Exodus 29

Exodus 29


“Now thisI is what you shall doII to them to consecrateIII them to serve me as priests.IV

Notes on verse 1a

I {untranslated} = dabar. From dabar (to speak, declare, discuss). This is speech, a word, a matter, an affair, charge, command, message, promise, purpose, report, request. It is a word, which implies things that are spoken of in a wide sense.
II “do” = asah. This is to make, do, act, appoint, become in many senses.
III “consecrate” = qadash. From qodesh (set apart and so sacred; God is different from us and so God is holy/set apart; things we dedicate to God’s service are set apart for God and so they, too, are holy). This is set apart, consecrated, hallowed, sanctified. This is something or someone that is set apart for a holy purpose or use – ceremonially or morally clean.
IV “serve…as priests” = kahan. From kohen (a priest, one who officiates or acts as priest). This is officiating as a priest does over religious service. It can also figuratively mean donning regalia or formal ornamentation/attire.

TakeV oneVI youngVII bullVIII

Notes on verse 1b

V “take” = laqach. This is to take, accept, carry away, receive. It can also have the sense of take a wife or take in marriage.
VI “one” = echad. Perhaps from achad (to unify, continue on a path; figuratively, to gather one’s thoughts). This is the number one, first, united. It can also be alone, altogether, a certain, a few.
VII “young” = ben + baqar. Ben is from banah (to build or obtain children). This is son, age, child. It is son in a literal or figurative sense. Baqar is from baqar (to plow, break forth; figuratively, to inquire, inspect, consider). This is cattle – an animal used for plowing.
VIII “bull” = par. Perhaps related to parar (to break, defeat, frustrate, caste off, clean, cease). This is a young bull or ox.

and twoIX ramsX without blemish,XI 

Notes on verse 1c

XI “two” = shenayim. From sheni (double, again, another, second); from shanah (to fold, repeat, double, alter, or disguise). This is two, both, second, couple.
X “rams” = ayil. From the same as ul (mighty, strength, body, belly; root may mean to twist and that implies strength and power). This is strength so it is used to indicate things that are strong or powerful: political chiefs, rams, posts, trees, oaks.
XI “without blemish” = tamim. From tamam (to finish or accomplish; to make perfect, demonstrate that you are upright; consume; to complete in a literal or figurative sense). This is entire in a literal or figurative sense. So, it could be complete, full, intact, or without defect. Alternately, it could refer to being sound, having integrity, being sincere or perfect.

and unleavenedXII bread,XIII unleavened cakesXIV mixedXV with oil,XVI

Notes on verse 2a

XII “unleavened” = matstsah. From matsats (to drain out). This is unleavened bread – bread that is sweet rather than becoming sour with the flavor of yeast. Can also be used to refer to the festival of Passover, the staple food of which is commonly transliterate matzoh from this word.
XIII “bread” = lechem. From lacham (to eat, feed on). This is bread, food, loaf. It can refer to food more generally for people or for animals.
XIV “cakes” = challah. 14x in OT. From chalal (to pierce, which implies to wound; used figuratively for making someone or something profane or breaking your word; to begin as though one opened a wedge; to eat something as a common thing). This is a cake offered up in the Tabernacle/Temple.
XV “mixed” = balal. This is to anoint, mix, overflow. It can also be to fodder or temper.
XVI “oil” = shemen. From shamen (to shine, which implies being oily, growing fat). This is fat, oil, grease, olive oil – often with perfume. Used figuratively for fertile, lavish, rich.

and unleavened wafersXVII spreadXVIII with oil. You shall makeXIX them of choice wheatXX flour.XXI 

Notes on verse 2b

XVII “wafers” = raqiq. 8x in OT. From the same as raq (thin, surely, only); perhaps from raqaq (to spit). This is a thin cake or wafer in the Tabernacle/Temple.
XVIII “spread” = mashach. This is smear, paint, spread, or paint. It can also be to rub with oil or, otherwise stated, to anoint. This implies a consecration. This root verb is where the word “messiah” comes from.
XIX “make” = asah. Same as “do” in v1. See note II above.
XX “wheat” = chittah. Perhaps from chanat (to spice, ripen, embalm). This is wheat, referring to the plant or its product.
XXI “choice…flour” = soleth. It may come from a word that means to strip. This is fine flour.

You shall putXXII them in one basketXXIII and bringXXIV them in the basket and bring the bull and the two rams. You shall bring AaronXXV and his sonsXXVI

Notes on verses 3-4a

XXII “put” = natan. This is to give, put, set, offer. It is to give literally or figuratively.
XXIII “basket” = sal. 15x in OT. Perhaps from salal (to lift up, build, pile, extol, exalt; can also be used for opposing as a dam holds back water). This is a woven basket.
XXIV “bring” = qarab. This is to come near, offer, make ready, approach, take.
XXV “Aaron” = Aharon. Derivation uncertain. May mean “bearer of martyrs” OR be related to Ancient Egyptian ꜥḥꜣ rw (warrior lion) OR elevated, exalted, high mountain. This is Aaron. See https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/Aaron
XXVI “sons” = ben. Same as “young” in v1. See note VII above.

to the entranceXXVII of the tentXXVIII of meetingXXIX and washXXX them with water.XXXI 

Notes on verse 4b

XXVII “entrance” = pethach. From pathach (to open wide in a literal or figurative sense; to open, draw out, let something go free, break forth, to plow, engrave, or carve). This is any kind of opening – a door, entrance, gate.
XXVIII “tent” = ohel. Perhaps from ahal (to shine, be clear). This is a tent, covering, home, or side pillar.
XXIX “meeting” = moed. From yaad (to appoint, assemble or gather selves, agree). This is a meeting, assembly, fixed time. It can be used for a festival or feast. It can also refer to a meeting place.
XXX “wash” = rachats. This is to wash, wash away – it can be complete or partial.
XXXI “water” = mayim. This is water, waters, or waterway in a general sense. Figuratively, it can also mean juice, urine, or semen.

Then you shall take the vestmentsXXXII and put onXXXIII Aaron the tunicXXXIV and the robeXXXV of the ephodXXXVI

Notes on verse 5a

XXXII “vestments” = beged. From bagad (to cover or conceal; figuratively, to act in a covert or treacherous way, to transgress or pillage). This is clothing, garment, robe, or some other kind of clothing. Figuratively, it can be treachery or pillaging.
XXXIII “put on” = labash. This is to wrap around, which implies clothing oneself or someone else. This is wrapping around in a literal or figurative way.
XXXIV “tunic” = kethoneth. Root may mean to cover. This is a tunic, coat, or other kind of garment.
XXXV “robe” = meil. From maal (to cover up; figuratively, to act in a covert or treacherous way, to be unfaithful or transgress). This is a robe, mantle, or cloak – an outer garment.
XXXVI “ephod” = ephod. This is an ephod, shoulder piece – perhaps a breastplate or apron. It can refer specifically to a ritual garment worn by the high priest. Alternately, it can refer to an image.

and the ephod and the breastpieceXXXVII and girdXXXVIII him with the decorated bandXXXIX of the ephod, 

Notes on verse 5b

XXXVII “breastpiece” = choshen. May come from a word that means to hold within or sparkle. It is a breastpiece, perhaps with special reference to a pocket or having gems. It is only used of the high priest’s breastpiece.
XXXVIII “gird” = aphad. Related to “ephod” in v5. 2x in OT. From the same as ephod (see note XXXVI above). This is to tie or bind.
XXXIX “decorated band” = chesheb. 8x in OT– 7x in Exodus & 1x in Leviticus of the ephod. From chashab (properly, to braid or interpenetrate; literally, to create or to wear; figuratively, plotting – generally in a negative sense; think, consider, or make account of). This is a woven band or belt, artistically rendered.

and you shall setXL the turbanXLI on his headXLII and put the holyXLIII diademXLIV on the turban. 

Notes on verse 6

XL “set” = sim. This is to put or place in a literal or figurative sense. It can be appoint, care, change, make, and may other things.
XLI “turban” = mitsnepheth. 12x in OT. From tsanaph (to wrap or wind up). This is turban or diadem. It is worn as a mark of status – like a king or high priest.
XLII “head” = rosh. This may come a word that means to shake. It is the head, captain, or chief. It can also be excellent or the forefront. It can be first in position or in statue or in time (i.e. the beginning).
XLIII “holy” = qodesh. Related to “consecrate” in v1. See note III above.
XLIV “diadem” = nezer. From nazar (to dedicate, set apart, fast, keep self from impurity, refrain from worship; to consecrate for a holy purpose). This is something set apart, so it is a consecration. It could be used for one who takes the Nazirite vow or a priest. In reference to the Nazirite vow, it can also refer to uncut hair. It can also refer to a crown, as of a king.

You shall take the anointingXLV oil and pourXLVI it on his head and anoint him. Then you shall bring his sons and put tunics on them, and you shall girdXLVII them, Aaron and his sons, with sashesXLVIII and tieXLIX headdressesL on them,

Notes on verses 7-9a

XLV “anointing” = mishchah. Related to “spread” in v2. From mashach (see note XVIII above). This is the act of anointing, ointment, or a consecrated thing.
XLVI “pour” = yatsaq. This is to pour out, flow, wash away, or overflow. It can imply melting as one does to cast metal. By extension, it can refer to something being steadfast, stiffened, firmly in place.
XLVII “gird” = chagar. This is to gird, bind, or arm. Generally, it is using a belt to gather up one’s garment so that it’s easier to run or move quickly.
XLVIII “sashes” = abnet. 9x in OT. This is a sash or belt.
XLIX “tie” = chabash. This is to wrap tightly or bind, to bandage, or heal. It can be to saddle an animal or wrap a turban. Figuratively, it can mean to stop or to govern.
L “headdresses” = migbaoth. 4x in OT. Perhaps from gibah (hill or little hill); from the same as Geba (Geba or Gibeah; hillock); from the same as gabia (cup, bowl, flower; root might mean being convex). This is a headdress, cap, or turban of some kind.

and the priesthoodLI shall beLII theirs by a perpetualLIII ordinance.LIV You shall then ordainLV, LVI Aaron andLVII his sons.

Notes on verse 9b

LI “priesthood” = kehunnah. Related to “serve…as priests” in v1. 14x in OT. From the same as kohen (see note IV above). This is priesthood.
LII “be” = hayah. This is to be or become, to happen.
LIII “perpetual” = olam. This is a long scope of time whether in the past (antiquity, ancient time) or in the future (eternal, everlasting).
LIV “ordinance” = chuqqah. From choq (statute, boundary, condition, custom, limit, ordinance; something that is prescribed or something that is owed); from chaqaq (to inscribe, carve, or decree; a lawmaker; literally, this is engraving, but it implies enacting a law because laws were carved into stone or metal). This is something prescribed such as a statue, custom, or ordinance.
LV “ordain” = male. This is fill, satisfy, replenish, accomplish, fulfill, confirm, or consecrate. It is fill in a literal or figurative sense.
LVI {untranslated} = yad. Literally, “hand of.” This is hand, ability, power. Hand in a literal sense, but also what one can do or the means by which one does it.
LVII {untranslated} = yad. Same as {untranslated} in v9. See note LVI above.

10 “You shall bring the bull in front ofLVIII the tent of meeting. Aaron and his sons shall layLIX their handsLX on the head of the bull, 11 and you shall slaughterLXI the bull beforeLXII the Lord,LXIII at the entrance of the tent of meeting, 

Notes on verses 10-11

LVIII “in front of” = paneh. From panah (to turn, face, appear). This is face in a literal or figurative sense. It could be face, presence, anger, respect. It can also be used of God to indicate divine favor or presence.
LIX “lay” = samak. This is to lean, rest, support, brace, uphold, sustain, or establish. It is to lean on in a positive or negative sense.
LX “hands” = yad. Same as {untranslated} in v9. See note LVI above.
LXI “slaughter” = shachat. This is to slaughter, slay, or beat. It can be slaying for a sacrifice or in a massacre.
LXII “before” = paneh. Same as “in front of” in v10. See note LVIII above.
LXIII “Lord” = YHVH. Related to “be” in v9. From havah (to be, become) or hayah (see note LII above). This is the name of the God of Israel, the self-existent and eternal one, the tetragrammaton. This pronunciation has been lost to time so “Lord” is generally used in its place.

12 and shall take some of the bloodLXIV of the bull and put it on the hornsLXV of the altarLXVI with your finger,LXVII

Notes on verse 12a

LXIV “blood” = dam. Perhaps from damam (to cease, be or become mute, silent, still, cut off, hold peace, be astonished, die). This is blood, bloodshed, bloodguilt, lifeblood, and death. It is used for people and animals. More often blood from a wound or the blood of the innocent. Used figuratively for violence or for wine. Closely tied to life and death.
LXV “horns” = qeren. This is horn or hill. It can be a flask or cornet, ivory, altar corner, mountain peak, or figuratively power.
LXVI “altar” = mizbeach. From zabach (to kill, slay, offer; slaughtering an animal to offer as a sacrifice). This is an altar.
LXVII “finger” = etsba. Perhaps from the same as tseba (dye, something dipped). This is finger or toe – something used to seize.

and allLXVIII the rest of the blood you shall pourLXIX out at the baseLXX of the altar. 

Notes on verse 12b

LXVIII “all” = kol. From kalal (to complete). This is all or every.
LXIX “pour” = shaphak. This is to pour out, gust, or slip. It can be to pour as blood, a drink offering, or molten metal. It can also mean to create a mound. Figuratively, it can refer to killing, or spending money.
LXX “base” = yesod. From yasad (to establish, appoint, instruct; to set in a literal or figurative sense; also, to sit down together and so to consult or take counsel). This is a foundation in a literal or figurative sense. It can also refer to a thigh or other base.

13 You shall take all the fatLXXI that coversLXXII the entrailsLXXIII

Notes on verse 13a

LXXI “fat” = cheleb. This is fat, finest, marrow. It is fat in a literal or figurative sense. It refers to the richest or best part.
LXXII “covers” = kasah. This is to cover, conceal, overwhelm. It is to cover as clothes do or to hide a secret.
LXXIII “entrails” = qereb. Related to “bring” in v3. Perhaps from qarab (see note XXIV above). This is among, in the midst, before, the center It is the inward part, whether literal or figurative. It can also be used for the heart, the site of thoughts and feelings. This word is also used as a technical term for the entrails of the animals who are sacrificed.

and the appendageLXXIV of the liverLXXV and the two kidneysLXXVI with the fat that is on them and turn them into smokeLXXVII on the altar. 

Notes on verse 13b

LXXIV “appendage” = yothereth. 11x in OT. From yathar (to jut over, remain behind, preserve, to excel). This is appendage or part of the liver that hangs out.
LXXV “liver” = kabed. 14x in OT. From kabad (to be heavy, weighty, burdensome). This is heavy, grievous, sore. It can also be weighty in the sense of gravitas. The word for “glory” in Hebrew comes from this root (kabod).
LXXVI “kidneys” = kilyah. Perhaps from keli (something that was prepared – any implement, utensil, article, vessel, weapon, or instrument; also includes jewels, weapons, bags, carriages, and furniture); from kalah (to end, be finished, complete, prepare, consume, spent, or completely destroyed). This is inward parts, such as kidney or heart. It can also be inmost being as feelings, mind, or within.
LXXVII “turn…into smoke” = qatar. From qetoreth (smoke, incense, the scent of the sacrifice as it burned); from the same as qitor (thick smoke, vapor). This is to make an offering, particular one of burned incense. It focuses on the fragrance made from the sacrificial fire. This is generally used to refer to worship.

14 But the fleshLXXVIII of the bull and its skinLXXIX and its dungLXXX you shall burnLXXXI

Notes on verse 14a

LXXVIII “flesh” = basar. From basar (being a messenger, publish, carry preach; properly, this is being fresh, rosy or cheerful as one bearing news). This is flesh, the body, fat, skin, self, nakedness, humankind, or kin. It can also refer to private parts.
LXXIX “skin” = or. Perhaps from ur (to be made naked, exposed, or bare). This is skin, hide, or leather. It can also refer to a body.
LXXX “dung” = peresh. 7x in OT. Perhaps from parash (to make distinct, separate, scatter; can also imply to wound). This is refuse or dung.
LXXXI “burn” = saraph. This is to burn or kindle. This is the root that “seraphim” comes from.

with fireLXXXII outsideLXXXIII the camp.LXXXIV It is a purification offering.LXXXV

Notes on verse 14b

LXXXII “fire” = esh. This is fire, burning, flaming, hot. It is fire in a literal or figurative sense.
LXXXIII “outside” = chuts. Root may mean to sever. So, this is something that is separated by a wall – the outside, the street, a field, highway, or abroad.
LXXXIV “camp” = machaneh. From chanah (to decline, bending down, or living in tents; can be camping to create a home or camping as a part of battle). This is an encampment, whether of people traveling together or soldiers. So, it can be a camp band, or company as well as an army of soldiers. Also can be used of other groups like animals, angels or stars.
LXXXV “purification offering” = chatta’ah. From chata’ (to miss or go wrong and so to sin, bear the blame; it can also include the sense of forfeiting or lacking). This is sin itself as well as punishment for sin. It is sometimes used specifically to refer to sin that is habitual.

15 “Then you shall take one of the rams, and Aaron and his sons shall lay their hands on the head of the ram, 16 and you shall slaughter the ram and shall take its blood and dashLXXXVI it against all sidesLXXXVII of the altar. 17 Then you shall cutLXXXVIII the ram into its partsLXXXIX and wash its entrails and its legsXC and put them with its parts and its head 

Notes on verses 15-17

LXXXVI “dash” = zaraq. This is to scatter or sprinkle, whether a liquid or a solid.
LXXXVII “all sides” = sabib. From sabab (turning around, going around; to surround, cast, walk, fetch; to revolve or border in a literal or figurative sense). This is a circuit or a circle. It could refer to an environment, one’s neighbors, or a circular path round about.
LXXXVIII “cut” = nathach. 9x in OT. This is to dismember or divide at the joints.
LXXXIX “parts” = nethach. Related to “cut” in v17. 13x in OT. From nathach (see note LXXXVII above). This is a part or piece.
XC “legs” = kera. 9x in OT. From kara (to bow, crouch, kneel down, subdue; to bend the knee in many senses). This is the leg, but only from the knee down to the ankle. It is used in the OT of people and of locusts.

18 and turn the restXCI of the ram into smoke on the altar. It is a burnt offeringXCII to the Lord; it is a pleasingXCIII odor,XCIV an offering by fireXCV to the Lord.

Notes on verse 18

XCI “rest” = kol. Same as “all” in v12. See note LXVII above.
XCII “burnt offering” = olah. From alah (to go up, climb, approach, bring; to be high or actively climb; can be literal or figurative). This is a step, stairs, or some kind of ascent. It is also used for whole burnt offerings, being the offering in which the whole things is burned and rises as smoke. Burnt offerings were the least common of the offerings: most were eaten, shared with the priest and the one bringing the offering.
XCIII “pleasing” = nichoach. From nuach (to rest, calm, camp, free, place, remain, satisfy, settle, station, or wait; implies settling down in a literal or figurative sense). This is soothing, restful, sweet, pleasant.
XCIV “odor” = reyach. From ruach (to blow, breath; smell, anticipate; figuratively, to perceive, understand). This is a scent or breath – a savor, ointment. It is also used for the odor of sacrifices that pleases God.
XCV “offering by fire” = ishsheh. Related to “fire” in v14. From eshshah (fire); from esh (see note LXXXI above). This is a burnt offering – sometimes a sacrifice in general.

19 “You shall take the otherXCVI ram, and Aaron and his sons shall lay their hands on the head of the ram, 20 and you shall slaughter the ram and take some of its blood and put it on the lobeXCVII of Aaron’s rightXCVIII earXCIX and on the lobes of the right ears of his sons

Notes on verses 19-20a

XCVI “other” = sheni. Related to “two” in v1. See note IX above.
XCVII “lobe” = tenuk. 8x in OT – 2x in Exodus & 6x in Leviticus. Perhaps from the same as anak (plumb line, hook; root may mean to be narrow). This is tip or lobe.
XCVIII “right” = yemani. From the same as yamin (right hand or side; that which is stronger or more agile; the south); {perhaps yamam (to go or choose the right, use the right hand; to be physically fit or firm)}. This is right, right side, or south.
XCIX “ear” = ozen. This is ear, hearing, audience, show. Properly, it is broadness – applied to its ear in reference to its shape.

and on the thumbsC of their right hands and on the big toes of their right feetCI and dash the rest of the blood against all sides of the altar. 21 Then you shall take some of the blood that is on the altar and some of the anointing oil and sprinkleCII it on Aaron and his vestments and on his sons and his sons’ vestments with him; then he and his vestments shall be holy,CIII as well as his sons and his sons’ vestments with him.

Notes on verses 20b-21

C “thumbs” = bohen. 16x in OT. May come from a root referring to thickness. This is a thumb or big toe.
CI “feet” = regel. This is foot, endurance, or journey. It is a foot as the means of walking and so it implies a step or a greater journey. It can be used euphemistically for private parts.
CII “sprinkle” = nazah. This is to sprinkle, spurt, or leap. Sprinkling especially refers to rituals of expiation.
CIII “be holy” = qadash. Same as “consecrate” in v1. See note III above.

22 “You shall also take the fat of the ram, the fatty tail,CIV the fat that covers the entrails, the appendage of the liver, the two kidneys with the fat that is on them, and the rightCV thighCVI (for it is a ram of ordination),CVII 

Notes on verse 22

CIV “fatty tail” = alyah. 5x in OT – 1x in Exodus & 4x in Leviticus. From alah (wail, lament); related to alah (swear, curse). This is a fatty tail or rump on a sheep.
CV “right” = yamin. Related to “right” in v20. See note XCVIII above.
CVI “thigh” = shoq. 19x in OT. Perhaps from shuq (to overflow, run after). This is leg, thigh, or hip.
CVII “ordination” = millu. Related to “ordain” in v9. 15x in OT. From male (see note LV above). This is fulfilling. It is often used either of inlaid gems or other settings. It can also refer to consecration, ordination, or sacrifices related to that.

23 and one loafCVIII of bread, one cake of bread made with oil, and one wafer, out of the basket of unleavened bread that is beforeCIX the Lord, 24 and you shall placeCX all these on the palmsCXI of Aaron

Notes on verses 23-24a

CVIII “loaf” = kikkar. From karar (to dance or whirl). This is round so it can refer to a circle, a circular region, a weight used for measurement, money, a loaf of bread that is round, a cover, a plain, or a valley in the Jordan.
CIX “before” = paneh. Same as “in front of” in v10. See note LVIII above.
CX “place” = sim. Same as “set” in v6. See note XL above.
CXI “palms” = kaph. From kaphaph (to bend – from a root meaning curve or bend down). This is palm of the hand or sole of the foot, footstep, grasp. Figuratively, it can also mean power.

and on the palms of his sons and raiseCXII them as an elevation offeringCXIII beforeCXIV the Lord. 25 Then you shall take them from their hands and turn them into smoke on the altar on top of the burnt offering for a pleasing odor beforeCXV the Lord. It is an offering by fire to the Lord.

Notes on verses 24b-25

CXII “raise” = nuph. This is to rock back and forth, wave, sprinkle, quiver, beckon, offer, present.
CXIII “elevation offering” = tenuphah. Related to “raise” in v24. From nuph (se note CXII above). This is a wave offering. It can also refer to brandishing a weapon.
CXIV “before” = paneh. Same as “in front of” in v10. See note LVIII above.
CXV “before” = paneh. Same as “in front of” in v10. See note LVIII above.

26 “You shall take the breastCXVI of the ram of Aaron’s ordination and raise it as an elevation offering beforeCXVII the Lord, and it shall be your portion.CXVIII 27 You shall consecrate the breast that was raised as an elevation offering and the thigh that was lifted upCXIX as an offeringCXX from the ram of ordination, from that which belonged to Aaron and his sons. 

Notes on verses 26-27

CXVI “breast” = chazeh. 13x in OT. Perhaps from chazah (to gaze at – to see or behold; perceiving as a mental process or looking at something with pleasure; seeing a vision). This is an animal breast.
CXVII “before” = paneh. Same as “in front of” in v10. See note LVIII above.
CXVIII “portion” = manah. 14x in OT. From manah (to weigh out, reckon, count, number, set, tell. By implication, it is allotting or providing something officially). This is a part or portion. It is something that is weighed out so it can be used specifically for a ration or portion of food. It can also mean a lot as in casting lots.
CXIX “lifted up” = rum. Related to “offering” in v27. See note CXX below.
CXX “offering” = terumah. From rum (to be high, rise, exalted, become proud, display, offer, present, set apart, extol; to rise in a literal or figurative sense). This is offering, gift – a sacred offering. It could also be a tribute or a bribe.

28 These things shall be a perpetual ordinanceCXXI for Aaron and his sons from the Israelites,CXXII for this is an offering, and it shall be an offering by the Israelites from their sacrificeCXXIII of offerings of well-being,CXXIV their offering to the Lord.

Notes on verse 28

CXXI “ordinance” = choq. Related to “ordinance” in v9. See note LIV above.
CXXII “Israelites” = ben + Yisrael. Literally, “children of Israel.” Ben is the same as “young” in v1. See note VII above. Yisrael is from sarah (to persist, exert oneself, contend, persevere, wrestle, prevail) + el (God or god). This is Israel, meaning God strives or one who strives with God; new name for Jacob and for his offspring. This refers to the people and to the land.
CXXIII “sacrifice” = zebach. Related to “altar” in v12. From zabach (see note LXVI above). This is a slaughter – literally of an animal. So, it implies the act or the animals used in sacrifice. Further, it can mean offering.
CXXIV “offerings of well-being” = shelem. From shalam (to make amends, finish, be safe, be friendly, to be complete or sound). This is a peace offering or a sacrifice of well-being. It was a voluntary offering given when one celebrated thanksgiving, alliance, or friendship.

29 “The sacredCXXV vestments of Aaron shall be passed onCXXVI to his sons afterCXXVII him; they shall be anointed in them and ordained in them.CXXVIII 30 The son who is priestCXXIX in his placeCXXX shall wearCXXXI them

Notes on verses 29-30a

CXXV “sacred” = qodesh. Same as “holy” in v6. See note XLIII above.
CXXVI “passed on” = hayah. Same as “be” in v9. See note LII above.
CXXVII “after” = achar. From achar (to remain behind, linger, continue, be behind, or delay; can also imply procrastination). This is after or the last part, following.
CXXVIII {untranslated} = yad. Literally, “their hand.” Same as {untranslated} in v9. See note LVI above.
CXXIX “priest” = kohen. Related to “serve…as priests” in v1 & “priesthood” in v9. See note IV above.
CXXX “place” = tachat. This is underneath, below, the bottom, instead of.
CXXXI “wear” = labash. Same as “put on” in v5. See note XXXIII above.

sevenCXXXII daysCXXXIII when he comesCXXXIV into the tent of meeting to ministerCXXXV in the holy place.

Notes on verse 30b

CXXXII “seven” = sheba. This is seven or by sevenfold. It can also be used to imply a week or an indefinite number. Symbolically, this is the number of fullness, sacredness, perfection.
CXXXIII “days” = yom. Root may mean being hot. This is the day in a literal or figurative sense. It can also mean birth, age, daylight, continually or other references to time.
CXXXIV “comes” = bo. This is to enter, come in, advance, fulfill, bring offerings, enter to worship, attack. It can also have a sexual connotation.
CXXXV “minister” = sharat. This is ministering, serving, or waiting on. It can refer to one offering service as a worshipper or one serving as a servant.

31 “You shall take the ram of ordination and boilCXXXVI its flesh in a holyCXXXVII place,CXXXVIII 32 and Aaron and his sons shall eatCXXXIX the flesh of the ram and the bread that is in the basket at the entrance of the tent of meeting. 

Notes on verses 31-32

CXXXVI “boil” = bashal. This is to boil up, roast, or bake. It can also mean ripen, produce, or seethe.
CXXXVII “holy” = qadosh. Related to “consecrate” in v1 & “holy” in v6. From qodesh (see note III above). This is sacred or holy in a ritual or moral sense. As a noun, it refers to a holy one (like a saint or angel), a holy place (the sanctuary), or God (the Holy One).
CXXXVIII “place” = maqom. From qum(to arise, stand, accomplish, establish, abide; rising against, getting up after being sick or asleep, arising from one state to another, becoming powerful, or rising for action; standing in a figurative sense). This is a standing, which is to say a spot or space a place. It can also refer to a locality or a physical/mental condition. HaMaqom is also a Jewish name for God – the place, i.e. the Omnipresent One.
CXXXIX “eat” = akal. This is to eat, devour, burn up, or otherwise consume. It can be eating in a literal or figurative sense.

33 They shall eat the food by which atonement is made,CXL to ordainCXLI and consecrate them, but no one elseCXLII shall eat of it, because it is holy. 34 If any of the flesh for the ordination or of the bread remainsCXLIII until the morning,CXLIV then you shall burn the remainderCXLV with fire; it shall not be eaten, because it is holy.

Notes on verses 33-34

CXL “atonement is made” = kaphar. This is to appease, cover, pacify, cancel, make atonement, placate. Specifically, it can mean to cover with bitumen.
CXLI {untranslated} = yad. Literally, “their hand.” Same as {untranslated} in v9. See note LVI above.
CXLII “else” = zur. This is to come from somewhere else – a stranger. It is to stop for lodging. Figuratively, it can also mean to profane or commit adultery.
CXLIII “remains” = yathar. Related to “appendage” in v13. See note LXXIV above.
CXLIV “morning” = boqer. Related to “young” in v1. From baqar (see note VII above). This refers to the break of day. So it is dawn, early, morning, or morrow.
CXLV “remainder” = yathar. Same as “remains” in v34. See note CXLIII above.

35 “Thus you shall do to Aaron and to his sons, just as I have commandedCXLVI you; through seven days you shall ordain them.CXLVII 36 Also every day you shall offerCXLVIII a bull as a purification offering for atonement. Also you shall offer a sin offeringCXLIX for the altar, when you make atonement for it, and shall anoint it, to consecrate it. 37 Seven days you shall make atonement for the altar and consecrate it, and the altar shall be most holy;CL whateverCLI touchesCLII the altar shall become holy.

Notes on verses 35-37

CXLVI “commanded” = tsavah. This is to charge, command, order, appoint, or enjoin. This is the root that the Hebrew word for “commandment” comes from (mitsvah).
CXLVII {untranslated} = yad. Literally, “their hand.” Same as {untranslated} in v9. See note LVI above.
CXLVIII “offer” = asah. Same as “do” in v1. See note II above.
CXLIX “offer a sin offering” = chata. Related to “purification offering” in v14. See note LXXXV above.
CL “most holy” = qodesh + qodesh. Literally, “holy of holies.” Qodesh is the same as “holy” in v6. See note XLIII above.
CLI “whatever” = kol. Same as “all” in v12. See note LXVII above.
CLII “touches” = naga. This is touch, reach, arrive, come near, strike. This is touching for any reason including sexual or violent.

38 “Now this is what you shall offer on the altar: two lambsCLIII a year oldCLIV regularlyCLV each day. 39 One lamb you shall offer in the morning, and the other lamb you shall offer inCLVI the evening, 

Notes on verses 38-39

CLIII “lambs” = kebes. Root may mean to dominate. This is a young male sheep – having just reached the age where it can butt other sheep.
CLIV “a year old” = ben + shanah. Literally, “children of a year.” Ben is the same as “young” in v1. See note VII above. Shanah is from shana (to change, alter). This is a year, age, old. It can also mean yearly.
CLV “regularly” = tamid. May come from a word that means to stretch. This word means an indefinite period of time. So, it could be regular or daily. It could also be constantly, continually, always, or perpetually.
CLVI “in” = bayin. From bin (to discern, consider, attend to; distinguishing things in one’s mind or, more generally, to understand). This is among, between, interval.

40 and with the firstCLVII lamb one-tenthCLVIII of a measure of choice flour mixed with one-fourthCLIX of a hinCLX of beatenCLXI oil,

Notes on verse 40a

CLVII “first” = echad. Same as “one” in v1. See note VI above.
CLVIII “one-tenth” = issaron. From the same as eser (ten, -teen); from asar (to tithe, render a tenth of). This is a tenth.
CLIX “one-fourth” = reba. 8x in OT. From the same as arba (four); from raba (to make square or be four-sided). This is one-fourth, square, four sides, a direction, or a side.
CLX “hin” = hin. From Egyptian hwn (jar, unit of measurement for liquid; around .48 liters). This is hin, a unit of measurement used for liquids. See https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/hin
CLXI “beaten” = kathith. 5x in OT. From kathath (to crush into pieces, to beat with a hammer, smash, bruise). This is beaten or fine.

and one-fourth of a hin of wineCLXII for a drink offering.CLXIII  41 And the other lamb you shall offer inCLXIV the evening and shall offer with it a grain offeringCLXV and its drink offering, as in the morning, for a pleasing odor, an offering by fire to the Lord. 42 It shall be a regular burnt offering throughout your generationsCLXVI at the entrance of the tent of meeting

Notes on verses 40b-42a

CLXII “wine” = yayin. Root may mean to effervesce, referring to the fermentation process. This is wine, grape, or banquet. It can imply intoxication.
CLXIII “drink offering” = nesek. From nasak (to pour out or melt; used especially for libations or for the process of making cast metal; can also be used figuratively for anointing a king). This is a drink offering or a molten image.
CLXIV “in” = bayin. Same as “in” in v39. See note CLVI above.
CLXV “grain offering” = minchah. This is a gift or an offering, particularly a sacrificial one that is generally bloodless and given spontaneously (voluntarily).
CLXVI “generations” = dor. From dur (to move in a circle, which implies living somewhere or remaining there; it can also be the sense of piling or heaping up). This is a revolution of time, which is to say, an age or generation. It can also be a dwelling or one’s posterity.

beforeCLXVII the Lord, where I will meetCLXVIII with you, to speakCLXIX to you there. 43 I will meet with the Israelites there, and it shall be sanctifiedCLXX by my glory;CLXXI 

Notes on verses 42b-43

CLXVII “before” = paneh. Same as “in front of” in v10. See note LVIII above.
CLXVIII “meet” = yaad. Related to “meeting” in v4. See note XXIX above.
CLXIX “speak” = dabar. Related to {untranslated} in v1. See note I above.
CLXX “sanctified” = qadash. Same as “consecrate” in v1. See note III above.
CLXXI “glory” = kabod. Related to “liver” in v13. From kabad (see note LXXV above). This is weighty. Figuratively, glorious, abundant, riches, honor, splendor – a reference to one’s reputation or character. This word is often used to describe God and God’s presence.

44 I will consecrate the tent of meeting and the altar; Aaron also and his sons I will consecrate to serve me as priests. 45 I will dwellCLXXII amongCLXXIII the Israelites, and I will be their God.CLXXIV 

Notes on verses 44-45

CLXXII “dwell” = shakan. This is to settle down in the sense of residing somewhere or staying there permanently. It can mean abide or continue. “Mishkan,” taken from this verb, is the Hebrew word for the Tabernacle (as a place where God abided).
CLXXIII “among” = tavek. This is among, middle, in the midst, the center. Perhaps, properly, to sever.
CLXXIV “God” = Elohim. Related to “Israelites” in v28. See note CXXII above.

46 And they shall knowCLXXV that I am the Lord their God, who broughtCLXXVI them out of the landCLXXVII of EgyptCLXXVIII that I might dwell among them; I am the Lord their God.

Notes on verse 46

CLXXV “know” = yada. This is to know, acknowledge, advise, answer, be aware, be acquainted with. Properly, this is to figure something out by seeing. It includes ideas of observation, recognition, and care about something. It can be used causatively for instruction, designation, and punishment.
CLXXVI “brought” = yatsa. This is to go or come out, bring forth, appear. It is to go out in a literal or figurative sense.
CLXXVII “land” = erets. Root may mean to be firm. This is earth, ground, field land, or country.
CLXXVIII “Egypt” = Mitsrayim. Perhaps from matsor (besieged or fortified place, bulwark, entrenchment; something hemmed in; a siege or distress or fastness); from tsur (to confine, besiege, to cramp). This is Egypt.

Image credit: “A Model of the Tent of Meeting” by Michael Osnis, 2000. Photo by Daniel Ventura, 2000.

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