Exodus 15

Exodus 15


Then MosesI and the IsraelitesII sangIII this songIV to the Lord:V

Notes on verse 1a

I “Moses” = Mosheh. From mashah (to pull out in a literal or figurative sense, to draw out) OR from Egyptian mes or mesu (child, son i.e. child of…). This is Moses – the one drawn out from the water, which is to say, rescued. If derived from the Egyptian, his name would share a root with Rameses and Thutmose.
II “Israelites” = ben + Yisrael. Literally, “children of Israel.” Ben is from banah (to build or obtain children). This is son, age, child. It is son in a literal or figurative sense. Yisrael is from sarah (to persist, exert oneself, contend, persevere, wrestle, prevail) + el (God or god). This is Israel, meaning God strives or one who strives with God; new name for Jacob and for his offspring. This refers to the people and to the land.
III “sang” = shir. From shir (song, singer). This is to sing. It could also refer to one who is singing or leading others in song.
IV “song” = shir. Related to “sang” in v1. See note III above.
V “Lord” = YHVH. From havah (to be, become) or hayah (to come to pass, become, be). This is the name of the God of Israel, the self-existent and eternal one, the tetragrammaton. This pronunciation has been lost to time so “Lord” is generally used in its place.

“I will sing to the Lord, for he has triumphed gloriously;VI
    horseVII and riderVIII he has thrownIX into the sea.X

Notes on verse 1b

VI “triumphed gloriously” = gaah + gaah. 7x in OT. This is to rise up, be exalted, triumph. Figuratively, it can mean to be majestic. The word is repeated twice – the first time as an Infinitive Absolute. The Infinitive Absolute serves to emphasize the sentiment of the word. It is rather like Foghorn Leghorn’s speech pattern, “I said, I said.”
VII “horse” = sus. Root may mean to skip as in jump for joy. This is a crane or a swift bird. It is also a horse as leaping.
VIII “rider” = rakab. This is to ride an animal or in some vehicle. It can also mean bringing on a horse.
IX “thrown” = ramah. 13x in OT. This is to hurl, shoot, carry, or throw. Figuratively, it is to beguile, delude or betray. It can also refer to an archer.
X “sea” = yam. Root may mean to roar. This is the sea, often referring to the Mediterranean. It comes from the root in the sense of the roar of crashing surf. This word is sometimes used for rivers or other sources of water. It can mean to the west or to the south.

The LordXI is my strengthXII and my might,XIII
    and he has becomeXIV my salvation;XV

Notes on verse 2a

XI “Lord” = Yah. Related to “Lord” in v1. From YHVH (see note V above). This is Lord or God – a  shortened form of God’s most holy name.
XII “strength” = oz. From azaz (to be strong, become fixed, be bold, prevail, be impudent; it means to be stout literally or figuratively. A Late Hebrew word). This is strength in the sense of force, majesty, praise, material and physical strength, the abstract notion of security. It can also speak of social or political power.
XIII “might” = zimrath. 3x in OT. From the same as zimrah (melody, psalm, or sound; sung to praise God or a song sung with an instrument); from zamar (making music; used specially of music to worship God; music with singing, singing praise, singing psalms); may be from zamar (to trim or prune). This is a song or instrumental music. It implies a song of praise.
XIV “become” = hayah. Related to “Lord” in v1 & “Lord” in v2. See note V above.
XV “salvation” = yeshuah. From yasha (to deliver, defend, help, preserve, rescue, be safe. Properly, to be open, wide or free, which implies being safe. Used causatively, it means to free). This is salvation, deliverance, health, victory, prosperity.

this is my God,XVI and I will praiseXVII him,
    my father’sXVIII God,XIX and I will exaltXX him.

Notes on verse 2b

XVI “God” = El. Related to “Israelites” in v1. See note II above.
XVII “praise” = navah. 2x in OT. This is to dwell, abide, or beautify. It is rest like one rests at home. It can also mean celebrate with praises.
XVIII “father’s” = ab. This is father, chief, or ancestor. It is father in a literal or figurative sense.
XIX “God” = Elohim. Related to “Israelites” in v1 & “God” In v2. See note II above.
XX “exalt” = rum. This is to rise or raise, to be high literally or figuratively. So it can also mean to exalt or extol.

The LordXXI is a warrior;XXII
    the LordXXIII is his name.XXIV

Notes on verse 3

XXI “Lord” = YHVH. Same as “Lord” in v1. See note V above.
XXII “warrior” = ish + milchamah. Literally, “man of war.” Ish is perhaps from enosh (human, humankind, mortal); from anash (to be weak, sick, or frail). This is man, husband, another, or humankind. Milchamah is from lacham (to eat or feed on; figuratively, to battle as a kind of consumption/destruction). This is battle, war, fighting, or one who fights (i.e. a warrior).
XXIII “Lord” = YHVH. Same as “Lord” in v1. See note V above.
XXIV “name” = shem. May be from sum (to put, place, set). This is name, fame, renown. A name was thought to indicate something essential about a person – something about their individuality. So, this word can also mean honor, authority, or character.

“Pharaoh’sXXV chariotsXXVI and his armyXXVII he castXXVIII into the sea;

Notes on verse 4a

XXV “Pharaoh’s” = Paroh. From Egyptian pr (palace, pharaoh; literally house + great). This is Pharaoh, a title for Egyptian kings. See https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/pharaoh
XXVI “chariots” = merkabah. Related to “rider” in v1. From merkab (chariot, saddle, covering; any seat in a vehicle); from rakab (see note VIII above). This is a chariot.
XXVII “army” = chel. From chul (whirling around so dancing as in a circle or writhing in pain; used particularly for the pain of childbirth or from writhing due to fear; can also be falling in pain or waiting) OR from chayil (strength, wealth, ability, activity; a soldier or a company of soldiers; goods; a force of people, means, or goods; valor, virtue, or strength); from chul (to be firm, strong, prosperous; to endure). This is an army, entrenchment, fortress, wall, or host.
XXVIII “cast” = yarah. This is to throw, shoot, be stunned. It is to flow as water so figuratively to instruct or teach. This is the same root that “Jerusalem” and “Torah” draw from.

    his pickedXXIX officersXXX were sunkXXXI in the RedXXXII Sea.

Notes on verse 4b

XXIX “picked” = mibchar. 13x in OT. From bachar (to choose, appoint, try, excellent). This is select, choice, the best, select, the best people.
XXX “officers” = shaliysh. 17x in OT. From shalosh (three, fork, triad). This is literally a third. So, it could refer to some kind of musical instrument like a triangle or a lute with three strings. It could also refer to a triple measure. Additionally, it could be a highly ranked person like a captain, lord, or prince.
XXXI “sunk” = taba. 10x in OT. This is sink, drown, settle, or fasten.
XXXII “Red” = suph. Perhaps from Egyptian twfi (reeds). This is reeds or rushes. It can be used particularly to refer to papyrus, or a flag. See https://www.abarim-publications.com/Dictionary/sa/sa-p-pfin.html#.XzHCuChKhPY

5 The floodsXXXIII coveredXXXIV them;
    they went downXXXV into the depthsXXXVI like a stone.XXXVII

Notes on verse 5

XXXIII “floods” = tehom. Perhaps from hum (to roar, murmur, cause an uproar, agitate; to defeat in battle, destroy). This is the deep or the abyss. Either understood as a formless empty place of nothingness or as a place of confusion filled with water – the deep the feeds the waters of the earth.
XXXIV “covered” = kasah. This is to cover, conceal, overwhelm. It is to cover as clothes do or to hide a secret.
XXXV “went down” = yarad. This is to go down, descend; going down in a literal or figurative sense. It can be going to the shore or a boundary, bringing down an enemy.
XXXVI “depths” = metsolah. 11x in OT. From the same as tsulah (root may mean to sink; ocean depths, the abyss of the sea). This is depth, bottom, or otherwise somewhere deep that is watery or muddy.
XXXVII “stone” = eben. This is a stone, weight, or mason. It is part of the word “Ebenezer.”

Your right hand,XXXVIII O Lord,XXXIX gloriousXL in powerXLI
    your right hand, O Lord,XLII shatteredXLIII the enemy.XLIV

Notes on verse 6

XXXVIII “right hand” = yamin. May be from yamam (to go or choose the right, use the right hand; to be physically fit or firm). This can mean right hand, right side, or south. Since most people are right-handed, the metaphorical usage of this word presumes that the right hand is stronger and more agile. Thus, it is the instrument of power and action.
XXXIX “Lord” = YHVH. Same as “Lord” in v1. See note V above.
XL “glorious” = adar. 3x in OT. This is wide, glorious, honorable, great, magnificent. Properly, it is to expand.
XLI “power” = koach. Root may mean to be firm. This is power, strength, force. It can be literal or figurative, positive or negative. It can also mean capacity or means – what something produces. Additionally, it could refer to some kind of small reptile.
XLII “Lord” = YHVH. Same as “Lord” in v1. See note V above.
XLIII “shattered” = raats. 2x in OT. This is to break in pieces, shatter, crush, or figuratively to afflict.
XLIV “enemy” = oyeb. From ayab (to hate or be hostile to). This is a foe or enemy as one that you are hostile to.

In the greatnessXLV of your majestyXLVI you overthrewXLVII your adversaries;XLVIII

Notes on verse 7a

XLV “greatness” = rob. From rabab (to be or become much or many, multiply). This is any kind of abundance.
XLVI “majesty” = ga’on. Related to “gloriously” in v1. From the same as ga’avah (majesty, excellency, pride, arrogance, ornament); from gaah (see note VI above). This is majesty, pride, redemption, pomp, excellency, swelling, or arrogance.
XLVII “overthrew” = haras. This is to break down, throw down, ruin, overthrow, or destroy. It is breaking down in pieces.
XLVIII “adversaries” = qum. To arise, stand, accomplish, establish, abide. This is rising as in rising against, getting up after being sick or asleep, arising from one state to another, becoming powerful, or rising for action. It can also be standing in a figurative sense.

    you sent outXLIX your fury,L it consumedLI them like stubble.LII

Notes on verse 7b

XLIX “sent out” = shalach. This is to send out, away, send for, forsake. It can also mean to divorce or set a slave free.
L “fury” = charon. From charah (to be displeased, burn with anger, glow, become warn; figuratively a blaze of anger, zeal, or jealousy). This is burning anger, fierceness, or wrathfulness.
LI “consumed” = akal. This is to eat, devour, burn up, or otherwise consume. It can be eating in a literal or figurative sense.
LII “stubble” = qash. 16x in OT – same word used in Exodus 5:12 when the people had to gather stubble to make bricks. Perhaps from qashah (this is to gather stubble or forage for it, to gather, straw or wood; figuratively, to gather people, assemble). This is dry straw, chaff, stubble.

At the blastLIII of your nostrilsLIV the watersLV piled up,LVI

Notes on verse 8a

LIII “blast” = ruach. This is breath, wind, air, cool, spirit. This is wind, which resembles the breath and so this can be used figuratively for life itself or being frail/mortal/impermanent. It can refer to the air of the sky or the spirit.
LIV “nostrils” = aph. From anaph (to be angry; properly, breathing hard as a signifier of being enraged). This properly refers to the nose or nostril and by extension the face. It can specifically refer to anger or wrath as one breathes hard and nostrils flare in times of great anger.
LV “waters” = mayim. This is water, waters, or waterway in a general sense. Figuratively, it can also mean juice, urine, or semen.
LVI “piled up” = aram. 1x in OT. This is to heap or gather together.

    the floodsLVII stood upLVIII in a heap;LIX
    the deepsLX congealedLXI in the heartLXII of the sea.

Notes on verse 8b

LVII “floods” = nazal. 16x in OT. This is to drip or flow, pour down, flood, distill, or melt.
LVIII “stood up” = natsab. This is to station, appoint, establish, take a stand.
LIX “heap” = ned. 6x in OT. From nud (to nod, waver, wander, flee, show grief, disappear; nodding the head as a sign of sympathy or consolation; tossing one’s head to show contempt or to taunt). This is a heap or mound – it can imply a wave.
LX “deeps” = tehom. Same as “floods” in v5. See note XXXIII above.
LXI “congealed” = qapha. 4x in OT. This is to shrink, thicken, condense, congeal, or curdle. It can refer to freezing water, curdling milk, or clouding skies.
LXII “heart” = leb. May be related to labab (to encourage; properly, to be encased as with fat; used in a good sense, this means to transport someone with love; used in a bad sense, it can mean to dull one’s senses). This is the heart, courage, one’s inner self, the mind, or the will. Heart is only used in a figurative sense in the Old and New Testaments.

9 The enemy said, ‘I will pursue,LXIII I will overtake,LXIV
    I will divideLXV the spoil,LXVI my desireLXVII shall have its fillLXVIII of them.

Notes on verse 9a

LXIII “pursue” = radaph. This is to chase after, pursue, hunt, or persecute. It is running after someone or something, generally with hostile motives.
LXIV “overtake” = nasag. This is to reach in a literal or figurative sense. It is to overtake, catch, or be able to.
LXV “divide” = chalaq. This is to be smooth in a figurative sense. So, it can refer to the stones that were part of casting lots – hence, apportion, share, distribute. Figuratively, it can also mean to flatter.
LXVI “spoil” = shalal. From shalal (to plunder, loot, capture). This is spoil, prey, or plunder.
LXVII “desire” = nephesh. Related to naphash (to refresh or be refreshed). This is soul, self, person, emotion. It is a breathing creature. Can also refer to appetites and desires.
LXVIII “have its fill” = male. This is fill, satisfy, replenish, accomplish, fulfill, confirm, or consecrate. It is fill in a literal or figurative sense.

    I will drawLXIX my sword,LXX my handLXXI shall destroyLXXII them.’

Notes on verse 9b

LXIX “draw” = ruq. 19x in OT. This is to pour out in a literal or figurative sense. It can mean to arm, draw out, cast out, or empty.
LXX “sword” = chereb. From charab (to attack, slay). This is any sharp instrument like a sword, dagger, axe, or mattock.
LXXI “hand” = yad. This is hand, ability, power. Hand in a literal sense, but also what one can do or the means by which one does it.
LXXII “destroy” = yarash. This is inheriting or dispossessing. It refers to occupying or colonizing – taking territory by driving out the previous inhabitants and living there instead of them. By implication, it can mean to seize or rob, to expel, ruin, or impoverish.

10 You blewLXXIII with your wind,LXXIV the sea covered them;
    they sankLXXV like leadLXXVI in the mightyLXXVII waters.

Notes on verse 10

LXXIII “blew” = nashaph. 2x in OT. This is to blow like a breeze of fresh wind.
LXXIV “wind” = ruach. Same as “blast” in v8. See note LIII above.
LXXV “sank” = tsalal. 1x in OT. This is to be submerged or go downwards while waving back and forth.
LXXVI “lead” = ophereth. 9x in OT. From the same as opher (stag, fawn, hart); from aphar (to throw dust, be dust); from aphar (dust as powdered, perhaps gray colored; ashes, powder, ground, dry earth, clay mud, or rubbish). This is lead, the metal, since it is dust-colored.
LXXVII “mighty” = addir. Related to “glorious” in v6. From adar (see note XL above). This is majestic, excellent, mighty, powerful, or noble.

11 “Who is like you, O Lord,LXXVIII among the gods?LXXIX
    Who is like you, majesticLXXX in holiness,LXXXI
awesomeLXXXII in splendor,LXXXIII doingLXXXIV wonders?LXXXV

Notes on verse 11

LXXVIII “Lord” = YHVH. Same as “Lord” in v1. See note V above.
LXXIX “gods” = el. Same as “God” in v2. See note XVI above.
LXXX “majestic” = adar. Same as “glorious” in v6. See note XL above.
LXXXI “holiness” = qodesh. This is set apart and so sacred. God is different from us and so God is holy/set apart. Things we dedicate to God’s service are set apart for God and so they, too, are holy, etc.
LXXXII “awesome” = yare. This is to fear, be afraid, dreadful. It can also refer to fearful reverence – to fear in a moral sense is to say to revere, respect.
LXXXIII “splendor” = tehillah. From halal (to praise, be boastful). This is praise or a song of praise. It is to offer God a hymn, to boast in God. This shares a root with “hallelujah.”
LXXXIV “doing” = asah. This is to make, do, act, appoint, become in many senses.
LXXXV “wonders” = pele. 13x in OT. This is a wonder, marvelous thing, or a miracle.

12 You stretched outLXXXVI your right hand,
    the earthLXXXVII swallowedLXXXVIII them.

13 “In your steadfast loveLXXXIX you ledXC the peopleXCI whom you redeemed;XCII

Notes on verses 12-13a

LXXXVI “stretched out” = natah. This is to stretch or spread out, to extend, or bend. In can also imply moral deflection.
LXXXVII “earth” = erets. Root may mean to be firm. This is earth, ground, field land, or country.
LXXXVIII “swallowed” = bala. This is to swallow, engulf, cover, or destroy.
LXXXIX “steadfast love” = chesed. From chasad (being good, kind, merciful; may mean bowing one’s neck as is done in the presence of an equal for courtesy’s sake; so, if one in a superior position is treating you like an equal, that is what is captured here). This is favor, goodness, kindness, loving kindness, pity, reproach, or a good deed. When done by God to humanity, this is mercy/loving kindness. When done by humanity to God, it is piety.
XC “led” = nachah. This is lead, guide, or bring. It can be used for transporting into exile or coming in as colonists. This is the word used in Psalm 23 “he leads me in the paths of righteousness.”
XCI “people” = am. From amam (to darken, hide, associate; creating shadows by huddling together). This is people or nation. It can be used specifically for a tribe, collectively of troops or armies, or figuratively to refer to a flock of animals.
XCII “redeemed” = gaal. This is to redeem someone or something according to kinship laws. So, it could be acting on a relative’s behalf to buy back their property, to marry one’s brother’s widow, etc. This could be more briefly translated as to redeem, acts as kinsman, or purchase. As a noun, it could be deliverer or avenger.

    you guidedXCIII them by your strength to your holy abode.XCIV

14 The peoples heard,XCV they trembled;XCVI

Notes on verses 13b-14a

XCIII “guided” = nahal. 10x in OT. This is leading or guiding – specifically to a resting place or somewhere where there is water. So, it can mean to refresh or feed, protect or sustain. The word itself carries a sense of flowing, sparkling water. This is the word used in Psalm 23 “he leads me beside still waters.”
XCIV “abode” = naveh. Related to “praise” in v2. From navah (see note XVII above). This is home, place where shepherd or sheep live. It is at home – implies a lovely place or a place of satisfaction. It can also be used for the Temple or a pasture as the home of wild animals.
XCV “heard” = shama. This is to hear, call, consent, or consider. It implies listening intelligently, giving attention, and, because of these two factors, obedience and action are often implied.
XCVI “trembled” = ragaz. This is shaking from any strong emotion, particularly anger or fear. It can be agitated, excited, perturbed, afraid, quaking, quivering.

    pangsXCVII seizedXCVIII the inhabitantsXCIX of Philistia.C

15 Then the chiefsCI of EdomCII were dismayed;CIII

Notes on verses 14b-15a

XCVII “pangs” = chil. Related to “army” in v4. 7x in OT. From chul (see note XXVII above). This is writhing, pain, pang, or anguish. It can be used specifically for labor pains.
XCVIII “seized” = achaz. This is to grasp, catch, seize, take and hold in possession. It can also be to be afraid or hold back.
XCIX “inhabitants” = yashab. This is to sit and so to remain and so to dwell. It is sitting for any reason – as a judge, in order to ambush, or just sitting quietly. Causatively, this can mean settling or marrying. This can also mean continue, endure, or establish.
C “Philistia” = Peleshet. 8x in OT. From palash (to mourn, wallow, maybe roll in). This is Philistia, which may mean “griever” or “burrower” or “weakener.” See https://www.abarim-publications.com/Meaning/Philistine.html.
CI “chiefs” = alluph. From alaph (to learn, speak, associate with). This is a friend, something gentle like a tame bull. It can also refer to someone who is noble or a leader like a captain, guide, or governor.
CII “Edom” = Edom. From the same as adom (to be red or flushed). This is Edom or Idumaea. It means red.
CIII “were dismayed” = bahal. To be afraid or dismayed or amazed. This is deep trembling within. So, figuratively, it refers to being suddenly agitated. This implies moving or acting quickly/anxiously.

    tremblingCIV seized the leadersCV of Moab;CVI
    allCVII the inhabitants of CanaanCVIII melted away.CIX

Notes on verse 15b

CIV “trembling” = ra’ad. 5x in OT. From ra’ad (to tremble or shudder with more or less force). This is trembling or quaking.
CV “leaders” = ayil. From the same as ul (mighty, strength, body, belly; root may mean to twist and that implies strength and power). This is strength so it is used to indicate things that are strong or powerful: political chiefs, rams, posts, trees, oaks.
CVI “Moab” = Moab. Related to “father’s” in v2. May be from ab (see note XVIII above). This is Moab or Moabite. Name could mean “from her father” in reference to the incestuous relationship between Lot and his daughters. The name could also mean, more pleasantly, “seed of a father” or “desirable land.” See https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Moab
CVII “all” = kol. From kalal (to complete). This is all or every.
CVIII “Canaan” = Kna’an. From kana’ (to be humble, subdue; properly, bend the knee). This is Canaan, his descendants, and the land where they settled. This could mean lowlands, describing their land or subjugated in reference to being conquered by Egypt. See https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Canaan
CIX “melted away” = mug. 17x in OT. This is to let, dissolve, soften, flow. It can also mean to fear, dishearten, be faint, or disappear.

16 TerrorCX and dreadCXI fellCXII upon them;
    by the mightCXIII of your arm,CXIV they became stillCXV as a stone

Notes on verse 16a

CX “terror” = emah. 17x in OT. From the same as ayom (dreadful, frightful, awesome). This is terror, fright, horror, fearsome, idol.
CXI “dread” = pachad. From pachad (to dread, be afraid, thrill, be in awe; feeling startled from a sudden sound or alarm). This is dread, fear, awe, panic. It can also refer to what someone fears or dreads.
CXII “fell” = naphal. This is to fall, whether by accident, to fall prostrate, or to fall in violent death. Figuratively, it can refer to personal ruin or calamity, a city falling, an attack or a falling away. It can also be a deep sleep or wasting away.
CXIII “might” = gadol. From gadal (to grow up, become great, become wealthy – to advance. The root meaning may be to twist in the sense of the process of growing). This is great, high, bigger, noble, old, marvelous. It can also refer to someone who is powerful or distinguished.
CXIV “arm” = zeroa. Perhaps from zara (to sow, scatter seed, conceive). This is the arm, shoulder, or foreleg of an animal. It is figuratively used for power, force, might, or help.
CXV “became still” = damam. This is to cease, be or become mute, silent, still, cut off, hold peace, be astonished, or die.

until your people, O Lord,CXVI passed by,CXVII
    until the people whom you acquiredCXVIII passed by.

17 You brought them inCXIX and plantedCXX them on the mountainCXXI of your own possession,CXXII

Notes on verses 16b-17a

CXVI “Lord” = YHVH. Same as “Lord” in v1. See note V above.
CXVII “passed by” = abar. This is to pass over or cross over. It is used for transitions, whether literal or figurative. It can also mean to escape, alienate, or fail. This is the root verb from which “Hebrew” is drawn.
CXVIII “acquired” = qanah. This is to acquire, create, purchase, own. Its root may mean to smith or to produce.
CXIX “brought…in” = bo. This is to enter, come in, advance, fulfill, bring offerings, enter to worship, attack. It can also have a sexual connotation.
CXX “planted” = nata. To fix or fasten, establish or plant. This is planting in a literal or figurative sense.
CXXI “mountain” = har. From harar (hill or mountain). This is mountain, hill, hilly region.
CXXII “possession” = nachalah. Related to nachal (to inherit, occupy, distribute, take as heritage). This is properly something that was inherited. It can mean occupancy generally or, more particularly, an heirloom or an estate. This can be an inheritance, gift, possession, or portion.

    the place,CXXIII O Lord,CXXIV that you madeCXXV your abode,CXXVI
    the sanctuary,CXXVII O Lord,CXXVIII that your hands have established.CXXIX

Notes on verse 17b

CXXIII “place” = makon. 17x in OT. From kun (properly, in a perpendicular position; literally, to establish, fix, fasten, prepare; figuratively, it is certainty, to be firm, faithfulness, render sure or prosperous). This is a foundation, fixture, basis. It can also be a place or abode as somewhere that is established.
CXXIV “Lord” = YHVH. Same as “Lord” in v1. See note V above.
CXXV “made” = paal. This is to do, make, work, or accomplish. Generally refers to regularly repeated or systematic action – so, to practice.
CXXVI “abode” = yashab. Same as “inhabitants” in v14. See note XCIX above.
CXXVII “sanctuary” = miqdash. Related to “holiness” in v11. From the same as qodesh (see note LXXXI above). This is a sacred place, sanctuary, holy place. It is something or somewhere that is consecrated, whether to God or to another.
CXXVIII “Lord” = YHVH. Same as “Lord” in v1. See note V above.
CXXIX “established” = kun. Related to “place” in v17. See note CXXIII above.

18 The LordCXXX will reignCXXXI foreverCXXXII and ever.”CXXXIII

19 When the horses of Pharaoh with his chariotsCXXXIV and his chariot driversCXXXV went intoCXXXVI the sea,

Notes on verses 18-19a

CXXX “Lord” = YHVH. Same as “Lord” in v1. See note V above.
CXXXI “reign” = malak. To be or become king or queen, to rise to the throne, to be crowned. By implication, to take counsel. This word may be from the Hebrew word for king “melek” or vice versa.
CXXXII “forever” = olam. This is a long scope of time whether in the past (antiquity, ancient time) or in the future (eternal, everlasting).
CXXXIII “ever” = ed. From adah (to adorn, continue). This is eternity, old, a duration.
CXXXIV “chariots” = rekeb. Related to “rider” in v1 & “chariots” in v4. From rakab (see note VIII above). This is a vehicle, wagon, or chariot. It can be cavalry or an individual rider.
CXXXV “chariot drivers” = parash. From parash (to make distinct, separate, scatter; can also imply to wound). This is a horse or a person who rides a horse. A chariot driver or cavalry as a collective.
CXXXVI “went into” = bo. Same as “brought…in” in v17. See note CXIX above.

the LordCXXXVII brought backCXXXVIII the waters of the sea upon them; but the Israelites walkedCXXXIX throughCXL the sea on dry ground.CXLI

Notes on verse 19b

CXXXVII “Lord” = YHVH. Same as “Lord” in v1. See note V above.
CXXXVIII “brought back” = shub. To turn back, return, turn away – literally or figuratively. Doesn’t necessarily imply going back to where you started from. This is also the root verb for the Hebrew word for repentance “teshubah.”
CXXXIX “walked” = halak. This is go, come, walk. It is walk literally and figuratively and includes people and animals. It can be used figuratively for one’s moral life – how we walk according to God’s way or against it. It can also refer to the walk of life as in the course one’s life takes, the choices we make, etc.
CXL “through” = tavek. This is among, middle, in the midst, the center. Perhaps, properly, to sever.
CXLI “dry ground” = yabbashah. 14x in OT – word used for dry land in Genesis 1:9-10. From yabesh (to dry up, be withered, be dry; to be ashamed, confused, or disappointed). This is dry land or dry ground.

20 Then the prophetCXLII Miriam,CXLIII Aaron’sCXLIV sister,CXLV

Notes on verse 20a

CXLII “prophet” = nebiah. 6x in OT– of Miriam, Deborah, Huldah, Noadiah, and Isaiah’s wife. From nabi (prophet, prophecy, speaker; someone inspired). This is to prophesy. Older usages referred to raving, religious ecstasy that sometimes went along with music. In later usage, it was religious teachings that sometimes held prediction. Prophesying is speaking the truth of what is and where it will lead. This word is specifically used for female prophet.
CXLIII “Miriam” = Miryam. 15x in OT. From marah (to be contentious, rebellious, bitter, provoking, disobedient; to be or make bitter or unpleasant; figuratively, to rebel or resist; causatively to provoke). This is Miriam.
CXLIV “Aaron’s” = Aharon. Derivation uncertain. May mean “bearer of martyrs” OR be related to Ancient Egyptian ꜥḥꜣ rw (warrior lion) OR elevated, exalted, high mountain. This is Aaron. See https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/Aaron
CXLV “sister” = achot. From the same as ach (brother, kindred, another, other, like). This is sister in a literal or figurative sense. It can also mean another or together.

tookCXLVI a tambourineCXLVII in her hand; and all the womenCXLVIII went outCXLIX after her with tambourines and with dancing.CL 21 And Miriam sangCLI to them:

“SingCLII to the Lord, for he has triumphed gloriously;
horse and rider he has thrown into the sea.”

Notes on verses 20b-21

CXLVI “took” = laqach. This is to take, accept, carry away, receive. It can also have the sense of take a wife or take in marriage.
CXLVII “tambourine” = toph. 17x in OT. Perhaps from taphaph (to play a drum, timbrel, or tambourine). This is a timbrel or tambourine.
CXLVIII “women” = ishshah. Related to “warrior” in v3. From ish (see note XXII above). This is woman, wife, or female.
CXLIX “went out” = yatsa. This is to go or come out, bring forth, appear. It is to go out in a literal or figurative sense.
CL “dancing” = mecholah. Related to “army” in v4 & “pangs” in v14. 8x in OT. from machol (round dance); from chul (see note XXVII above). This is a dance.
CLI “sang” = anah. This is answer, respond, announce, sing, shout, or testify. It means to pay attention, which implies responding and, by extension, starting to talk. Used in a specific sense for singing, shouting, testifying, etc.
CLII “sing” = shir. Same as “sang” in v1. See note III above.

22 Then Moses ordered Israel to set outCLIII from the Red Sea, and they wentCLIV into the wildernessCLV of Shur.CLVI They wentCLVII threeCLVIII daysCLIX in the wilderness and foundCLX no water. 

Notes on verse 22

CLIII “ordered…to set out” = nasa. This is properly pulling up as when one pulls up tent pegs or stakes. This would imply striking tents in order to start a journey. So this could be bring, pullout, set out, journey, or cause to go away.
CLIV “went” = yatsa. Same as “went out” in v20. See note CXLIX above.
CLV “wilderness” = midbar. From dabar (to speak, command, declare). This is mouth or speech. It can also be desert or wilderness. Additionally, it can be used for a pasture to which one drives cattle.
CLVI “Shur” = Shur. Perhaps from shur (to travel, turn, journey; travelling like a prostitute or a merchant) OR from shur (to excite, to rise up). This is Sur, a desert place in eastern Egypt. It may mean “wall,” “bull,” or “fortification.”  See https://www.abarim-publications.com/Meaning/Shur.html
CLVII “went” = halak. Same as “walked” in v19. See note CXXXIX above.
CLVIII “three” = shalosh. Related to “officers” in v4. See note XXX above.
CLIX “days” = yom. Root may mean being hot. This is the day in a literal or figurative sense. It can also mean birth, age, daylight, continually or other references to time.
CLX “found” = matsa. This is to find, catch or acquire. It can also mean to come forth or appear. Figuratively, this can mean to meet or be together with.

23 When they cameCLXI to Marah,CLXII they couldCLXIII not drinkCLXIV the water of Marah because it was bitter.CLXV

Notes on verse 23a

CLXI “came” = bo. Same as “brought…in” in v17. See note CXIX above.
CLXII “Marah” = Marah. 5x in OT. From the same as mar (bitterness literal or figurative); from marar (to be bitter, enraged, weep, grieve; properly, to trickle; to become bitter in a literal or figurative sense). This is Marah, a place whose name means “bitter.”
CLXIII “could” = yakol. This is to be able, endure, overcome, prevail.
CLXIV “drink” = shathah. This is to drink literally or figuratively. It could also be a drinker.
CLXV “bitter” = mar. Related to “Marah” in v23. See note CLXII above.

That is whyCLXVI it was calledCLXVII Marah. 24 And the people complainedCLXVIII against Moses, saying, “What shall we drink?” 

25 He cried outCLXIX to the Lord;CLXX and the LordCLXXI showedCLXXII him

Notes on verses 23b-25a

CLXVI “that is why” = al + ken. Ken is related to “place” and “established” in v17. Perhaps from kun (see note CXXIII above). This is to set upright. Generally used figuratively to mean thus, so, afterwards, rightly so.
CLXVII “called” = qara + shem. Qara is to call or call out – to call someone by name. Also used more broadly for calling forth. Shem is the same as “name” in v3. See note XXIV above.
CLXVIII “complained” = lun. This is to stop – usually to lodge for the night. It can imply dwelling, enduring, or staying permanently. Figuratively, it can mean being obstinate, particularly with one’s words – to complain.
CLXIX “cried out” = tsaaq. This is to cry out or call together, to shriek. It can mean, by implication, calling for an assembly.
CLXX “Lord” = YHVH. Same as “Lord” in v1. See note V above.
CLXXI “Lord” = YHVH. Same as “Lord” in v1. See note V above.
CLXXII “showed” = yarah. Same as “cast” in v4. See note XXVIII above.

a piece of wood;CLXXIII he threwCLXXIV it into the water, and the water became sweet.CLXXV

Notes on verse 25b

CLXXIII “piece of wood” = ets. Perhaps from atsah (to shut, fasten, firm up, to close one’s eyes). This is tree or other things related to trees like wood, sticks, or stalks. It can also refer to wood products like a plank or staff or gallows. Additionally, this can refer to a carpenter.
CLXXIV “threw” = shalak. This is to throw, fling, or hurl. It can also be to throw away in a literal or figurative sense.
CLXXV “became sweet” = mathoq. 5x in OT. This is to be sweet, sweeten, become pleasant, cover, to suck, to relish.

There the Lord madeCLXXVI for them a statuteCLXXVII and an ordinanceCLXXVIII and there he put them to the test.CLXXIX 

Notes on verse 25c

CLXXVI “made” = sum. Related to “name” in v3. See note XXIV above.
CLXXVII “statute” = choq. From chaqaq (to inscribe, carve, or decree; a lawmaker; literally, this is engraving, but it implies enacting a law because laws were carved into stone or metal). This is statute, boundary, condition, custom, limit, ordinance It is something that is prescribed or something that is owed.
CLXXVIII “ordinance” = mishpat. From shaphat (to judge, defend, pronounce judgment, condemn, govern). This is a verdict or formal sentence whether from humans or from God. It includes the act of judging as well as the place that judging takes place, the suit itself, and the penalty. Abstractly, this is justice, which includes the rights of the participants.
CLXXIX “put…to the test” = nasah. This is to test, prove, try, tempt, or attempt.

26 He said, “If you will listen carefullyCLXXX to the voiceCLXXXI of the LordCLXXXII your God,CLXXXIII

Notes on verse 26a

CLXXX “listen carefully” = shama + shama. Same as “heard” in v14. See note XCV above. The word is repeated twice – the first time as an Infinitive Absolute. The Infinitive Absolute serves to emphasize the sentiment of the word. It is rather like Foghorn Leghorn’s speech pattern, “I said, I said.”
CLXXXI “voice” = qol. This is a sound, used often for human voices. Also used when God speaks or angels, animals or instruments. It can be a cry or a noise, thunder or earthquakes and so on.
CLXXXII “Lord” = YHVH. Same as “Lord” in v1. See note V above.
CLXXXIII “God” = Elohim. Same as “God” in v2. See note XIX above.

and do what is rightCLXXXIV in his sight,CLXXXV and give heedCLXXXVI to his commandmentsCLXXXVII and keepCLXXXVIII all his statutes,

Notes on verse 26b

CLXXXIV “what is right” = yashar. From yashar (to be straight, right, even, smooth, or agreeable; figuratively, to make something pleasant or prosperous). This is straight, right, level. Also, it is pleasing, whether pleasing God or pleasing other people. So, it is upright or righteous.
CLXXXV “sight” = ayin. This is eye in a literal or figurative sense so eye, appearance, favor, or a fountain (the eye of the landscape).
CLXXXVI “give heed” = azan. Perhaps from ozen (ear, hearing, audience, show; properly, broadness – applied to its ear in reference to its shape). Properly, this is to expand or broaden one’s ear i.e. listen intently, pay attention, heed.
CLXXXVII “commandments” = mitsvah. From tsavah (to charge, command, order, enjoin). This is a commandment, law, ordinance obligation, or tradition. It is something commanded whether by God or by a human authority. This term is sometimes used collectively to refer to the Law.
CLXXXVIII “keep” = shamar. This is to keep, watch, or preserve. It means to guard something or to protect it as a thorny hedge protects something.

I will not bring upon you anyCLXXXIX of the diseasesCXC that I broughtCXCI upon the Egyptians;CXCII for I am the LordCXCIII who healsCXCIV you.”

Notes on verse 26c

CLXXXIX “any” = kol. Same as “all” in v15. See note CVII above.
CXC “diseases” = machaleh. 6x in OT. From chalah (to be worn; hence, being weak, sick, or afflicted; to grieve or, positively, to flatter or entreat). This is a sickness or infirmity.
CXCI “brought” = sum. Same as “made” in v25. See note CLXXVI above.
CXCII “Egyptians” = Mitsri. From the same as mitsrayim (Egypt); perhaps from matsor (besieged or fortified place, bulwark, entrenchment; something hemmed in; a siege or distress or fastness); from tsur (to confine, besiege, to cramp). This is Egyptian.
CXCIII “Lord” = YHVH. Same as “Lord” in v1. See note V above.
CXCIV “heals” = rapha. Properly, this is to repair by stitching – figuratively this means to heal or cure. It can also mean to make whole.

27 Then they came to Elim,CXCV where there were twelveCXCVI springsCXCVII of water and seventyCXCVIII palm trees;CXCIX and they campedCC there by the water.

Notes on verse 27

CXCV “Elim” = Elim. Related to “leaders” in v15. 6x in OT. From ayil (see note CV above) OR from alal (to stick out, protrude). This is Elim, a place whose name means “terebinths,” “palm-trees,” “large trees,” “grove of oaks,” or “protruder.” See https://www.abarim-publications.com/Meaning/Elim.html
CXCVI “twelve” = shenayim + asar. Shenayim is from sheni (double, again, another, second); from shanah (to fold, repeat, double, alter, or disguise). This is two, both, second, couple. Asar is from the same as eser (ten). This is ten or -teen.  
CXCVII “springs” = ayin. Same as “sight” in v26. See note CLXXXV above.
CXCVIII “seventy” = shibim. From sheba (seven – the number of perfection/sacred fullness). This is seventy.
CXCIX “palm trees” = tamar. 12x in OT. From the same as tomer (palm tree, the trunk of that tree, a post). The root may mean being erect. This is a date palm or other palm tree. This is also the root of Tamar’s name in the Bible.
CC “camped” = chanah. This is decline, bending down, or living in tents. It can be camping to create a home or camping as a part of battle.

Image credit: “Miriam’s Song” by Samuel Hirszenberg.

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