “sea” in v2. See note XII above.

31 Israel saw the greatCLIV workCLV that the Lord did against the Egyptians. So the people feared the Lord and believedCLVI in the Lord and in his servantCLVII Moses.

Notes on verse 31

CLIV “great” = gadol. Related to “Migdol” in v2. From gadal (see note XI above). This is great, high, bigger, noble, old, marvelous. It can also refer to someone who is powerful or distinguished.
CLV “work” = yad. Same as “boldly” in v8. See note L above.
CLVI “believed” = aman. This is to believe, endure, fulfill, confirm, support, be faithful. It is to put one’s trust in, be steadfast. Figuratively, this is to be firm, steadfast, or faithful, trusting, believing, being permanent, morally solid. This is where the word “amen” comes from.
CLVII “servant” = ebed. Same as “officials” in v5. See note XXXVI above.

Image credit: “The Destruction of Pharaoh’s Host” by John Martin, 1836.

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