Exodus 2

Exodus 2


1 Now a manI from the houseII of LeviIII

Notes on verse 1a

I “man” = ish. Perhaps from enosh (human, humankind, mortal); from anash (to be weak, sick, or frail). This is man, husband, another, or humankind.
II “house” = bayit. Probably from banah (to build, make, set up, obtain children; to build literally or figuratively). This is house, court, family, palace, temple.
III “Levi” = Levi. Perhaps from lavah (to join, twine, unite, remain, borrow, lend). This is Levi, perhaps meaning “attached.” It can refer to Jacob’s son, his tribe, and descendants.

wentIV and marriedV a Levite woman.VI 2 The womanVII conceivedVIII and boreIX a son;X

Notes on verses 1b-2a

IV “went” = halak. This is go, come, walk. It is walk literally and figuratively and includes people and animals. It can be used figuratively for one’s moral life – how we walk according to God’s way or against it. It can also refer to the walk of life as in the course one’s life takes, the choices we make, etc.
V “married” = laqach. This is to take, accept, carry away, receive. It can also have the sense of take a wife or take in marriage.
VI “Levite woman” = bat + Levi. Literally, “a daughter of Levi.” Bat is related to “house” in v1. From ben (son literal or figurative; also, grandson, subject, nation); from banah (see note II above). This is daughter in a literal or figurative sense. Levi is the same as “Levi” in v1. See note III above.
VII “woman” = ishsah. Related to “man” in v1. From ish (see note I above). This is woman, wife, or female.
VIII “conceived” = harah. This is to conceive or be pregnant – it can be literal or figurative.
IX “bore” = yalad. This is to bear or bring forth. It can mean to act as midwife or to show one’s lineage. This is often used for birth or begetting.
X “son” = ben. Related to “house” and “woman” in v1. See note VI above.

and when she sawXI that he was a fineXII baby, she hidXIII him threeXIV months.XV 

Notes on verse 2b

XI “saw” = raah. This is to see in a literal or figurative sense so stare, advise, think, view.
XII “fine” = tob. From tob (to be pleasing, to be good). This is good, beautiful, pleasant, agreeable, bountiful, at ease. This word is used for goodness as a concept, a good thing, a good person. This can refer to prosperity and welfare as well as joy, kindness, sweetness, and graciousness. So, this is ethically good, but also enjoyably good.
XIII “hid” = tsaphan. This is to hide something by covering it. It implies hoarding or keeping something in reserve. It can mean to protect or to lurk.
XIV “three” = shalosh. This is three, fork, three times.
XV “months” = yerach. 13x in OT. From the same as yareach (moon). This is month.

3 When she couldXVI hide him no longer she gotXVII a papyrusXVIII basketXIX for him, and plasteredXX it with bitumenXXI and pitch;XXII

Notes on verse 3a

XVI “could” = yakol. This is to be able, endure, overcome, prevail.
XVII “got” = laqach. Same as “married” in v1. See note V above.
XVIII “papyrus” = gome. 4x n OT. From gama (to drink or absorb, literally or figuratively). This is something that is absorbent, i.e. a reed or rush. It can also be used for papyrus or wicker.
XIX “basket” = tebah. Probably from Egyptian T-b-t (chest, coffin). Used for Moses’ basket, Noah’s ark, and the ark of the covenant.
XX “plastered” = chamar. 6x in OT– including plastering Moses’s basket with bitumen and pitch in Exodus 2:3. This is to boil up, ferment, be red, befoul, trouble, daub with pitch.
XXI “bitumen” = chemar. Related to “plastered” in v3. 3x in OT– used of the tower of Babel and the basket that Moses was floated in.  From chamar (see note XX above). This is bitumen or asphalt.
XXII “pitch” = zephet. 3x in OT. Root may mean to liquify. This is pitch or asphalt.

she putXXIII the childXXIV in it and placedXXV it among the reedsXXVI on the bankXXVII of the river.XXVIII 

Notes on verse 3b

XXIII “put” = sum. This is to put or place in a literal or figurative sense. It can be appoint, care, change, make, and may other things.
XXIV “child” = yeled. Related to “bore” in v2. From yalad (see note IX above). This is something born – so, offspring, youth, fruit. It is the same word used in Isaiah 9:6 “for a child will be born to us.”
XXV “placed” = sum. Same as “put” in v3. See note XXIII above.
XXVI “reeds” = suph. Perhaps from Egyptian twfi (reeds). This is reeds or rushes. It can be used particularly to refer to papyrus, or a flag. See https://www.abarim-publications.com/Dictionary/sa/sa-p-pfin.html#.XzHCuChKhPY
XXVII “bank” = saphah. This is lip, edge, border, bank – used for a boundary. It can also be speech or language.
XXVIII “river” = yeor. From Egyptian yeor (river). This is the Nile as the main river in Egypt. It is also used for the Tigris for its similar status in Assyria. It can also more generally mean river, steam, channel, or flood.

His sisterXXIX stoodXXX at a distance,XXXI to seeXXXII what would happenXXXIII to him.

Notes on verse 4

XXIX “sister” = achot. From the same as ach (brother, kindred, another, other, like). This is sister in a literal or figurative sense. It can also mean another or together.
XXX “stood” = yatsab. This is to set oneself, take a stand, remain, continue, to station or set something in place.
XXXI “at a distance” = rachoq. From rachaq (to widen, become distant, cast, or remove in a literal or figurative sense). This is distant or far, whether of space or of time.
XXXII “see” = yada. This is to know, acknowledge, advise, answer, be aware, be acquainted with. Properly, this is to figure something out by seeing. It includes ideas of observation, recognition, and care about something. It can be used causatively for instruction, designation, and punishment.
XXXIII “happen” = asah. This is to make, do, act, appoint, become in many senses.

5 The daughterXXXIV of PharaohXXXV came downXXXVI to batheXXXVII at the river,

Notes on verse 5a

XXXIV “daughter” = bat. Same as “woman” in v1. See note VI above.
XXXV “Pharaoh” = Paroh. From Egyptian pr (palace, pharaoh; literally house + great). This is Pharaoh, a title for Egyptian kings. See https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/pharaoh
XXXVI “came down” = yarad. This is to go down, descend; going down in a literal or figurative sense. It can be going to the shore or a boundary, bringing down an enemy.
XXXVII “bathe” = rachats. This is to wash, wash away – it can be complete or partial.

while her attendantsXXXVIII walkedXXXIX besideXL the river. She saw the basket amongXLI the reeds and sentXLII her maidXLIII to bringXLIV it. 

Notes on verse 5b

XXXVIII “attendants” = naarah. From naar (child or a servant; a child in their active years so they could be aged anywhere from infancy to adolescence); perhaps from naar (to shake, toss up and down, tumble around). This is a girl or young lady ranging anywhere in age from infancy to adolescence.
XXXIX “walked” = halak. Same as “went” in v1. See note IV above.
XL “beside” = yad. This is hand, ability, power. Hand in a literal sense, but also what one can do or the means by which one does it.
XLI “among” = tavek. This is among, middle, in the midst, the center. Perhaps, properly, to sever.
XLII “sent” = shalach. This is to send out, away, send for, forsake. It can also mean to divorce or set a slave free.
XLIII “maid” = amah. This is female servant or slave, handmaid.
XLIV “bring” = laqach. Same as “married” in v1. See note V above.

When she openedXLV it, she saw the child.XLVI HeXLVII was crying,XLVIII and she took pityXLIX on him. “This must be one of the Hebrews’L children,” she said. 

Notes on verse 6

XLV “opened” = patach. This is to open wide in a literal or figurative sense. So, it is open, draw out, let something go free, break forth. It can also mean to plow, engrave, or carve.
XLVI {untranslated} = hinneh. From hen (lo! Behold! If, though; an expression of surprise). This is to draw attention, show suddenness or surprise, or to emphasize the importance of the coming statement. See! Lo! Behold!
XLVII “he” = naar. Related to “attendants” in v5. See note XXXVIII above.
XLVIII “crying” = bakah. This is to weep, complain, or lament.
XLIX “took pity” = chamal. This is to spare, commiserate, show compassion.
L “Hebrews’” = Ibri. From Eber (the region beyond; Eber, the name of several Israelites including a descendant of Shem); from abar (to pass over, pass through, or pass by; cross over or to alienate; used for transitions). This is Hebrew, perhaps meaning a descendant of Eber.

Then his sister said to Pharaoh’s daughter, “Shall I go and getLI you a nurseLII from the Hebrew women to nurse the child for you?”

Pharaoh’s daughter said to her, “Yes.”LIII So the girlLIV went and calledLV the child’s mother.LVI 

Notes on verses 7-8

LI “get” = qara. This is to call or call out – to call someone by name. Also used more broadly for calling forth.
LII “nurse” = yanaq. This is to suckle or to nurse. In a causative sense, it can mean to give milk. So, this word can be used for a nursing mother or for her suckling child.
LIII “yes” = halak. Same as “went” in v1. See note IV above.
LIV “girl” = almah. 7x in OT– this is the same word used in Isaiah 7:14 to refer to the “young woman” who is with child and shall name her son Immanuel. From elem (youth, lad, stripling; something that remains out of view); perhaps from alam (to hide, conceal, a dissembler; to conceal in a literal or figurative sense). This is a young woman or girl. It can be a maid as one who is veiled. By extension, this can mean virgin since a girl/young woman was presumed to be a virgin.
LV “called” = qara. Same as “get” in v7. See note LI above.
LVI “mother” = em. This is a mother as binding a family together or a breeding female animal. It could be mother in a literal or figurative sense.

9 Pharaoh’s daughter said to her, “TakeLVII this child and nurse it for me, and I will giveLVIII you your wages.”LIX So the woman tookLX the child and nursedLXI it. 10 When the child grew up,LXII she broughtLXIII him to Pharaoh’s daughter, and she tookLXIV him as her son.

Notes on verses 9-10a

LVII “take” = halak. Same as “went” in v1. See note IV above.
LVIII “give” = natan. This is to give, put, set, offer. It is to give literally or figuratively.
LIX “wages” = sakar. From sakar (to hire, reward, earn). This is wages, payment, service, salary, worth, reward, or benefit.
LX “took” = laqach. Same as “married” in v1. See note V above.
LXI “nursed” = nuq. 1x in OT. This is to suckle or nurse.
LXII “grew up” = gadal. This is to grow up, become great, become wealthy – to advance. The root meaning may be to twist in the sense of the process of growing.
LXIII “brought” = bo. This is to enter, come in, advance, fulfill, bring offerings, enter to worship, attack. It can also have a sexual connotation.
LXIV “took” = hayah. This is to be or become, to happen.

She namedLXV him Moses,LXVI “because,” she said, “I drewLXVII him out of the water.”LXVIII

Notes on verse 10b

LXV “named” = qara + shem. Literally, “called his name.” Qara is the same as “get” in v7. See note LI above. Shem is related to “put” in v3. May be from sum (see note XXIII above). This is name, fame, renown. A name was thought to indicate something essential about a person – something about their individuality. So, this word can also mean honor, authority, or character.
LXVI “Moses” = Mosheh. From mashah (to pull out in a literal or figurative sense, to draw out) OR from Egyptian mes or mesu (child, son i.e. child of…). This is Moses – the one drawn out from the water, which is to say, rescued. If derived from the Egyptian, his name would share a root with Rameses and Thutmose.
LXVII “drew” = mashah. Related to “Moses” in v10. 3x in OT. See note LXVI above.
LXVIII “water” = mayim. This is water, waters, or waterway in a general sense. Figuratively, it can also mean juice, urine, or semen.

11 LXIXOne day,LXX after Moses had grown up, he went outLXXI to his peopleLXXII and saw their forced labor.LXXIII

Notes on verse 11a

LXIX {untranslated} = hayah. Same as “took” in v10. See note LXIV above.
LXX “day” = yom. Root may mean being hot. This is the day in a literal or figurative sense. It can also mean birth, age, daylight, continually or other references to time.
LXXI “went out” = yatsa. This is to go or come out, bring forth, appear. It is to go out in a literal or figurative sense.
LXXII “people” = ach. Related to “sister” in v4. See note XXIX above.
LXXIII “forced labor” = siblah. 6x n OT. From sabal (to carry a heavy load, do strong labor, be a burden; specially, to be pregnant). This is a burden or forced labor.

He sawLXXIV an EgyptianLXXV beatingLXXVI aLXXVII Hebrew, one of his kinsfolk.LXXVIII 

Notes on verse 11b

LXXIV {untranslated} = ish. Same as “man” in v1. See note I above.
LXXV “Egyptian” = Mitsri. From the same as mitsrayim (Egypt); perhaps from matsor (besieged or fortified place, bulwark, entrenchment; something hemmed in; a siege or distress or fastness); from tsur (to confine, besiege, to cramp). This is Egyptian.
LXXVI “beating” = nakah. This is to hit whether lightly or severely. It can be used in a literal or figurative sense. So, this could be beat, punish, give wounds, kill, or slaughter.
LXXVII {untranslated} = ish. Same as “man” in v1. See note I above.
LXXVIII “kinsfolk” = ach. Same as “people” in v11. See note LXXII above.

12 He lookedLXXIX this way and that, and seeing no oneLXXX he killedLXXXI the Egyptian and hidLXXXII him in the sand.LXXXIII 

Notes on verse 12

LXXIX “looked” = panah. This is to turn, regard, appear, look, prepare.
LXXX “one” = ish. Same as “man” in v1. See note I above.
LXXXI “killed” = nakah. Same as “beating” in v11. See note LXXVI above.
LXXXII “hid” = taman. This is to hide, bury, keep in reserve. It is hiding something by covering it.
LXXXIII “sand” = chol. From chul (whirling around so dancing as in a circle or writhing in pain; used particularly for the pain of childbirth or from writhing due to fear; can also be falling in pain or waiting). This is sand, perhaps because of its roundness or the way that the grains can whirl.

13 When he went out the nextLXXXIV day,LXXXV he saw twoLXXXVI, LXXXVII Hebrews fighting;LXXXVIII and he said to the one who was in the wrong,LXXXIX “Why do you strikeXC your fellowXCI Hebrew?” 

Notes on verse 13

LXXXIV “next” = sheni. From shanah (to fold, repeat, double, alter, or disguise). This is double, again, another, second.
LXXXV {untranslated} = hinneh. Same as {untranslated} in v6. See note XLVI above.
LXXXVI “two” = shenayim. Related to “next” in v13. From sheni (see note LXXXIV above). This is two, both, second, couple.
LXXXVII {untranslated} = ish. Same as “man” in v1. See note I above.
LXXXVIII “fighting” = natsah. 11x in OT. Properly, this means to go forth so it implies being expelled. This, in turn, implies being desolate or, causatively, to be laid waste. It can mean waste or ruinous. It can also be used figuratively for quarreling or striving together.
LXXXIX “one who was in the wrong” = rasha. This is morally wrong so it refers to someone who is actively bad as wicked, criminal, an evil person, offender, condemned, or ungodly.
XC “strike” = nakah. Same as “beating” in v11. See note LXXVI above.
XCI “fellow” = rea. From raah (to associate with). This is the same as neighbor in Leviticus 19:18 “love your neighbor as yourself.” This is friend, companion, fellow, neighbor. It is someone with whom you associate, whether more or less close.

14 He answered, “Who madeXCII you aXCIII rulerXCIV and judgeXCV over us? Do you mean to killXCVI me as you killedXCVII the Egyptian?”

Notes on verse 14a

XCII “made” = sum. Same as “put” in v3. See note XXIII above.
XCIII {untranslated} = ish. Same as “man” in v1. See note I above.
XCIV “ruler” = sar. This is chief, leader, ruler, lord, official, governor, prince, military leader. It refers to someone at the top of a rank or class.
XCV “judge” = shaphat. This is to judge, defend, pronounce judgment, condemn, or govern. It can refer to God judging or to human judges. This is pronouncing a verdict in favor or against so it implies consequences or punishment. It can also mean to litigate or govern as one with authority.
XCVI “kill” = harag. This is to strike with deadly intent so it can be kill, destroy, murder, or put to death.
XCVII “killed” = harag. Same as “kill” in v14. See note XCVI above.

Then Moses was afraidXCVIII and thought, “SurelyXCIX the thingC is known.”CI 

Notes on verse 14b

XCVIII “was afraid” = yare. This is to fear, be afraid, dreadful. It can also refer to fearful reverence – to fear in a moral sense is to say to revere, respect.
XCIX “surely” = aken. 18x in OT. From kun (properly, in a perpendicular position; literally, to establish, fix, fasten, prepare; figuratively, it is certainty, to be firm, faithfulness, render sure or prosperous). This is surely, truly, nevertheless.
C “thing” = dabar. From dabar (to speak, declare, discuss). This is speech, a word, a matter, an affair, charge, command, message, promise, purpose, report, request. It is a word, which implies things that are spoken of in a wide sense.
CI “known” = yada. Same as “see” in v4. See note XXXII above.

15 When Pharaoh heardCII of it,CIII he soughtCIV to killCV Moses.

Notes on verse 15a

CII “heard” = shama. This is to hear, call, consent, or consider. It implies listening intelligently, giving attention, and, because of these two factors, obedience and action are often implied.
CIII “it” = dabar. Same as “thing” in v14. See note C above.
CIV “sought” = baqash. This is to seek, ask, desire, or request. It can be any kind of searching. It can also mean to worship or pray – implies a striving for.
CV “kill” = harag. Same as “kill” in v14. See note XCVI above.

But Moses fledCVI fromCVII Pharaoh. He settledCVIII in the landCIX of Midian,CX and sat downCXI by a well.CXII 

Notes on verse 15b

CVI “fled” = barach. This is to flee, drive away, hurry, to bolt.
CVII “from” = paneh. Related to “looked” in v12. From panah (see note LXXIX above). This is face in a literal or figurative sense. It could be face, presence, anger, respect. It can also be used of God to indicate divine favor or presence.
CVIII “settled” = yashab. This is to sit and so to remain and so to dwell. It is sitting for any reason – as a judge, in order to ambush, or just sitting quietly. Causatively, this can mean settling or marrying. This can also mean continue, endure, or establish.
CIX “land” = erets. Root may mean to be firm. This is earth, ground, field land, or country.
CX “Midian” = Midyan. From the same as madon (strife, contention, brawling); from din (to judge, defend, dispute, govern, strive). This is Midian or a Midianite. It means strife or place of judgment.
CXI “sat down” = yashab. Same as “settled” in v15. See note CVIII above.
CXII “well” = beer. From baar (to make plain; to dig; can also mean to engrave or figuratively to explain). This is a well or pit.

16 The priestCXIII of Midian had sevenCXIV daughters. They cameCXV to draw water,CXVI

Notes on verse 16a

CXIII “priest” = kohen. This is literally the one who officiates i.e. the priest. This is where the Jewish last name “Cohen” (and its variants) comes from.
CXIV “seven” = sheba. This is seven or by sevenfold. It can also be used to imply a week or an indefinite number. Symbolically, this is the number of fullness, sacredness, perfection.
CXV “came” = bo. Same as “brought” in v10. See note LXIII above.
CXVI “draw water” = dalah. 5x n OT. This is to draw, lift up. Properly, it is to dangle, to draw water. Figuratively, it can mean to deliver.

and filledCXVII the troughsCXVIII to waterCXIX their father’sCXX flock.CXXI 

Notes on verse 16b

CXVII “filled” = male. This is fill, satisfy, replenish, accomplish, fulfill, confirm, or consecrate. It is fill in a literal or figurative sense.
CXVIII “troughs” = rahat. 4x in OT. May be from a word that means to hollow. This is a trough or channel. It can also refer to tresses because of how hair falls in parallel.
CXIX “water” = shaqah. This is to give water to, to cause to drink – to irrigate, drown. It can be used for watering plants or giving water to flocks.
CXX “father’s” = ab. This is father, chief, or ancestor. It is father in a literal or figurative sense.
CXXI “flock” = tson. This is a flock of sheep and goats.

17 But some shepherdsCXXII came and drove them away.CXXIII Moses got upCXXIV and came to their defenseCXXV and watered their flock. 

Notes on verse 17

CXXII “shepherds” = ra’ah. This is to tend a flock, pasture, or graze. It can mean to rule or to associate with someone. Figuratively, it can be ruler or teacher.
CXXIII “drove…away” = garash. This is to cast out or expel. It can be to exile someone or to divorce them.
CXXIV “got up” = qum. To arise, stand, accomplish, establish, abide. This is rising as in rising against, getting up after being sick or asleep, arising from one state to another, becoming powerful, or rising for action. It can also be standing in a figurative sense.
CXXV “came to their defense” = yasha. To deliver, defend, help, preserve, rescue, be safe. Properly, to be open, wide or free, which implies being safe. Used causatively, it means to free.

18 When they returnedCXXVI to their father Reuel,CXXVII he said, “How is it that you have come backCXXVIII so soon today?”CXXIX 

19 They said, “AnCXXX Egyptian helpedCXXXI us againstCXXXII the shepherds; he even drew waterCXXXIII for us and watered the flock.” 

Notes on verses 18-19

CXXVI “returned” = bo. Same as “brought” in v10. See note LXIII above.
CXXVII “Reuel” = Reuel. Related to “fellow” in v13. 11x in OT. From raah (see note XCI above) + el (God, god). This is Reuel, which means “friend of God.”
CXXVIII “come back” = bo. Same as “brought” in v10. See note LXIII above.
CXXIX “today” = yom. Same as “day” in v11. See note LXX above.
CXXX {untranslated} = ish. Same as “man” in v1. See note I above.
CXXXI “helped” = natsal. This is to snatch someone or something away in a good sense – as rescue, defend, or deliver – or in a bad sense – as strip or plunder.
CXXXII “against” = yad. Same as “beside” in v5. See note XL above.
CXXXIII “even drew water” = dalah + dalah. Same as “draw water” in v16. See note CXVI above. The word is repeated twice – the first time as an Infinitive Absolute. The Infinitive Absolute serves to emphasize the sentiment of the word. It is rather like Foghorn Leghorn’s speech pattern, “I said, I said.”

20 He said to his daughters, “Where is he? Why did you leaveCXXXIV the man? InviteCXXXV him to breakCXXXVI bread.”CXXXVII 

21 Moses agreedCXXXVIII to stayCXXXIX with the man, and he gave Moses his daughter ZipporahCXL in marriage.CXLI 

Notes on verses 20-21

CXXXIV “leave” = azab. To loosen, relinquish, permit, forsake, fail, leave destitute.
CXXXV “invite” = qara. Same as “get” in v7. See note LI above.
CXXXVI “break” = akal. This is to eat, devour, burn up, or otherwise consume. It can be eating in a literal or figurative sense.
CXXXVII “bread” = lechem. From lacham (to eat, feed on). This is bread, food, loaf. It can refer to food more generally for people or for animals.
CXXXVIII “agreed” = yaal. 19x in OT. This to be pleased or willing, determined, to take on something, to try, to do willingly, to begin. It can have the idea of assent or consent as well as continuing or persisting.
CXXXIX “stay” = yashab. Same as “settled” in v15. See note CVIII above.
CXL “Zipporah” = Tsipporah. 3x in OT. From the same as tsippor (bird, sparrow; little bird); from tsaphar (to skip about, maybe to depart). This is Zipporah, meaning bird.
CXLI “gave…in marriage” = natan. Same as “give” in v9. See note LVIII above.

22 She bore a son, and he named him Gershom;CXLII for he said, “I have beenCXLIII an alienCXLIV residing in a foreignCXLV land.”

Notes on verse 22

CXLII “Gershom” = Gereshom. Related to “named” in v10 & “drove…away” in v17. 14x in OT. From garash (see note CXXIII above) OR from gur (properly, the act of turning off the road for any reason; sojourning, becoming a guest; being fearful since one is outside of home territory; dwelling, living, or inhabiting if one has turned off the root to encamp for a longer duration) + shem (see note LXV above) OR from gur (see above) + sham (there). This is Gershom, meaning “exile,” “expelled,” “stranger there,” or “stranger is his name.” See https://www.abarim-publications.com/Meaning/Gershom.html
CXLIII “been” = hayah. Same as “took” in v10. See note LXIV above.
CXLIV “alien” = ger. Related to “Gershom” in v22. From gur (see note CXLII above). This is sojourner, guest, stranger, foreigner.
CXLV “foreign” = nokri. From neker (strange; to act foreign or strange; to disguise; can also be misfortune or unexpected calamity); from nakar (to recognize, examine, take notice, show, scrutinize). This is foreign, alien, stranger, extraordinary, adulteress. It is strange in many different senses – foreign, not being one’s relative, different, wonderful, relating to adultery.

23 CXLVIAfter a longCXLVII timeCXLVIII the kingCXLIX of EgyptCL died.CLI

Notes on verse 23a

CXLVI {untranslated} = hayah. Same as “took” in v10. See note LXIV above.
CXLVII “long” = rab. From rabab (increasing in any aspect whether quantity, authority, size, quality, greatness, etc.). This is abundance, many, elder, exceedingly, great. It refers to abundance of amount, rank, or status.
CXLVIII “time” = yom. Same as “day” in v11. See note LXX above.
CXLIX “king” = melek. From malak (to be or become king or queen, to rise to the throne, to be crowned; by implication, to take counsel). This is king or royal.
CL “Egypt” = Mitsrayim. Related to “Egyptian” in v11. See note LXXV above.
CLI “died” = mut. This is to die in a literal or figurative sense. It can also refer to being a dead body.

The IsraelitesCLII groanedCLIII under their slavery,CLIV and cried out.CLV

Notes on verse 23b

CLII “Israelites” = ben + Yisrael. Literally, “children of Israel.” Ben is the same as “son” in v2. See note X above. Yisrael is from sarah (to persist, exert oneself, contend, persevere, wrestle, prevail) + el (see note CXXVII above). This is Israel, meaning God strives or one who strives with God; new name for Jacob and for his offspring. This refers to the people and to the land.
CLIII “groaned” = anach. 12x in OT. This is sighing, groaning, or moaning. It can be as a sign of grief, physical distress, or it could refer to sounds that cattle make.
CLIV “slavery” = abodah. From abad (to work, serve, compel; any kind of work; used causatively, can mean to enslave or keep in bondage). This is labor, service, bondage, job, servitude, worker. It can refer to any kind of work.
CLV “cried out” = zaaq. This is to cry or call out. It can be a call to assemble or gather together. By analogy, this could refer to a herald who announces a public gathering. It could also be a shriek from pain or danger.

Out of the slavery their cryCLVI for help rose upCLVII to God.CLVIII 

24 God heard their groaning,CLIX and God rememberedCLX his covenantCLXI

Notes on verses 23c-24a

CLVI “cry” = shavah. 11x in OT. From shava (crying or shouting aloud; seeking freedom from some kind of trouble). This is cry, cry for help.
CLVII “rose up” = alah. This is to go up, approach, ascend, be high, be a priority; to arise in a literal or figurative sense.
CLVIII “God” = Elohim. Related to “Reuel” in v18 & “Israelites” in v23. See note CXXVII above.
CLIX “groaning” = neaqah. 4x in OT. From naaq (to groan). This is groan or groaning.
CLX “remembered” = zakar. This is to remember, to mark something so that it can be recalled, to be mindful of, to mention.
CLXI “covenant” = berit. Perhaps from barah (to eat, choose, make clear); perhaps from bar (grain, wheat); from bara (to select, purify, cleanse, test, brighten, polish). This is a compact, covenant, alliance, treaty, or league.

with Abraham,CLXII Isaac,CLXIII and Jacob.CLXIV 25 God lookedCLXV upon the Israelites, and God took noticeCLXVI of them.

Notes on verses 24b-25

CLXII “Abraham” = Abraham. Related to “father’s” in v16. From the same as Abiram (exalted father, a high father – lofty) {from ab (see note CXX above) + rum (rise, bring up, being high, extol, exalt, haughty; to raise in a literal or figurative sense)}. This is Abraham, father of many nations or father of a multitude.
CLXIII “Isaac” = Yitschaq. From tsachaq (to laugh, mock, play, make sport; this is laughing out loud whether in joy or in a scornful way). This is Isaac, meaning “he laughs.”
CLXIV “Jacob” = Yaaqob. From the same as aqeb (heel, hind part, hoof, rear guard of an army, one who lies in wait, usurper). This is Isaac’s son and his descendants. The name means heel-catcher or supplanter.
CLXV “looked” = raah. Same as “saw” in v2. See note XI above.
CLXVI “took notice” = yada. Same as “see” in v4. See note XXXII above.

Image credit: “Moses – The First 40 Years” by John Paul Stanley of YoMinistry.

You May Also Like

Leave a Reply