Exodus 22

Exodus 22


1 When someoneI stealsII an oxIII or a sheep,IV

Notes on verse 1a

I “someone” = ish. Perhaps from enosh (human, humankind, mortal); from anash (to be weak, sick, or frail). This is man, husband, another, or humankind.
II “steals” = ganab. This is to steal in a stealthy way rather than through violence. It can also mean to deceive. There is a Yiddish word ganef that derives from this root. It means thief or scoundrel.
III “ox” = shor. Perhaps from shur (to travel, turn, journey; travelling like a prostitute or a merchant). This is bull, ox, head of cattle, cow.
IV “sheep” = seh. Perhaps from sha’ah (to make a loud noise or crash, devastate, rush). This is a lamb, sheep, or goat – a part of a flock.

and slaughtersV it or sellsVI it, the thief shall payVII fiveVIII oxenIX for an ox,X and fourXI sheepXII for a sheep.XIII 

Notes on verse 1

V “slaughters” = tabach. 11x in OT. This is to slaughter or butcher. It can be used to refer to animals or people.
VI “sells” = makar. This is to sell – could be commerce/trade, a daughter to be married, someone into slavery. Figuratively, it can mean to surrender.
VII “pay” = shalam. This is to be complete or sound – to have safety mentally, physically, or extending to one’s estate. So, if these things are safe and complete, the implication is that one would be friendly; and, if being friendly, one would make amends and that friendship would be reciprocated. This is the root verb that “shalom” comes from, the Hebrew word for peace.
VIII “five” = chamesh. This is five or fifth.
IX “oxen” = baqar. From baqar (to plow, break forth; figuratively, to inquire, inspect, consider). This is cattle – an animal used for plowing.
X “ox” = shor. Same as “ox” in v1. See note III above.
XI “four” = arba. From raba (to make square or be four-sided). This is four.
XII “sheep” = tson. This is a flock of sheep and goats.
XIII “sheep” = seh. Same as “sheep” in v1. See note IV above.

If a thiefXIV is foundXV breaking in,XVI and is beatenXVII to death,XVIII no bloodguiltXIX is incurred; 

Notes on verse 2

XIV “thief” = gannab. Related to “steals” in v1. 16x in OT. From ganab (see note II above). This is a thief or one who steals by stealth. It is the root of a Yiddish word for thief ganef.
XV “found” = matsa. This is to find, catch or acquire. It can also mean to come forth or appear. Figuratively, this can mean to meet or be together with.
XVI “breaking in” = machteret. 2x in OT. From chathar (to dig; to rob as when one forces entry to burglarize; figuratively, to row i.e. dig with oars). This is burglary, secret search.
XVII “beaten” = nakah. This is to hit whether lightly or severely. It can be used in a literal or figurative sense. So, this could be beat, punish, give wounds, kill, or slaughter.
XVIII “death” = mut. This is to die in a literal or figurative sense. It can also refer to being a dead body.
XIX “bloodguilt” = dam. Perhaps from damam (to cease, be or become mute, silent, still, cut off, hold peace, be astonished, die). This is blood, bloodshed, bloodguilt, lifeblood, and death. It is used for people and animals. More often blood from a wound or the blood of the innocent. Used figuratively for violence or for wine. Closely tied to life and death.

but if it happens after sunrise,XX bloodguilt is incurred. The thief shall make restitution,XXI but if unable to do so, shall be sold for the theft.XXII 4 When the animal,XXIII whether oxXXIV or donkeyXXV or sheep,XXVI

Notes on verses 3-4a

XX “after sunrise” = zarach + shemesh. Zarach is 18x in OT. This is to rise, shine, or dawn. It can also be used to describe symptoms of leprosy. Shemesh is sun or toward the east. Its root may mean being brilliant. Figuratively, this could be a ray or an arch.
XXI “make restitution” = shalam + shalam. Same as “pay” in v1. See note VII above. The word is repeated twice – the first time as an Infinitive Absolute. The Infinitive Absolute serves to emphasize the sentiment of the word. It is rather like Foghorn Leghorn’s speech pattern, “I said, I said.”
XXII “theft” = genebah. Related to “steals” in v1 & “thief” in v2. 2x in OT – both in this passage. From ganab (see note II above). This is something that has been stolen.
XXIII “animal” = genebah. Same as “theft” in v3. See note XXII above.
XXIV “ox” = shor. Same as “ox” in v1. See note III above.
XXV “donkey” = chamor. From chamar (to be red, blush). This is a male donkey.
XXVI “sheep” = seh. Same as “sheep” in v1. See note IV above.

is foundXXVII aliveXXVIII in the thief’s possession,XXIX the thief shall pay double.XXX

Notes on verse 4b

XXVII “found” = matsa + matsa. Same as “found” in v2. See note XV above. It is also an infinitive absolute like “make restitution” in v3. See note XXI above.
XXVIII “alive” = chay. From chayah (to live or keep alive literally or figuratively). This is alive, living, lifetime. It can also be used to describe someone’s age. It can refer to animals, plants, water, or a company or congregation of people. It is life in a very broad sense.
XXIX “possession” = yad. This is hand, ability, power. Hand in a literal sense, but also what one can do or the means by which one does it.
XXX “double” = shenayim. From sheni (double, again, another, second); from shanah (to fold, repeat, double, alter, or disguise). This is two, both, second, couple.

5 When someone causes a fieldXXXI or vineyardXXXII to be grazedXXXIII over, or lets livestockXXXIV looseXXXV to graze in someone else’sXXXVI field, restitution shall be made from the bestXXXVII in the owner’s field orXXXVIII vineyard.

Notes on verse 5

XXXI “field” = sadeh. This is literally field, ground, soil, or land. It can be used to mean wild like a wild animal.
XXXII “vineyard” = kerem. This is a vineyard, garden, vines, or a vintage.
XXXIII “grazed” = ba’ar. This is to burn, consume, heat, remove. It can also be to consume by a fire or through eating, being brutish or wasting.
XXXIV “livestock” = beir. Related to “grazed” in v5. 6x in OT. From ba’ar (see note XXXIII above). This is animal or cattle.
XXXV “lets…loose” = shalach. This is to send out, away, send for, forsake. It can also mean to divorce or set a slave free.
XXXVI “someone else’s” = acher. From achar (to be behind, delay, be late, procrastinate, continue). This is following, next, strange, other.
XXXVII “best” = metab. 6x in OT. From yatab (to be good or pleasing, joyful; doing good in an ethical sense or to be beautiful, happy, successful, or right). This is the best part.
XXXVIII {untranslated} = metab. Same as “best” in v5. See note XXXVII above.

When fireXXXIX breaks outXL and catchesXLI in thornsXLII

Notes on verse 6a

XXXIX “fire” = esh. This is fire, burning, flaming, hot. It is fire in a literal or figurative sense.
XL “breaks out” = yatsa. This is to go or come out, bring forth, appear. It is to go out in a literal or figurative sense.
XLI “catches” = matsa. Sam as “found” in v2. See note XV above.
XLII “thorns” = qots. 12x in OT. Perhaps from quts (summer, clip off); from qayits (fruit, harvest, dry season). This is a thorn or thornbush.

so that the stacked grainXLIII or the standing grainXLIV or the field is consumed,XLV the one who startedXLVI the fireXLVII shall make full restitution.XLVIII

Notes on verse 6b

XLIII “stacked grain” = gadiysh. 4x in OT. This is a heap of sheaves. Figuratively, it can refer to a tomb.
XLIV “standing grain” = qamah. 10x in OT. From qum (to arise, stand, accomplish, establish, abide; rising against, getting up after being sick or asleep, arising from one state to another, becoming powerful, or rising for action; standing in a figurative sense). This is something that arises, a stalk. It is used for grains.
XLV “consumed” = akal. This is to eat, devour, burn up, or otherwise consume. It can be eating in a literal or figurative sense.
XLVI “started” = ba’ar. Same as “grazed” in v5. See note XXXIII above.
XLVII “fire” = beerah. Related to “grazed” and “livestock” in v5. From ba’ar (see note XXXIII above). This is a burning or fire.
XLVIII “make full restitution” = shalam + shalam. Same as “pay” in v1. See note VII above. It is also an infinitive absolute like “make restitution” in v3. See note XXI above.

When someone deliversXLIX to a neighborL moneyLI

Notes on verse 7a

XLIX “delivers” = natan. This is to give, put, set, offer. It is to give literally or figuratively.
L “neighbor” = rea. From raah (to associate with). This is the same as neighbor in Leviticus 19:18 “love your neighbor as yourself.” This is friend, companion, fellow, neighbor. It is someone with whom you associate, whether more or less close.
LI “money” = keseph. From kasaph (to long for, be greedy; to become pale). This is silver or money.

or goodsLII for safekeeping,LIII and they are stolen from the neighbor’sLIV house,LV then the thief, if caught, shall pay double. 

Notes on verse 7b

LII “goods” = keli. From kalah (to end, be finished, complete, prepare, consume, spent, or completely destroyed). This is something that was prepared – any implement, utensil, article, vessel, weapon, or instrument. Also includes jewels, weapons, bags, carriages, and furniture.
LIII “safekeeping” = shamar. This is to keep, watch, or preserve. It means to guard something or to protect it as a thorny hedge protects something.
LIV “neighbor’s” = ish. Same as “someone” in v1. See note I above.
LV “house” = bayit. Probably from banah (to build, make, set up, obtain children; to build literally or figuratively). This is house, court, family, palace, temple.

If the thief is not caught, the ownerLVI of the house shall be broughtLVII before God,LVIII to determine whether or not the owner had laidLIX handsLX on the neighbor’sLXI goods.LXII

Notes on verse 8

LVI “owner” = baal. From baal (to marry, have dominion, be master). This is lord, owner, ally, master, or archer.
LVII “brought” = qarab. This is to come near, offer, make ready, approach, take.
LVIII “God” = Elohim.
LIX “laid” = shalach. Same as “lets…loose” in v5. See note XXXV above.
LX “hands” = yad. Same as “possession” in v4. See note XXIX above.
LXI “neighbor’s” = rea. Same as “neighbor” in v7. See note L above.
LXII “goods” = melakah. From the same as malak (messenger, an angel, or a deputy; human messengers literally or for prophets, priests, or teachers as messengers of God; also supernatural messengers i.e. angels). Properly, this is a deputyship or some kind of work. It can also be the product that comes from labor.

In anyLXIII caseLXIV of disputed ownershipLXV involving ox,LXVI

Notes on verse 9a

LXIII “any” = kol. From kalal (to complete). This is all or every.
LXIV “case” = dabar. From dabar (to speak, declare, discuss). This is speech, a word, a matter, an affair, charge, command, message, promise, purpose, report, request. It is a word, which implies things that are spoken of in a wide sense.
LXV “disputed ownership” = pesha. From pasha (to rebel, offend, quarrel; making a break from proper authority so can also refer to an apostate). This is transgression, rebellion, or sin. It could be a revolt on a national scale or an individual moral one.
LXVI “ox” = shor. Same as “ox” in v1. See note III above.

donkey, sheep,LXVII clothing,LXVIII or any other loss,LXIX of which one party says, “This is mine,” the case of bothLXX parties shall comeLXXI before God; the one whom God condemnsLXXII shall pay double to the other.LXXIII

Notes on verse 9b

LXVII “sheep” = seh. Same as “sheep” in v1. See note IV above.
LXVIII “clothing” = salmah. 16x in OT. From simlah (mantle, clothes, wrapper); perhaps from semel (image, figure, likeness). This is the same word as simlah with the letters transposed. So, this is clothing, a cloak, or mantle.
LXIX “loss” = abedah. 4x in OT – all in the Torah. From abad (to wander off, lose self; to perish, destroy, die, vanish, or be broken or corrupt). This is something that was lost. It can also refer to destruction or Hades.
LXX “both” = shenayim. Same as “double” in v4. See note XXX above.
LXXI “come” = bo. This is to enter, come in, advance, fulfill, bring offerings, enter to worship, attack. It can also have a sexual connotation.
LXXII “condemns” = rasha. From resha (wrong, particularly moral wrong; wickedness, evil, wicked deeds, or something that is ill-gotten). This is to be or do something wicked, condemn, give punishment, vex, disturb, or violate.
LXXIII “other” = rea. Same as “neighbor” in v7. See note L above.

10 When someone delivers to anotherLXXIV a donkey, ox,LXXV sheep,LXXVI or any other animalLXXVII for safekeeping, and it dies or is injuredLXXVIII or is carried off,LXXIX without anyone seeingLXXX it, 

Notes on verse 10

LXXIV “another” = rea. Same as “neighbor” in v7. See note L above.
LXXV “ox” = shor. Same as “ox” in v1. See note III above.
LXXVI “sheep” = seh. Same as “sheep” in v1. See note IV above.
LXXVII “animal” = behemah. This is animal or cattle. It is often used of large quadrupeds.
LXXVIII “injured” = shabar. This is break, collapse, destroy, break in pieces, tear. It is bursting in a literal or figurative sense.
LXXIX “carried off” = shabah. This is to carry away into captivity, bring away, capture, lead away.
LXXX “seeing” = raah. This is to see in a literal or figurative sense so stare, advise, think, view.

11 an oathLXXXI before the LordLXXXII shall decideLXXXIII betweenLXXXIV the twoLXXXV of them that the one has not laid hands on the propertyLXXXVI of the other; the owner shall acceptLXXXVII the oath, and no restitution shall be made. 

Notes on verse 11

LXXXI “oath” = shebuah. From sheba (seven – the number of perfection/sacred fullness); from shaba (to swear, curse, vow, make a covenant; properly, to be complete; this is to seven oneself – as in affirming something so strongly it is as though it were said seven times). This is oath or curse.
LXXXII “Lord” = YHVH. From havah (to be, become) or hayah (to come to pass, become, be). This is the name of the God of Israel, the self-existent and eternal one, the tetragrammaton. This pronunciation has been lost to time so “Lord” is generally used in its place.
LXXXIII “decide” = hayah. Related to “Lord” in v11. See note LXXXII above.
LXXXIV “between” = bayin. From bin (to discern, consider, attend to; distinguishing things in one’s mind or, more generally, to understand). This is among, between, interval.
LXXXV “two” = shenayim. Same as “double” in v4. See note XXX above.
LXXXVI “property” = melakah. Same as “goods” in v8. See note LXII above.
LXXXVII “accept” = laqach. This is to take, accept, carry away, receive. It can also have the sense of take a wife or take in marriage.

12 But if it was stolen,LXXXVIII restitution shall be made to its owner. 13 If it was mangledLXXXIX by beasts, let it be broughtXC as evidence;XCI restitution shall not be made for the mangled remains.XCII

Notes on verses 12-13

LXXXVIII “was stolen” = ganab + ganab. Same as “steals” in v1. See note II above. It is also an infinitive absolute like “make restitution” in v3. See note XXI above.
LXXXIX “mangled” = taraph + taraph. This is to tear or pluck off into pieces, to rend or catch. It can also mean supply with food. It is also an infinitive absolute like “make restitution” in v3. See note XXI above.
XC “brought” = bo. Same as “come” in v9. See note LXXI above.
XCI “evidence” = ed. From ud (to admonish, repeat, duplicate, testify, restore, record, relieve). This is a witness, testimony, or one who records testimony. It can also refer to a prince.
XCII “mangled remains” = terephah. Related to “mangled” in v13. 9x in OT. From tereph (prey, food, meat, leaf; something that has been torn – a morsel); from taraph (see note LXXXIX above). This is torn flesh, particularly torn and/or eaten by animals.

14 When someone borrowsXCIII an animal from another and it is injured or dies, the owner not being present, full restitution shall be made.XCIV 15 If the owner was present, there shall be no restitution; if it was hired,XCV only the hiring feeXCVI is due.XCVII

Notes on verses 14-15

XCIII “borrows” = shaal. This is to ask, inquire, beg, borrow, desire, request. It can also mean to demand.
XCIV “full restitution shall be made” = shalam + shalam. Same as “pay” in v1. See note VII above. It is also an infinitive absolute like “make restitution” in v3. See note XXI above.
XCV “hired” = sakir. 17x in OT. From sakar (to hire, earn). This is someone who earns a wage, a laborer. It could be one a day by day basis or for a longer term.
XCVI “hiring fee” = sakar. From sakar (see note XCV above). This is wages, payment, service, salary, worth, reward, or benefit.
XCVII “is due” = bo. Same as “come” in v9. See note LXXI above.

16 When a manXCVIII seducesXCIX a virginC who is not engaged to be married,CI and liesCII with her, he shall give the bride-priceCIII for her and make her his wife.CIV 

Notes on verse 16

XCVIII “man” = ish. Same as “someone” in v1. See note I above.
XCIX “seduces” = pathah. This is to be wide, open, or roomy. Figuratively, it can mean to be simple. Alternately, it can mean to delude, deceive, entice, or flatter.
C “virgin” = betulah. This is virgin, maiden, or bride. Can also be used figuratively for a place.
CI “engaged to be married” = aras. 11x in OT. This is to betroth or engage for marriage.
CII “lies” = shakab. This is to lie down, lodge. It is lying for sleep, sex, or other reasons.
CIII “give the bride-price” = mahar + mahar. 2x in OT. From mohar (a purchase price or dowry); from the same as mahar (to barter, purchase, endow; to give dowry to marry). This is to barter, pay a bride price, wed. It is also an infinitive absolute like “make restitution” in v3. See note XXI above.
CIV “wife” = ishshah. Related to “someone” in v1. From ish (see note I above). This is woman, wife, or female.

17 But if her fatherCV refusesCVI to giveCVII her to him, he shall payCVIII an amountCIX equal to the bride-priceCX for virgins.

Notes on verse 17

CV “father” = ab. This is father, chief, or ancestor. It is father in a literal or figurative sense.
CVI “refuses” = maen + maen. This is to refuse. It is also an infinitive absolute like “make restitution” in v3. See note XXI above.
CVII “give” = natan. Same as “delivers” in v7. See note XLIX above.
CVIII “pay” = shaqal. This is to weigh, spend, trade.
CIX “amount” = keseph. Same as “money” in v7. See note LI above.
CX “equal to the bride-price” = mohar. Related to “shall give the bride-price” in v16. 3x in OT. See note CIII above.

18 You shall not permit a female sorcererCXI to live.CXII

19 WhoeverCXIII lies with an animalCXIV shall be put to death.CXV

Notes on verses 18-19

CXI “female sorcerer” = kashaph. 6x in OT. From kesheph (sorcery, magic). This is doing sorcery, using magic, reciting a spell.
CXII “permit…to live” = chayah. Related to “alive” in v4. See note XXVIII above.
CXIII “whoever” = kol. Same as “any” in v9. See note LXIII above.
CXIV “animal” = behemah. Same as “animal” in v10. See note LXXVII above.
CXV “put to death” = mut + mut. Same as “death” in v2. See note XVIII above. It is also an infinitive absolute like “make restitution” in v3. See note XXI above.

20 Whoever sacrificesCXVI to any god,CXVII other thanCXVIII the Lord alone,CXIX shall be devoted to destruction.CXX

Notes on verse 20

CXVI “sacrifices” = zabach. This is slaughtering an animal, generally for the purpose of sacrifice. It can mean kill or offer.
CXVII “god” = elohim. Same as “God” in v8. See note LVIII above.
CXVIII “other than” = bilti. From balah (to grow old, wear out, consume, waste, enjoy, fail, decay). This is nothing, not, lest, or except. From its root, it means “a failure of” – used for negative particles.
CXIX “alone” = bad. From badad (to divide or be separated; alone, solitary, lonely, isolated, straggler). This is apart, alone, separation, body part, tree branch, except. It can also be a city’s chief.
CXX “devoted to destruction” = charam. This is to ban, destroy, devote, seclude. It is to dedicate to a religious purpose, often for destruction.

21 You shall not wrongCXXI or oppressCXXII a resident alien,CXXIII for you wereCXXIV aliens in the landCXXV of Egypt.CXXVI 

Notes on verse 21

CXXI “wrong” = yanah. 19x in OT. This is to do wrong, oppress, destroy, mistreat, or suppress. It can imply violence or anger.
CXXII “oppress” = lachats. 19x in OT. This is to press or squeeze. Figuratively, it is oppress, afflict, or distress.
CXXIII “resident alien” = ger. From gur (to abide or sojourn; to leave the road to lodge or for any other reason). This is sojourner, guest, stranger, foreigner.
CXXIV “were” = hayah. Same as “decide” in v11. See note LXXXIII above.
CXXV “land” = erets. Root may mean to be firm. This is earth, ground, field land, or country.
CXXVI “Egypt” = Mitsrayim. Perhaps from matsor (besieged or fortified place, bulwark, entrenchment; something hemmed in; a siege or distress or fastness); from tsur (to confine, besiege, to cramp). This is Egypt.

22 You shall not abuseCXXVII any widowCXXVIII or orphan.CXXIX 23 If you do abuseCXXX them, when they cry outCXXXI to me, I will surely heedCXXXII their cry;CXXXIII 

Notes on verses 22-23

CXXVII “abuse” = anah. This is to be bowed down. It can refer to a sense of humility or to a sense of being browbeaten, oppressed, afflicted, or depressed. This can be literal or figurative – depressed in mood or circumstance.
CXXVIII “widow” = almanah. Related to alman (widowed); from alam (to be silent, bound). This is a widow or a house that is desolate.
CXXIX “orphan” = yathom. This is a child without a father or more generally a person who is bereaved.
CXXX “abuse” = anah + anah. Same as “abuse” in v22. See note CXXVII above. It is also an infinitive absolute like “make restitution” in v3. See note XXI above.
CXXXI “cry out” = tsaaq + tsaaq. This is to cry out or call together, to shriek. It can mean, by implication, calling for an assembly. It is also an infinitive absolute like “make restitution” in v3. See note XXI above.
CXXXII “surely heed” = shama + shama. This is to hear, call, consent, or consider. It implies listening intelligently, giving attention, and, because of these two factors, obedience and action are often implied. It is also an infinitive absolute like “make restitution” in v3. See note XXI above.
CXXXIII “cry” = tseaqah. Related to “cry out” in v23. From tsaaq (see note CXXXI above). This is a cry for help, shriek or outcry.

24 my wrathCXXXIV will burn,CXXXV and I will killCXXXVI you with the sword,CXXXVII and your wives shall becomeCXXXVIII widows and your childrenCXXXIX orphans.

Notes on verse 24

CXXXIV “wrath” = aph. From anaph (to be angry; properly, breathing hard as a signifier of being enraged). This properly refers to the nose or nostril and by extension the face. It can specifically refer to anger or wrath as one breathes hard and nostrils flare in times of great anger.
CXXXV “burn” = charah. Perhaps related to charar (to be hot, burn, glow, melt, be scorched; figuratively, to incite passion, be angry). This is to be displeased, burn with anger, glow, become warn. Figuratively it is a blaze of anger, zeal, or jealousy.
CXXXVI “kill” = harag. This is to strike with deadly intent so it can be kill, destroy, murder, or put to death.
CXXXVII “sword” = chereb. From charab (to attack, slay). This is any sharp instrument like a sword, dagger, axe, or mattock.
CXXXVIII “become” = hayah. Same as “decide” in v11. See note LXXXIII above.
CXXXIX “children” = ben. Related to “house” in v7. From banah (see note LV above). This is son, age, child. It is son in a literal or figurative sense.

25 If you lendCXL money to my people,CXLI to the poorCXLII among you,

Notes on verse 25a

CXL “lend” = lavah. This is to join, abide with, borrow. Properly, it means to twine, which gives it the sense of joining or uniting. It can also mean to remain or borrow/lend as joining an obligation to another. This root may be where the name/tribe Levi comes from.
CXLI “people” = am. From amam (to darken, hide, associate; creating shadows by huddling together). This is people or nation. It can be used specifically for a tribe, collectively of troops or armies, or figuratively to refer to a flock of animals.
CXLII “poor” = ani. Related to “abuse” in v22. From anah (see note CXXVII above). This is humble, lowly, poor, or afflicted.

you shall not dealCXLIII with them as a creditor;CXLIV you shall not exactCXLV interestCXLVI from them. 

Notes on verse 25b

CXLIII “deal” = hayah. Same as “decide” in v11. See note LXXXIII above.
CXLIV “creditor” = nashah. 13x in OT. Perhaps from nashah (to forget, neglect, remove, deprive) OR from the same as nasha (to deceive, lend with interest, debtor, delude, seduce). This is to lend, be a usurer, borrow with a pledge, creditor.
CXLV “exact” = sum. This is to put or place in a literal or figurative sense. It can be appoint, care, change, make, and may other things.
CXLVI “interest” = neshek. 12x in OT. From nashak (bite or sting as from a snake; figuratively, lending with interest). This is interest or usury.

26 If you take your neighbor’s cloakCXLVII in pawn,CXLVIII you shall restoreCXLIX it before the sunCL goes down;CLI 

Notes on verse 26

CXLVII “cloak” = salmah. Same as “clothing” in v9. See note LXVIII above.
CXLVIII “take…in pawn” = chabal + chabal. This is to bind, pledge, or wind tight. Figuratively, this can refer to perverting or destroying something. It can also be used of writhing in pain, particularly in reference to childbirth. It is also an infinitive absolute like “make restitution” in v3. See note XXI above.
CXLIX “restore” = shub. To turn back, return, turn away – literally or figuratively. Doesn’t necessarily imply going back to where you started from. This is also the root verb for the Hebrew word for repentance “teshubah.”
CL “sun” = shemesh. Same as “after sunrise” in v3. See note XX above.
CLI “goes down” = bo. Same as “come” in v9. See note LXXI above.

27 for it may be your neighbor’s onlyCLII clothingCLIII to use as cover;CLIV in what else shall that person sleep?CLV AndCLVI if your neighbor cries out to me, I will listen,CLVII for I am compassionate.CLVIII

Notes on verse 27

CLII “only” = bad. Same as “alone” in v20. See note CXIX above.
CLIII “clothing” = simlah. Related to “clothing” in v9. See note LXVIII above.
CLIV “cover” = kesut. 8x in OT. From kasah (to cover, conceal, overwhelm; to cover as clothes do or to hide a secret). This is a covering – a garment or veiling. It can also be vindication.
CLV “sleep” = shakab. Same as “lies” in v16. See note CII above.
CLVI {untranslated} = hayah. Same as “decide” in v11. See note LXXXIII above.
CLVII “listen” = shama. Same as “surely heed” in v23. See note CXXXII above.
CLVIII “compassionate” = channun. 13x in OT. From chanan (beseech, show favor, be gracious; properly, to bend in kindness to someone with less status). This is gracious, compassionate, merciful, having pity on.

28 You shall not revileCLIX God, or curse a leaderCLX of your people.

29 You shall not delayCLXI to make offerings from the fullness of your harvestCLXII and from the outflow of your presses.CLXIII

Notes on verses 28-29a

CLIX “revile” = qalal. This is to be little, insignificant, swift. It can also mean to bring down in esteem, create contempt, curse
CLX “leader” = nasi. From nasa (to lift in a broad sense, literally and figuratively; to carry, take, or arise; to bring forth, advance, accept). This is one lifted up or exalter. So, it could be prince, chief, ruler, captain, king, or vapor.
CLXI “delay” = achar. Related to “someone else’s” in v5. 17x in OT. See note XXXVI above.
CLXII “fullness of your harvest” = meleah. 8x in OT. From male (fill, satisfy, replenish, accomplish, fulfill, confirm, or consecrate; fill in a literal or figurative sense). This is fullness, abundance of harvest.
CLXIII “outflow of your presses” = dema. 1x in OT. From dama (to weep). This is a tear, juice, liquor.

The firstbornCLXIV of your sonsCLXV you shall give to me. 30 You shall doCLXVI the sameCLXVII

Notes on verses 29b-30a

CLXIV “firstborn” = bekor. From bakar (to bear fruit, be firstborn, firstling, that which opens the womb, give the birthright to). This is firstborn or chief.
CLXV “sons” = ben. Same as “children” in v24. See note CXXXIX above.
CLXVI “do” = asah. This is to make, do, act, appoint, become in many senses.
CLXVII “same” = ken. Perhaps from kun (properly, in a perpendicular position; literally, to establish, fix, fasten, prepare; figuratively, it is certainty, to be firm, faithfulness, render sure or prosperous). This is to set upright. Generally used figuratively to mean thus, so, afterwards, rightly so.

with your oxenCLXVIII and with your sheep:CLXIX sevenCLXX daysCLXXI it shall remainCLXXII with its mother;CLXXIII on the eighthCLXXIV day you shall give it to me.

Notes on verse 30b

CLXVIII “oxen” = shor. Same as “ox” in v1. See note III above.
CLXIX “sheep” = tson. Same as “sheep” in v1. See note XII above.
CLXX “seven” = sheba. Related to “oath” in v11. See note LXXXI above.
CLXXI “days” = yom. Root may mean being hot. This is the day in a literal or figurative sense. It can also mean birth, age, daylight, continually or other references to time.
CLXXII “remain” = hayah. Same as “decide” in v11. See note LXXXIII above.
CLXXIII “mother” = em. This is a mother as binding a family together or a breeding female animal. It could be mother in a literal or figurative sense.
CLXXIV “eighth” = shemini. From the same as shemoneh (eight; can be figurative for surplus); perhaps from shamen (to shine, which implies being oily, growing fat); from shaman (to grow fat, shine, be oily). This is eighth or sheminith.

31 You shall be peopleCLXXV consecratedCLXXVI to me; therefore you shall not eat any meatCLXXVII that is mangled by beasts in the field; you shall throwCLXXVIII it to the dogs.CLXXIX

Notes on verse 31

CLXXV “people” = ish. Same as “someone” in v1. See note I above.
CLXXVI “consecrated” = qodesh. This is set apart and so sacred. God is different from us and so God is holy/set apart. Things we dedicate to God’s service are set apart for God and so they, too, are holy, etc.
CLXXVII “meat” = basar. From basar (being a messenger, publish, carry preach; properly, this is being fresh, rosy or cheerful as one bearing news). This is flesh, the body, fat, skin, self, nakedness, humankind, or kin. It can also refer to private parts.
CLXXVIII “throw” = shalak. This is to throw, fling, or hurl. It can also be to throw away in a literal or figurative sense.
CLXXIX “dogs” = keleb. This is yelping or attacking. It can also refer to a dog or it can be a term used for a male prostitute.

Image credit: “The Dagger” by Tassos, 1940.

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