Exodus 35

Exodus 35


MosesI assembledII allIII the congregationIV of the IsraelitesV

Notes on verse 1a

I “Moses” = Mosheh. From mashah (to pull out in a literal or figurative sense, to draw out) OR from Egyptian mes or mesu (child, son i.e. child of…). This is Moses – the one drawn out from the water, which is to say, rescued. If derived from the Egyptian, his name would share a root with Rameses and Thutmose.
II “assembled” = qahal. From qahal (assembly, congregation, multitude). This is to gather, convene, assemble like a congregation.
III “all” = kol. From kalal (to complete). This is all or every.
IV “congregation” = edah. From yaad (to appoint, assemble or gather selves, agree) OR from ed (witness, testimony, recorder); from ud (to admonish, repeat, duplicate, testify, restore, record, relieve). This is a congregation, assembly, or company. It could be a family, crowd, or fixture.
V “Israelites” = ben + Yisrael. Literally, “children of Israel.” Ben is from banah (to build or obtain children). This is son, age, child. It is son in a literal or figurative sense. Yisrael is from sarah (to persist, exert oneself, contend, persevere, wrestle, prevail) + el (God or god). This is Israel, meaning God strives or one who strives with God; new name for Jacob and for his offspring. This refers to the people and to the land.

and said to them, “These are the thingsVI that the LordVII has commandedVIII you to do:IX

Notes on verse 1b

VI “things” = dabar. From dabar (to speak, declare, discuss). This is speech, a word, a matter, an affair, charge, command, message, promise, purpose, report, request. It is a word, which implies things that are spoken of in a wide sense.
VII “Lord” = YHVH. From havah (to be, become) or hayah (to come to pass, become, be). This is the name of the God of Israel, the self-existent and eternal one, the tetragrammaton. This pronunciation has been lost to time so “Lord” is generally used in its place.
VIII “commanded” = tsavah. This is to charge, command, order, appoint, or enjoin. This is the root that the Hebrew word for “commandment” comes from (mitsvah).
IX “do” = asah. This is to make, do, act, appoint, become in many senses.

“SixX daysXI shall workXII be done, but on the seventhXIII day

Notes on verse 2a

X “six” = shesh. This is six. Figuratively, it can be a surplus since it is one more than the number of fingers on the hand.
XI “days” = yom. Root may mean being hot. This is the day in a literal or figurative sense. It can also mean birth, age, daylight, continually or other references to time.
XII “work” = melakah. From the same as malak (messenger, an angel, or a deputy; human messengers literally or for prophets, priests, or teachers as messengers of God; also supernatural messengers i.e. angels). Properly, this is a deputyship or some kind of work. It can also be the product that comes from labor.
XIII “seventh” = shebii. From sheba (seven – the number of perfection/sacred fullness). This is seventh.

you shall haveXIV a holyXV SabbathXVI of solemn restXVII to the Lord;

Notes on verse 2b

XIV “have” = hayah. Related to “Lord” in v1. See note VII above.
XV “holy” = qodesh. This is set apart and so sacred. God is different from us and so God is holy/set apart. Things we dedicate to God’s service are set apart for God and so they, too, are holy, etc.
XVI “Sabbath” = Shabbat. From shabath (to rest, stop, repose, cease working; by implication, to celebrate). This is sabbath, literally meaning rest or intermission.
XVII “solemn rest” = shabbaton. Related to “Sabbath” in v2. 11x in OT. From shabat (see note XVI above). This is a holiday, rest, a day to take a sabbath from work.

whoeverXVIII does any work on it shall be put to death.XIX You shall kindleXX no fire XXIin all your dwellingsXXII on the Sabbath day.”

Notes on verses 2c-3

XVIII “whoever” = kol. Same as “all” in v1. See note III above.
XIX “put to death” = mut. This is to die in a literal or figurative sense. It can also refer to being a dead body.
XX “kindle” = ba’ar. This is to burn, consume, heat, remove. It can also be to consume by a fire or through eating, being brutish or wasting.
XXI “fire” = esh. This is fire, burning, flaming, hot. It is fire in a literal or figurative sense.
XXII “dwellings” = moshab. From yashab (to sit and so to remain and so to dwell; sitting for any reason – as a judge, in order to ambush, or just sitting quietly; can mean settling or marrying; continue, endure, or establish). This is dwelling, seat, assembly, settlement, population.

Moses said to all the congregation of the Israelites, “This is the thing that the Lord has commanded: TakeXXIII from among you an offeringXXIV to the Lord; let whoever is of a generousXXV heartXXVI

Notes on verses 4-5a

XXIII “take” = laqach. This is to take, accept, carry away, receive. It can also have the sense of take a wife or take in marriage.
XXIV “offering” = terumah. From rum (to be high, rise, exalted, become proud, display, offer, present, set apart, extol; to rise in a literal or figurative sense). This is offering, gift – a sacred offering. It could also be a tribute or a bribe.
XXV “generous” = nadib. From nadab (to offer willingly, volunteer, freely give, be willing). Properly, this is voluntary and so it implies generous, noble, magnanimous, or a generous person.
XXVI “heart” = leb. May be related to labab (to encourage; properly, to be encased as with fat; used in a good sense, this means to transport someone with love; used in a bad sense, it can mean to dull one’s senses). This is the heart, courage, one’s inner self, the mind, or the will. Heart is only used in a figurative sense in the Old and New Testaments.

bringXXVII the Lord’s offering: gold,XXVIII silver,XXIX and bronze;XXX 

Notes on verse 5b

XXVII “bring” = bo. This is to enter, come in, advance, fulfill, bring offerings, enter to worship, attack. It can also have a sexual connotation.
XXVIII “gold” = zahab. Root may mean to shimmer. This is gold or something that has the color of gold like oil. It can also refer to a clear sky – to good weather.
XXIX “silver” = keseph. From kasaph (to long for, be greedy; to become pale). This is silver or money.
XXX “bronze” = nechosheth. Perhaps from nechushah (copper, bronze, brass – something made from this metal like a coin or fetter; something that is considered base in contrast to gold or silver.; from nachush (made of bronze or brass, coppery; figuratively, hard); from nachash (to divine, interpret omens, learn from experience, observe; to hiss). This is bronze, copper, steel, brass or something made from copper. So, it could be a coin or chains. It can also figuratively mean something considered lesser in contrast to gold or silver.

blue,XXXI purple,XXXII and crimson yarnsXXXIII and fine linen;XXXIV goats’ hair,XXXV 

Notes on verse 6

XXXI “blue” = tekeleth. Perhaps from shechelet (something that is in incense; maybe onycha, a mussel); from the same as shachal (lion). This is violet or blue. It refers to a mussel that contains a dye or things dyed using that dye.
XXXII “purple” = argaman. This is purple or red-purple. It can refer to the color or something dyed in that color.
XXXIII “crimson yarns” = tola + shani. Tola is a worm or maggot, perhaps a crimson-grub of species coccus ilicis. It is used in the manufacture of red dye. So, this word could be crimson, purple, or something dyed in those colors. It could also refer to an oppressor. Shani is crimson or scarlet. It can also refer to the insect that the red dye is made from (coccus ilicis), the color of that dye, or things dyed with it (like thread).
XXXIV “fine linen” = shesh. This refers to byssus flax, a bleached fabric – white linen. It can also figuratively refer to marble.
XXXV “goats’ hair” = ez. Perhaps from azaz (to be strong in a literal or figurative sense, overcome, be impudent). This is a female goat, but can refer to male goats when plural.

tannedXXXVI rams’XXXVII skins,XXXVIII

Notes on verse 7a

XXXVI “tanned” = adom. 10x in OT. This is to be red, ruddy, dyed scarlet, or flushed in the face.
XXXVII “rams’” = ayil. From the same as ul (mighty, strength, body, belly; root may mean to twist and that implies strength and power). This is strength so it is used to indicate things that are strong or powerful: political chiefs, rams, posts, trees, oaks.
XXXVIII “skins” = or. Perhaps from ur (to be made naked, exposed, or bare). This is skin, hide, or leather. It can also refer to a body.

and fineXXXIX leather;XL acaciaXLI wood,XLII 

Notes on verse 7b

XXXIX “fine” = tachash. 14x in OT. This is some kind of leather taken from a furry animal. It may be an antelope or badger. It is often translated fine, but it used to often be porpoise.
XL “leather” = or. Same as “skins” in v7. See note XXXVIII above.
XLI “acacia” = shittah. This is acacia or shittim.
XLII “wood” = ets. Perhaps from atsah (to shut, fasten, firm up, to close one’s eyes). This is tree or other things related to trees like wood, sticks, or stalks. It can also refer to wood products like a plank or staff or gallows. Additionally, this can refer to a carpenter.

oilXLIII for the light,XLIV spicesXLV for the anointingXLVI oil and for the fragrantXLVII incense,XLVIII 

Notes on verse 8

XLIII “oil” = shemen. From shamen (to shine, which implies being oily, growing fat). This is fat, oil, grease, olive oil – often with perfume. Used figuratively for fertile, lavish, rich.
XLIV “light” = maor. 19x in OT. From or (to be or become light, shine). This is light as an element, something that gives off light, the quality of brightness, or cheerfulness.
XLV “spices” = bosem. From the same as basam (spice, balsam tree). This is balsam, spice, perfume, odor, the balsam tree.
XLVI “anointing” = mishchah. From mashach (to smear or anoint; to run oil on, to consecrate). This is the act of anointing, ointment, or a consecrated thing.
XLVII “fragrant” = sam. 16x in OT. This is spice, fragrant, a sweet smell.
XLVIII “incense” = qetoreth. From the same as qitor (thick smoke, vapor). This is smoke, incense, the scent of the sacrifice as it burned.

and onyxXLIX stonesL and gemsLI to be setLII in the ephodLIII and the breastpiece.LIV

Notes on verse 9

XLIX “onyx” = shoham. 11x in OT. This is some kind of gem – it may be an onyx or beryl. The root may mean to blanch.
L “stones” = eben. This is a stone, weight, or mason. It is part of the word “Ebenezer.”
LI “gems” = eben. Same as “stones” in v9. See note L above.
LII “set” = millu. 15x in OT. From male (fill, satisfy, replenish, accomplish, fulfill, confirm, or consecrate; fill in a literal or figurative sense). This is fulfilling. It is often used either of inlaid gems or other settings. It can also refer to consecration, ordination, or sacrifices related to that.
LIII “ephod” = ephod. This is an ephod, shoulder piece – perhaps a breastplate or apron. It can refer specifically to a ritual garment worn by the high priest. Alternately, it can refer to an image.
LIV “breastpiece” = choshen.  May come from a word that means to hold within or sparkle. It is a breastpiece, perhaps with special reference to a pocket or having gems. It is only used of the high priest’s breastpiece.

10 “All who are skillfulLV among you shall comeLVI and makeLVII all that the Lord has commanded: 11 the tabernacle,LVIII its tentLIX

Notes on verses 10-11a

LV “skillful” = chakam + leb. Literally, “wise-hearted.” Chakam is from chakam (to be wise or teach wisdom; this is wisdom in thought, word, or action). This is wise, skillful, cunning, or artful. Leb is the same as “heart” in v5. See note XXVI above.
LVI “come” = bo. Same as “bring” in v5. See note XXVII above.
LVII “make” = asah. Same as “do” in v1. See note IX above.
LVIII “tabernacle” = mishkan. From shakan (to settle down in the sense of residing somewhere or staying there permanently; to abide or continue). This is a place where one lives – a tabernacle, tent, or other kind of dwelling. It can also be a lair where animals live, the grave, the Temple, or the Tabernacle.
LIX “tent” = ohel. Perhaps from ahal (to shine, be clear). This is a tent, covering, home, or side pillar.

and its covering,LX its claspsLXI and its frames,LXII its bars,LXIII its pillars,LXIV and its bases;LXV 

Notes on verse 11b

LX “covering” = mikseh. 16x in OT. From kasah (to cover, conceal, overwhelm; to cover as clothes do or to hide a secret). This is a covering.
LXI “clasps” = qeres. 10x in OT– all in reference to the tabernacle. From qaras (to stoop, crouch, protrude; to be hunchbacked). This is a clasp or hook.
LXII “frames” = qeresh. This may come from a word that means to split off. So, it is a plank or board. It can also refer to a ship’s deck.
LXIII “bars” = beriach. From barach (to flee, drive away, hurry, to bolt). This is a bar or a bolt. It can also be used for a fugitive.
LXIV “pillars” = ammud. From amad (to stand up in a literal or figurative sense; to establish, continue, endure, take a stand, act, be a servant, stand still, remain, stand against an enemy). This is a pillar, stand, or platform.
LXV “bases” = eden. From the same as adon (lord, master, owner); root means to rule or be sovereign. This is a base, pedestal, or foundation.

12 the arkLXVI with its poles,LXVII the cover,LXVIII and the curtainLXIX for the screen;LXX 

Notes on verse 12

LXVI “ark” = aron. Perhaps from arah (to gather or pluck). This is a chest, box, or coffin. It is used for the Ark of the Covenant.
LXVII “poles” = bad. From badad (to divide or be separated; alone, solitary, lonely, isolated, straggler). This is apart, alone, separation, body part, tree branch, pole. It can also be a city’s chief.
LXVIII “cover” = kapporeth. From the same as kopher (ransom, bribe, price of a life; something that covers something else; a village, bitumen as a coating, a henna plant that dyes, a ransom price); from kaphar (to appease, cover, pacify, cancel, cleanse, pardon). This is the lid on top of the ark – the mercy seat.
LXIX “curtain” = paroketh. Perhaps from the same as perek (perhaps from a word meaning fracture or break apart, emphasizing the severity or the break; harshness, severity, cruelty; rigorously). This is something that separates – a screen, curtain, or veil.
LXX “screen” = masak. From sakak (to cover or overshadow; to hedge or fence in; figuratively, to defend, protect, or join together). This is a covering, screen, or curtain. It could also refer to some kind of defense.

13 the tableLXXI with its poles and all its utensilsLXXII and the breadLXXIII of the Presence;LXXIV 

Notes on verse 13

LXXI “table” = shulchan. Perhaps from shalach (to send, send for, forsake). This is a table or meal.
LXXII “utensils” = keli. From kalah (to end, be finished, complete, prepare, consume, spent, or completely destroyed). This is something that was prepared – any implement, utensil, article, vessel, weapon, or instrument. Also includes jewels, weapons, bags, carriages, and furniture.
LXXIII “bread” = lechem. From lacham (to eat, feed on). This is bread, food, loaf. It can refer to food more generally for people or for animals.
LXXIV “Presence” = paneh. From panah (to turn, face, appear). This is face in a literal or figurative sense. It could be face, presence, anger, respect. It can also be used of God to indicate divine favor or presence.

14 and the lampstandLXXV for the light, with its utensils and its lampsLXXVI and the oil for the light; 15 and the altarLXXVII of incense, with its poles, and the anointing oil and the fragrant incense, and the screen for the entrance,LXXVIII the entrance of the tabernacle; 

Notes on verses 14-15

LXXV “lampstand” = menorah. From the same as ner (properly, to glisten; a lamp, light, burner, candle; light literal or figurative). This is a lampstand or candlestick.
LXXVI “lamps” = ner. Related to “lampstand” in v14. See note LXXV above.
LXXVII “altar” = mizbeach. From zabach (to kill, slay, offer; slaughtering an animal to offer as a sacrifice). This is an altar.
LXXVIII “entrance” = pethach. From pathach (to open wide in a literal or figurative sense; to open, draw out, let something go free, break forth, to plow, engrave, or carve). This is any kind of opening – a door, entrance, gate.

16 the altar of burnt offering,LXXIX with its gratingLXXX of bronze, its poles, and all its utensils, the basinLXXXI with its stand;LXXXII 

Notes on verse 16

LXXIX “burnt offering” = olah. From alah (to go up, climb, approach, bring; to be high or actively climb; can be literal or figurative). This is a step, stairs, or some kind of ascent. It is also used for whole burnt offerings, being the offering in which the whole things is burned and rises as smoke. Burnt offerings were the least common of the offerings: most were eaten, shared with the priest and the one bringing the offering.
LXXX “grating” = makber. 6x in OT– all in reference to the tabernacle. From the same as kabir (something braided or woven together; a pillow, quilt, or net); from kabar (to be many, multiply, increase amount or quality; properly, this is to braid or weave together). This is something that covers – a cloth woven like netting, a grate.
LXXXI “basin” = kiyyor. From the same as kur (furnace, smelting pot). This is a firepot, basin, hearth, pulpit, scaffold.
LXXXII “stand” = ken. 16x in OT. From the same as ken (to set upright; generally used figuratively for thus, so, afterwards, rightly so); perhaps from kun (properly, in a perpendicular position; literally, to establish, fix, fasten, prepare; figuratively, it is certainty, to be firm, faithfulness, render sure or prosperous). This is a stand, place, right, honest, office.

17 the hangingsLXXXIII of the court,LXXXIV its pillars and its bases, and the screen for the gateLXXXV of the court; 

Notes on verse 17

LXXXIII “hangings” = qela. From qala (to sling, carve). This is something that hangs like a door screen, a door, a leaf or a sling.
LXXXIV “court” = chatser. From chatsar (to blow a trumpet, trumpeter, to surround); from chatsotsrah (trumpet). This is an enclosure or court – a yard that is fenced in. It could also be a village or hamlet that is walled in.
LXXXV “gate” = shaar. May be related to sha’ar (to calculate or reckon; may come from a root that means to open up or split). This is a gate, door, or other opening like a port.

18 the pegsLXXXVI of the tabernacle and the pegs of the court and their cords;LXXXVII 19 the finely workedLXXXVIII vestmentsLXXXIX

Notes on verses 18-19a

LXXXVI “pegs” = yathed. This may come from a word that means to pin securely. This is a peg, a tent peg, a pin.
LXXXVII “cords” = methar. 9x in OT. From yathar (to jut over, remain behind, preserve, to excel). This is a cord as part of a tent or a string belonging to a bow.
LXXXVIII “finely worked” = serad. 4x in OT– all in Exodus. Perhaps from sarad (to escape or remain; properly, this refers to a puncture, so figuratively it is remaining or escaping by slipping out). This is finely woven or braided or stitched.
LXXXIX “vestments” = beged. From bagad (to cover or conceal; figuratively, to act in a covert or treacherous way, to transgress or pillage). This is clothing, garment, robe, or some other kind of clothing. Figuratively, it can be treachery or pillaging.

for ministeringXC in the holy place, the holy vestments for the priestXCI Aaron,XCII and the vestments of his sons,XCIII for their service as priests.”XCIV

Notes on verse 19b

XC “ministering” = sharath. This is ministering, serving, or waiting on. It can refer to one offering service as a worshipper or one serving as a servant.
XCI “priest” = kohen. This is literally the one who officiates i.e. the priest. This is where the Jewish last name “Cohen” (and its variants) comes from.
XCII “Aaron” = Aharon. Derivation uncertain. May mean “bearer of martyrs” OR be related to Ancient Egyptian ꜥḥꜣ rw (warrior lion) OR elevated, exalted, high mountain. This is Aaron. See https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/Aaron
XCIII “sons” = ben. Same as “Israelites” in v1. See note V above.
XCIV “service as priests” = kahan. Related to “priest” in v19. From kohen (see note XCI above). This is officiating as a priest does over religious service. It can also figuratively mean donning regalia or formal ornamentation/attire.

20 Then all the congregation of the Israelites withdrewXCV from the presence of Moses. 21 And they came, everyoneXCVI whose heart was stirredXCVII

Notes on verses 20-21a

XCV “withdrew” = yatsa. This is to go or come out, bring forth, appear. It is to go out in a literal or figurative sense.
XCVI “everyone” = kol + ish. Kol is the same as “all” in v1. See note III above. Ish is perhaps from enosh (human, humankind, mortal); from anash (to be weak, sick, or frail). This is man, husband, another, or humankind.
XCVII “stirred” = nasa. This is to lift in a broad sense, literally and figuratively. So it could be to carry, take, or arise. It could also be bring forth, advance, accept.

and everyoneXCVIII whose spiritXCIX was willing,C

Notes on verse 21b

XCVIII “everyone” = kol. Same as “all” in v1. See note III above.
XCIX “spirit” = ruach. This is breath, wind, air, cool, spirit. This is wind, which resembles the breath and so this can be used figuratively for life itself or being frail/mortal/impermanent. It can refer to the air of the sky or the spirit.
C “was willing” = nadab. Related to “generous” in v5. 18x in OT. See note XXV above.

and brought the Lord’s offering to be usedCI for the tent of meetingCII and for all its serviceCIII and for the sacredCIV vestments. 

Notes on verse 21c

CI “used” = melakah. Same as “work” in v2. See note XII above.
CII “meeting” = moed. Related to “congregation” in v1. From yaad (see note IV above). This is a meeting, assembly, fixed time. It can be used for a festival or feast. It can also refer to a meeting place.
CIII “service” = abodah. From abad (to work, serve, compel; any kind of work; used causatively, can mean to enslave or keep in bondage). This is labor, service, bondage, job, servitude, worker. It can refer to any kind of work.
CIV “sacred” = qodesh. Same as “holy” in v2. See note XV above.

22 So they came, both menCV and women;CVI all who were of a willingCVII heart brought broochesCVIII and earringsCIX and signet ringsCX

Notes on verse 22a

CV “men” = enosh. Related to “everyone” in v21. See note XCVI above.
CVI “women” = ishshah. Related to “everyone” in v21 & “men” in v22. From ish (see note XCVI above). This is woman, wife, or female.
CVII “willing” = nadib. Same as “generous” in v5. See note XXV above.
CVIII “brooches” = chach. 7x in OT. From the same as choach (from a root that may mean to pierce; bramble, hook, thorn, ring). This is a brooch, hook, ring, or chain.
CIX “earrings” = nezem. 17x in OT. This is a ring worn for decorative reasons. It also includes earrings, nose rings, or other jewels.
CX “signet rings” = tabbaath. From taba (to sink, drown, settle, or fasten). This is a signet ring or seal. It can also be used more broadly for rings in general.

and pendants,CXI all sortsCXII of gold objects,CXIII everyone bringingCXIV an offeringCXV of gold to the Lord. 

Notes on verse 22b

CXI “pendants” = kumaz. 2x in OT. It may come from a word that means to store. This is some kind of jewelry, perhaps a bracelet or necklace or gold beads.
CXII “all sorts” = kol. Same as “all” in v1. See note III above.
CXIII “objects” = keli. Same as “utensils” in v13. See note LXXII above.
CXIV “bringing” = nuph. This is to rock back and forth, wave, sprinkle, quiver, beckon, offer, present.
CXV “offering” = tenuphah. Related to “bringing” in v22. From nuph (see note CXIV above). This is a wave offering. It could also refer to brandishing a weapon in answer to a threat.

23 And everyone who possessedCXVI blue or purple or crimson yarn or fine linen or goats’ hair or tanned rams’ skins or fine leather brought them. 24 Everyone who could makeCXVII an offeringCXVIII of silver or bronze brought it as the Lord’s offering,CXIX and everyone who possessed acacia wood of anyCXX use in the workCXXI brought it. 

Notes on verses 23-24

CXVI “possessed” = matsa. This is to find, catch or acquire. It can also mean to come forth or appear. Figuratively, this can mean to meet or be together with.
CXVII “make” = rum. Related to “offering” in v5. See note XXIV above.
CXVIII “offering” = terumah. Same as “offering” in v5. See note XXIV above.
CXIX “offering” = terumah. Same as “offering” in v5. See note XXIV above.
CXX “any” = kol. Same as “all” in v1. See note III above.
CXXI “work” = abodah. Same as “service” in v21. See note CIII above.

25 All the skillful women spunCXXII with their handsCXXIII and brought what they had spunCXXIV in blue and purple and crimson yarns and fine linen; 26 all the women whose hearts movedCXXV them to use their skillCXXVI spun the goats’ hair. 27 And the leadersCXXVII brought onyx stones and gems to be set in the ephod and the breastpiece 28 and spices and oil for the light and for the anointing oil and for the fragrant incense. 

Notes on verses 25-28

CXXII “spun” = tavah. 2x in OT – both times in Exodus 35. This is to spin.
CXXIII “hands” = yad. This is hand, ability, power. Hand in a literal sense, but also what one can do or the means by which one does it.
CXXIV “what…had spun” = matveh. Related to “spun” in v25. 1x in OT. From tavah (see note CXXII above). This is a thing that is spun – yarn.
CXXV “moved” = nasa. Same as “stirred” in v21. See note XCVII above.
CXXVI “skill” = chokmah. Related to “skillful” in v10. From chakam (see note LV above). This is wisdom, wit, or skillfulness.
CXXVII “leaders” = nasi. Related to “stirred” in v21. From nasa (see note XCVII above). This is one lifted up or exalter. So, it could be prince, chief, ruler, captain, king, or vapor.

29 All the Israelite men and women whose hearts made them willing to bring anythingCXXVIII for the workCXXIX that the Lord had commanded byCXXX Moses to be done brought it as a freewill offeringCXXXI to the Lord.

30 Then Moses said to the Israelites, “See,CXXXII the Lord has calledCXXXIII

Notes on verses 29-30a

CXXVIII “anything” = kol. Same as “all” in v1. See note III above.
CXXIX “work” = melakah. Same as “work” in v2. See note XII above.
CXXX {untranslated} = yad. Same as “hands” in v25. See note CXXIII above.
CXXXI “freewill offering” = nedabah. Related to “generous” in v5 & “was willing” in v21. From nadab (see note XXV above). This is a freewill offering, something giving spontaneously.
CXXXII “see” = raah. This is to see in a literal or figurative sense so stare, advise, think, view.
CXXXIII “called” = qara. This is to call or call out – to call someone by name. Also used more broadly for calling forth.

by nameCXXXIV BezalelCXXXV son of UriCXXXVI

Notes on verse 30b

CXXXIV “name” = shem. May be from sum (to put, place, set). This is name, fame, renown. A name was thought to indicate something essential about a person – something about their individuality. So, this word can also mean honor, authority, or character.
CXXXV “Bezalel” = Betsalel. Related to “Israelites” in v1. 9x in OT. Probably from tsel (shade in a literal or figurative sense; shadow, shade, protection, shelter, or defense); {from tsalal (to be or become dark, shade; this is the shade as during twilight or shadow as associated with something opaque)} + el (see note V above) OR from batsal (onion) + el (see note V above). This is Bezalel or Bezaleleel or Betsalel. It means “in the shadow of God” or “in the protection of God” or “onion of God.” See https://www.abarim-publications.com/Meaning/Bezalel.html
CXXXVI “Uri” = Uri. Related to “light” in v8. 8x in OT. From or (see note XLIV above). This is Uri, meaning “fiery” or “light” or “the Lord is light” or “flame of the Lord” or “my light is the Lord” or “my flame.” See https://www.abarim-publications.com/Meaning/Uri.html

son of Hur,CXXXVII of the tribeCXXXVIII of Judah;CXXXIX 

Notes on verse 30c

CXXXVII “Hur” = Chur. 15x in OT. From chavar (to be or become white or pale) OR from the same as chur (white things, white, white linen) OR from the same as chur (hole; a hole that was bored; a crevice where a snake lives; the cell of a prison). This is Hur or Chur, its meaning is uncertain.
CXXXVIII “tribe” = matteh. From natah (to stretch or spread out, extend, bend). This is a staff, rod, branch, or tribe. It could be a rod for discipline or correction. It could be a scepter to indicate authority, a throwing lance, or a walking staff. Figuratively, it could also be something that supports life (like bread).
CXXXIX “Judah” = Yehudah. Probably from yadah (to throw one’s hands into the air in a gesture of praise); from yad (hand). This is Judah, meaning “praised.”

31 he has filledCXL him with a divineCXLI spirit, with ability,CXLII intelligence,CXLIII

Notes on verse 31a

CXL “filled” = male. Related to “set” in v9. See note LII above.
CXLI “divine” = elohim. Related to “Israelites” in v1. From eloah (God, a god); from el (see note V above). This is most commonly used as a name for God. Technically, it’s in the plural, i.e. gods. It can also mean great, mighty, judge, or ruler.
CXLII “ability” = chokmah. Same as “skill” in v26. See note CXXVI above.
CXLIII “intelligence” = tebunah. From bin (to discern, consider, attend to; distinguishing things in one’s mind or, more generally, to understand). This is understanding, discernment, discretion, intelligence, skill, fruit, an argument.

and knowledge,CXLIV and with every kindCXLV of skill,CXLVI 

Notes on verse 31b

CXLIV “knowledge” = daat. From yada (to know, be aware, see and so understand – includes observation, care, recognition; can also be used as a euphemism). This is knowledge, unawares, cunning, wittingly.
CXLV “every kind” = kol. Same as “all” in v1. See note III above.
CXLVI “skill” = melakah. Same as “work” in v2. See note XII above.

32 to deviseCXLVII artistic designs,CXLVIII to workCXLIX in gold, silver, and bronze, 

Notes on verse 32

CXLVII “devise” = chashab. This is properly to braid or interpenetrate. Literally it is to create or to wear. Figuratively, it can mean plotting – generally in a negative sense. More broadly, this can also mean think, consider, or make account of.
CXLVIII “artistic designs” = machashabah. Related to “devise” in v32. From chashab (see note CXLVII above). This is thought, scheme, imagination, purpose, or a plan either good or evil.
CXLIX “work” = asah. Same as “do” in v1. See note IX above.

33 in cuttingCL stones for setting,CLI and in carvingCLII wood,CLIII in every kind of artistic craft.CLIV 

Notes on verse 33

CL “cutting” = charosheth. 4x in OT– in Exodus 31 and 35. From charash (to scratch, which implies etching or plowing; to manufacture regardless of materials used; figuratively, to devise or conceal; a sense of secrecy; hence, being silent or left alone; speechless). This is a cutting or carving – something done skillfully.
CLI “setting” = male. Same as “filled” in v31. See note CXL above.
CLII “carving” = charosheth. Same as “cutting” in v33. See note CL above.
CLIII {untranslated} = asah. Same as “do” in v1. See note IX above.
CLIV “craft” = melakah. Same as “work” in v2. See note XII above.

34 And he has inspiredCLV him to teach,CLVI both him and OholiabCLVII son of Ahisamach,CLVIII of the tribe of Dan.CLIX 

Notes on verse 34

CLV “inspired” = natan + leb. Literally, “put the ability in his heart.” Natan is to give, put, set, offer. It is to give literally or figuratively. Leb is the same as “hearts” in v5. See note XXVI above.
CLVI “teach” = yarah. This is to throw, shoot, be stunned. It is to flow as water so figuratively to instruct or teach. This is the same root that “Jerusalem” and “Torah” draw from.
CLVII “Oholiab” = Oholiab. Related to “tent” in v11. 5x in OT– all in Exodus. From ohel (see note LIX above) + ab (father, ancestor, grandfather; father in a literal or figurative sense). This is Oholiab, meaning “father’s tent.”
CLVIII “Ahisamach” = Achisamak. 3x in OT– all in Exodus. From ach (brother, kindred, another, other, like) + samak (to lean, rest, support, brace, uphold, sustain, or establish; to lean on in a positive or negative sense). This is Ahisamach or Achisamak, meaning “my brother has supported” or “brother of support”
CLIX “Dan” = Dan. From din (to judge, defend, dispute, govern, quarrel, plead). This is Dan or a Danite. It means “judge” and can refer to Dan, his tribe, or the lands of the tribe.

35 He has filled them with skillCLX to do every kind of workCLXI done by an artisanCLXII or by a designerCLXIII or by an embroidererCLXIV

Notes on verse 35a

CLX “skill” = chokmah + leb. Chokmah is the same as “skill” in v26. See note CXXVI above. Leb is the same as “hearts” in v5. See note XXVI above.
CLXI “work” = melakah. Same as “work” in v2. See note XII above.
CLXII “artisan” = charash. Related to “cutting” in v33. From charash (see note CL above). This is an artisan, regardless of medium. So, for example, it could be an engrave, a blacksmith, a mason, and so on.
CLXIII “designer” = chashab. Same as “devise” in v32. See note CXLVII above.
CLXIV “embroiderer” = raqam. 9x in OT– 8x in Exodus of materials for the tabernacle and priesthood & 1x in Psalm 139:15 of being “intricately woven in the depths of the earth.” This is to embroider, weave, vary color, fabricate.

in blue, purple, and crimson yarns and in fine linen or by a weaverCLXV—byCLXVI any sortCLXVII of skilledCLXVIII workerCLXIX or designer.

Notes on verse 35b

CLXV “weaver” = arag. 13x in OT. This is to weave or plait. It can also refer to someone who weaves.
CLXVI {untranslated} = asah. Same as “do” in v1. See note IX above.
CLXVII “any sort” = kol. Same as “all” in v1. See note III above.
CLXVIII “skilled” = machashabah. Same as “artistic designs” in v32. See note CXLVIII above.
CLXIX “worker” = melakah. Same as “work” in v2. See note XII above.

Image credit: “An emissary from the land of israel is a Sabbath guest in Nehardea” at the Diaspora Museum in Tel Aviv, Israel. Photo by Sodabottle, 2011.

You May Also Like

Leave a Reply