Habakkuk 1:1-7 & 2:1-4 & 3:3b-6, 17-19

Habakkuk 1:1-7 & 2:1-4 & 3:3b-6, 17-19
Narrative Lectionary 113

1:1 The oracleI that the prophetII HabakkukIII saw.IV

Notes on verse 1:1

I “oracle” = massa. From nasa (to lift in a broad sense, literally and figuratively; to carry, take, or arise; to bring forth, advance, accept). This is burden, bearing, load, utterance, tribute, prophecy, desire, song.
II “prophet” = nabi. This is prophet, prophecy, speaker, or someone inspired.
III “Habakkuk” = Chabaqquq. 2x in OT. From chabaq (to embrace, clasp one’s hands, or cling) OR from baqaq (to empty). This is Habakkuk. It may mean “basil” or “mint” or “insect repellant” or “emptied bosom” or “the emptiness embraced.” See https://www.abarim-publications.com/Meaning/Habakkuk.html
IV “saw” = chazah. This is to gaze at – to see or behold. It can also refer to perceiving as a mental process or looking at something with pleasure. It can be used particularly to mean seeing a vision.

O Lord,V how long shall I cry for help,VI
    and you will not listen?VII

Notes on verse 1:2a

V “Lord” = YHVH. From havah (to be, become) or hayah (to come to pass, become, be). This is the name of the God of Israel, the self-existent and eternal one, the tetragrammaton. This pronunciation has been lost to time so “Lord” is generally used in its place.
VI “cry for help” = shava. This is crying or shouting aloud, generally seeking freedom from some kind of trouble.
VII “listen” = shama. This is to hear, call, consent, or consider. It implies listening intelligently, giving attention, and, because of these two factors, obedience and action are often implied.

Or cryVIII to you “Violence!”IX
    and you will not save?X

Notes on verse 1:2b

VIII “cry” = zaaq. This is to cry or call out. It can be a call to assemble or gather together. By analogy, this could refer to a herald who announces a public gathering. It could also be a shriek from pain or danger.
IX “violence” = chamas. From chamas (to violate, do violence, to wrong; implies mistreatment). This is violence, cruelty, damage, wrong, injustice, or unrighteous. Violence implies a wrong done. The term is also used to describe unjust gain.
X “save” = yasha. To deliver, defend, help, preserve, rescue, be safe. Properly, to be open, wide or free, which implies being safe. Used causatively, it means to free.

Why do you make me seeXI wrongdoingXII
    and lookXIII at trouble?XIV

Notes on verse 1:3a

XI “see” = raah. This is to see in a literal or figurative sense so stare, advise, think, view.
XII “wrongdoing” = aven. Root may mean panting as one does when expending a lot of energy, especially when it comes to nothing. This is nothingness, trouble, sorrow, distress, wickedness, evil, harm, sorrow, misfortune, and mischief. It is also used specifically to refer to idols.
XIII “look” = nabat. This is to behold, look at intently, consider, or scan. It can mean to have respect or regard someone favorably.
XIV “trouble” = amal. From amal (to work – hard labor). This is trouble, toil, labor as well as misery, sorrow, or iniquity. It is work that wearies through effort so hence worry – can refer to body or mind.

DestructionXV and violence areXVI beforeXVII me;

Notes on verse 1:3b

XV “destruction” = shod. From shadad (to ruin, assault, devastate, oppress, destroy completely; properly, it is being burly; figuratively it is something that is powerful). This is violence, devastation, ruin, or oppression.
XVI “are” = hayah. Related to “Lord” in v1:2. See note V above.
XVII “before” = neged. From nagad (to declare, make conspicuous, stand in front, manifest, predict, explain). This is in front of, opposite to. It can refer to a counterpart or partner, one corresponding to or in the sight of.

    strifeXVIII and contentionXIX arise.XX

Notes on verse 1:3c

XVIII “strife” = rib. From rib (properly to toss or grapple; used figuratively to mean wrangling and so for arguments, complaints, or disputes; used in a legal setting for pleading or defending a case). This is strife or dispute – whether a personal one or one in a court of law.
XIX “contention” = madon. 17x in OT. From din (to judge, defend, dispute, govern, quarrel, plead). This is contention, strife, quarrel.
XX “arise” = nasa. Related to “oracle” in v1:1. See note I above.

SoXXI the lawXXII becomes slack,XXIII

Notes on verse 1:4a

XXI “so” = ken. Perhaps from kun (properly, in a perpendicular position; literally, to establish, fix, fasten, prepare; figuratively, it is certainty, to be firm, faithfulness, render sure or prosperous). This is to set upright. Generally used figuratively to mean thus, so, afterwards, rightly so.
XXII “law” = torah. From yarah (to throw, shoot, be stunned; to flow as water so figuratively to instruct or teach). This is law, instruction, teaching, or statute. It can also refer to the first five books of the Bible – the Torah.
XXIII “becomes slack” = pug. 4x in OT. This is to be faint, sluggish, grow numb, be spent.

    and justiceXXIV neverXXV prevails.XXVI

Notes on verse 1:4b

XXIV “justice” = mishpat. From shaphat (to judge, defend, pronounce judgment, condemn, govern). This is a verdict or formal sentence whether from humans or from God. It includes the act of judging as well as the place that judging takes place, the suit itself, and the penalty. Abstractly, this is justice, which includes the rights of the participants.
XXV “never” = netsach. From natsach (something that glitters from a distance or stands out, excels, has status/standing; also to be permanent or enduring). This is properly a goal or destination as the bright focus to which one journeys. It can be splendor, truthfulness, or confidence. Most often, it refers to everlastingness, always, continually.
XXVI “prevails” = yatsa. This is to go or come out, bring forth, appear. It is to go out in a literal or figurative sense.

The wickedXXVII surroundXXVIII the righteous;XXIX
    thereforeXXX judgmentXXXI comes forthXXXII perverted.XXXIII

Notes on verse 1:4c

XXVII “wicked” = rasha. This is to be wicked, guilty, make trouble, do wrong. It can also be condemn, guilty, inflict punishment. This verb implies disturbing or violating.
XXVIII “surround” = kathar. 6x in OT. This is to encircle, crown, besiege, bear with, restrain self.
XXIX “righteous” = tsaddiq. From the same as tsedeq (rightness, righteousness, just cause, vindication; that which is right in a natural, moral, or legal sense; abstractly equity; figuratively prosperity). This is just, innocent, righteous, righteous one, or lawful.
XXX “therefore” = ken. Same as “so” in v1:4. See note XXI above.
XXXI “judgment” = mishpat. Same as “justice” in v1:4. See note XXIV above.
XXXII “comes forth” = yatsa. Same as “prevails” in v1:4. See note XXVI above.
XXXIII “perverted” = aqal. 1x in OT. This is to bend or twist.

LookXXXIV at the nationsXXXV and see!XXXVI
    Be astonished!XXXVII Be astounded!XXXVIII

Notes on verse 1:5a

XXXIV “look” = raah. Same as “see” in v1:3. See note XI above.
XXXV “nations” = goy. From the same root as gevah (the back, person, or body); related to gev (among); related to gaah (to rise up). This is nation or people. Often used to refer to Gentiles or foreign nations. It can also be used figuratively for a group of animals. This is where the Yiddish “goy” comes from.
XXXVI “see” = nabat. Same as “look” in v1:3. See note XIII above.
XXXVII “be astonished” = tamah. 9x in OT. This is to be amazed, wonder, be dumbfounded.
XXXVIII “be astounded” = tamah. Same as “be astonished” in v1:5. See note XXXVII above.

For a workXXXIX is being doneXL in your daysXLI
    that you would not believeXLII if you were told.XLIII

Notes on verse 1:5b

XXXIX “work” = poal. From paal (to do, make, work, or accomplish; generally refers to regularly repeated or systematic action – to practice). This is an action or deed, conduct. It is the act of working or the work itself. It can also be wages or maker.
XL “done” = paal. Related to “work” in v1:5. See note XXXIX above.
XLI “days” = yom. Root may mean being hot. This is the day in a literal or figurative sense. It can also mean birth, age, daylight, continually or other references to time.
XLII “believe” = aman. This is to believe, endure, fulfill, confirm, support, be faithful. It is to put one’s trust in, be steadfast. Figuratively, this is to be firm, steadfast, or faithful, trusting, believing, being permanent, morally solid. This is where the word “amen” comes from.
XLIII “told” = saphar. From sepher (writing, document, book, evidence). This is properly to tally or record something. It can be enumerate, recount, number, celebrate, or declare.

ForXLIV I am rousingXLV the Chaldeans,XLVI
    that fierceXLVII and impetuousXLVIII nation,

Notes on verse 1:6a

XLIV {untranslated} = hen.  This is a remark of surprise or excitement: lo! Behold! It can also mean if or though.
XLV “rousing” = qum. To arise, stand, accomplish, establish, abide. This is rising as in rising against, getting up after being sick or asleep, arising from one state to another, becoming powerful, or rising for action. It can also be standing in a figurative sense.
XLVI “Chaldeans” = Kasdi. From Kesesd (Kesed, one of Nahor’s sons). This is Chaldean – part of southern Babylon and the people who lived there. They were famous for their astrologers. The name meaning is uncertain.
XLVII “fierce” = mar. From marar (to be bitter, embittered, weep, troubled). This is bitterness literal or figurative. It could be fierce, angry, or discontented.
XLVIII “impetuous” = mahar. This is being liquid, which implies flowing. So, this word implies hurrying forward, whether in a positive or negative sense.

who marchXLIX through the breadthL of the earthLI
    to seizeLII dwellingsLIII not their own.

Notes on verse 1:6b

XLIX “march” = halak. This is go, come, walk. It is walk literally and figuratively and includes people and animals. It can be used figuratively for one’s moral life – how we walk according to God’s way or against it. It can also refer to the walk of life as in the course one’s life takes, the choices we make, etc.
L “breadth” = merchab. 6x in OT. From rachab (to grow wide or enlarge in a literal or figurative sense; extend, relieve, rejoice, or speak boldly). This is a broad place, a large field, an open space. This is a wide open space, generally in a good sense. Figuratively, it can mean liberty.
LI “earth” = erets. Root may mean to be firm. This is earth, ground, field land, or country.
LII “seize” = yarash. This is inheriting or dispossessing. It refers to occupying or colonizing – taking territory by driving out the previous inhabitants and living there instead of them. By implication, it can mean to seize or rob, to expel, ruin, or impoverish.
LIII “dwellings” = mishkan. From shakan (to settle down in the sense of residing somewhere or staying there permanently; to abide or continue). This is a place where one lives – a tabernacle, tent, or other kind of dwelling. It can also be a lair where animals live, the grave, the Temple, or the Tabernacle.

DreadLIV and fearsome areLV they;
    their justice and dignityLVI proceedLVII from themselves.

Notes on verse 1:7

LIV “dread” = ayom. 3x in OT. May come from a word that means to frighten. This is terrible or dreadful.
LV “fearsome are” = yare. This is to fear, be afraid, dreadful. It can also refer to fearful reverence – to fear in a moral sense is to say to revere, respect.
LVI “dignity” = seeth. Related to “oracle” in v1:1 & “arise” in v1:3. 14x in OT. From nasa (see note I above). This is elevation, swelling, elation, dignity, being accepted.
LVII “proceed” = yatsa. Same as “prevails” in v1:4. See note XXVI above.

2:1 I will standLVIII at my watchpostLIX
    and stationLX myself on the rampart;LXI

Notes on verse 2:1a

LVIII “stand” = amad. This is to stand up in a literal or figurative sense. So it can be establish, continue, endure, take a stand, act, be a servant, stand still, remain, stand against an enemy.
LIX “watchpost” = mishmereth. From mishmar (jail, guard, watch, guard post); from shamar (to keep, watch, or preserve; to guard something or to protect it as a thorny hedge protects something). This is a guard or watch or guard post. It is used figuratively for obligation, duty, or observance, including religious observance.
LX “station” = yatsab. This is to set oneself, take a stand, remain, continue, to station or set something in place.
LXI “rampart” = matsor. From tsur (to confine, besiege, to cramp). This is besieged or fortified place, bulwark, entrenchment, tower. It is something hemmed in as a siege or distress or fastness.

I will keep watchLXII to see what he will sayLXIII to me
    and what he will answerLXIV concerning my complaint.LXV

Notes on verse 2:1b

LXII “keep watch” = tsaphah. This is to keep watch or spy – to look out. Properly, it refers to leaning forward to look out. It implies observing or awaiting.
LXIII “say” = dabar. This is generally to speak, answer, declare, or command. It might mean to arrange and so to speak in a figurative sense as arranging words.
LXIV “answer” = shub. To turn back, return, turn away – literally or figuratively. Doesn’t necessarily imply going back to where you started from. This is also the root verb for the Hebrew word for repentance “teshubah.”
LXV “complaint” = tokechah. From yakach (to decide, be right, argue, or convince; to decide, convict, reason together, or reprove). This is correction, rebuke, punishment. It can also be evidence used in court.

Then the Lord answeredLXVI me and said:

WriteLXVII the vision;LXVIII

Notes on verse 2:2a

LXVI “answered” = anah. This is answer, respond, announce, sing, shout, or testify. It means to pay attention, which implies responding and, by extension, starting to talk. Used in a specific sense for singing, shouting, testifying, etc.
LXVII “write” = kathab. This is to inscribe, write, record, or decree.
LXVIII “vision” = chazon. Related to “saw” in v1:1. From chazah (see note IV above). This is a vision or a sight. It could be a dream, oracle, or revelation.

    make it plainLXIX on tablets,LXX
    so that a runnerLXXI may readLXXII it.

Notes on verse 2:2b

LXIX “make…plain” = baar. 3x in OT– 2x in Deuteronomy & 1x in Habakkuk. This is to dig, which can be used figuratively to mean engrave. By extension, this would mean to explain or declare.
LXX “tablets” = luach. Root likely means glistening, so this would refer to a tablet as being polished in some sense, whether it’s made of stone, wood, or metal.
LXXI “runner” = ruts. This is to run or rush, divide quickly, bring swiftly. It can also refer to a footman or guard.
LXXII “read” = qara. This is to call or call out – to call someone by name. Also used more broadly for calling forth.

For there is still a vision for the appointed time;LXXIII
    it speaksLXXIV of the endLXXV and does not lie.LXXVI

Notes on verse 2:3a

LXXIII “appointed time” = moed. From yaad (to appoint, assemble or gather selves, agree). This is a meeting, assembly, fixed time. It can be used for a festival or feast. It can also refer to a meeting place.
LXXIV “speaks” = puach. 14x in OT. This is to puff, breathe or blow, whether the breath or air. It can also mean to light a fire, utter, speak, snore, hasten, or scoff.
LXXV “end” = qets. From qatsats (to cut or chop off in a literal or figurative sense). This is outer border, end, or extremity. It can also mean infinite.
LXXVI “lie” = kazab. 18x in OT. This is to lie, be false or in vain, to fail. It is to deceive in a literal or figurative sense.

If it seems to tarry,LXXVII waitLXXVIII for it;
    it will surely come;LXXIX it will not delay.LXXX

Notes on verse 2:3b

LXXVII “tarry” = mahah. 9x in OT. Perhaps from mah (what, how long). This is to delay, question, linger, be reluctant.
LXXVIII “wait” = chakah. 14x in OT. Perhaps related to chaqah (to carve, cut in). This is to long for, await, or lurk in ambush.
LXXIX “surely come” = bo + bo. This is to enter, come in, advance, fulfill, bring offerings, enter to worship, attack. It can also have a sexual connotation. The word is repeated twice – the first time as an Infinitive Absolute. The Infinitive Absolute serves to emphasize the sentiment of the word. It is rather like Foghorn Leghorn’s speech pattern, “I said, I said.”
LXXX “delay” = achar. 17x in OT. This is to remain behind, linger, continue, be behind, or delay. It can also imply procrastination.

LookLXXXI at the proud!LXXXII
    Their spiritLXXXIII is not rightLXXXIV in them,
    but the righteous liveLXXXV by their faithfulness.LXXXVI

Notes on verse 2:4

LXXXI “look” = hinneh. Related to {untranslated} in v1:6. From hen (see note XLIV above). This is to draw attention, show suddenness or surprise, or to emphasize the importance of the coming statement. See! Lo! Behold!
LXXXII “proud” = aphal. 2x in OT. This is to swell, presume, be elated.
LXXXIII “spirit” = nephesh. Related to naphash (to refresh or be refreshed). This is soul, self, person, emotion. It is a breathing creature. Can also refer to appetites and desires.
LXXXIV “right” = yashar. This is to be straight, right, even, smooth, or agreeable. Figuratively, it can be to make something pleasant or prosperous.
LXXXV “live” = chayah. This is to live or keep alive in a literal or figurative sense. So, it can be revive, nourish, or save.
LXXXVI “faithfulness” = emunah. Related to “believe” in v1:5. From aman (see note XLII above). This word is literally firmness, but figuratively fidelity, faithfulness, honesty, responsibility, trust, truth, steadfastness. This word shares a root with the word “Amen.”

3:3 GodLXXXVII came from Teman,LXXXVIII
    the Holy OneLXXXIX from MountXC Paran.XCI SelahXCII

Notes on verse 3:3a

LXXXVII “God” = Eloah. From el (God or god). This is God or a god.
LXXXVIII “Teman” = Teman. 11x in OT. From the same as yamin (right hand or side; that which is stronger or more agile; the south); {perhaps yamam (to go or choose the right, use the right hand; to be physically fit or firm)}. This is Teman, a place in north Edom and a chief. It means “the south.” See https://www.abarim-publications.com/Meaning/Teman.html
LXXXIX “Holy One” = qadosh. From qodesh (set apart and so sacred; God is different from us and so God is holy/set apart; things we dedicate to God’s service are set apart for God and so they, too, are holy); related to qadash (set apart, consecrated, hallowed, sanctified; something or someone set apart for a holy purpose or use – ceremonially or morally clean). This is sacred or holy in a ritual or moral sense. As a noun, it refers to a holy one (like a saint or angel), a holy place (the sanctuary), or God (the Holy One).
XC “Mount” = har. From harar (hill or mountain). This is mountain, hill, hilly region.
XCI “Paran” = Paran. 11x in OT. From the same as porah (a branch or spring; properly, ornamentation); perhaps from pa’ar (to beautify or adorn, to gleam; can refer to showing honor or glorifying someone; also to boast or to shake a tree for harvest). This is Paran, perhaps meaning ornamental.
XCII “selah” = selah. From salal (to lift up, build, pile, extol, exalt; can also be used for opposing as a dam holds back water). This is to lift up or exalt. Also, “selah” in the psalms where its precise meaning is uncertain. It could be a pause in the music, a moment of silence. It could signal a change in the service or mean something akin to amen.

His gloryXCIII coveredXCIV the heavens,XCV
    and the earth was fullXCVI of his praise.XCVII

Notes on verse 3:3b

XCIII “glory” = hod. This is grandeur, beauty, glory, honor, or authority. It emphasizes a form or appearance with gravitas.
XCIV “covered” = kasah. This is to cover, conceal, overwhelm. It is to cover as clothes do or to hide a secret.
XCV “heavens” = shamayim. Root may mean being lofty. This is sky, the air, or heaven. It is in a dual noun form so this might refer to the part of the sky where the clouds move on the one hand and the part beyond that where the sun, moon, and stars are on the other hand.
XCVI “was full” = male. This is fill, satisfy, replenish, accomplish, fulfill, confirm, or consecrate. It is fill in a literal or figurative sense.
XCVII “praise” = tehillah. From halal (to praise, be boastful). This is praise or a song of praise. It is to offer God a hymn, to boast in God. This shares a root with “hallelujah.”

The brightnessXCVIII was like the sun;XCIX
    raysC came forth from his hand,CI
    where his powerCII lay hidden.CIII

Notes on verse 3:4

XCVIII “brightness” = nogah. 19x in OT. From nagah (to shine – root may mean to glitter). This is light, radiance, being bright, sunshine.
XCIX “sun” = or. From or (to be or become light). This is light, sun, sunshine, dawn, or daylight. Figuratively, it can refer to light from instruction, light of a face (that is to say one that is cheerful or finds favor). It can refer to prosperity or salvation; a light that guides, a light eternal from Zion.
C “rays” = qeren. This is horn or hill. It can be a flask or cornet, ivory, altar corner, mountain peak, or figuratively power.
CI “hand” = yad. This is hand, ability, power. Hand in a literal sense, but also what one can do or the means by which one does it.
CII “power” = oz. From azaz (to be strong, become fixed, be bold, prevail, be impudent; it means to be stout literally or figuratively. A Late Hebrew word). This is strength in the sense of force, majesty, praise, material and physical strength, the abstract notion of security. It can also speak of social or political power.
CIII “hidden” = chebyon. From chabah (to withdraw, conceal). This is hiding or concealment.

BeforeCIV him wentCV pestilence,CVI
    and plagueCVII followedCVIII close behind.CIX

Notes on verse 3:5

CIV “before” = paneh. From panah (to turn, face, appear). This is face in a literal or figurative sense. It could be face, presence, anger, respect. It can also be used of God to indicate divine favor or presence.
CV “went” = halak. Same as “march” in v1:6. See note XLIX above.
CVI “pestilence” = deber. Related to “say” in v2:1. From dabar (see note LXIII above). This is plague or thorns.
CVII “plague” = resheph. 7x in OT. Perhaps from saraph (to burn or kindle). This is a flame, thunderbolt, spark, arrow, fever, plague. Earliest sense was of a burning coal and all other senses derive from that by analogy.
CVIII “followed” = yatsa. Same as “prevails” in v1:4. See note XXVI above.
CIX “close behind” = regel. This is foot, endurance, or journey. It is a foot as the means of walking and so it implies a step or a greater journey. It can be used euphemistically for private parts.

He stoppedCX and shookCXI the earth;
    he looked and made the nations tremble.CXII
The eternalCXIII mountainsCXIV were shattered;CXV

Notes on verse 3:6a

CX “stopped” = amad. Same as “stand” in v2:1. See note LVIII above.
CXI “shook” = madad. This is to measure, stretch, be extended, continue.
CXII “tremble” = nathar. 8x in OT. This is to jump, spring, undo, be greatly agitated, untie, or terrify.
CXIII “eternal” = ad. From adah (to advance or continue; to take away or remove; adorning oneself with ornaments). This is old, perpetuity, eternity. It is a duration going back or forward.
CXIV “mountain” = harar. Related to “mount” in v3:3. 12x in OT. From the same as har (see note XC above). This is hill or mountain.
CXV “shattered” = puts. This is to dash in pieces, scatter, disperse, drive.

    along his ancientCXVI pathwaysCXVII
    the everlastingCXVIII hillsCXIX sankCXX low.

Notes on verse 3:6b

CXVI “ancient” = olam. Same as “everlasting” in v3:6. See note CXVIII below.
CXVII “pathways” = halikah. Related to “march” in v1:6. 6x in OT. This is a way, walking, traveler, caravan.
CXVIII “everlasting” = olam. This is a long scope of time whether in the past (antiquity, ancient time) or in the future (eternal, everlasting).
CXIX “hills” = gibah. From the same as Geba (Geba or Gibeah; hillock); from the same as gabia (cup, bowl, flower; root might mean being convex). This is hill or little hill.
CXX “sank” = shachach. This is to sink, bow down, bring low, be humbled, sing softly.

17 Though the fig tree does not blossomCXXI
    and no fruitCXXII is on the vines;CXXIII

Notes on verse 3:17a

CXXI “blossom” = parach. This is to sprout, blossom, bloom, spread, flourish.
CXXII “fruit” = yebul. 13x in OT. From yabal (to lead, bring, carry, conduct; properly, to flow; to bring or lead with fanfare). This is yield, produce. Literally, it refers to crops and figuratively to wealth.
CXXIII “vines” = gephen. Root may mean to twine or bend. So, it is a vine, particularly referring to grapes.

though the produceCXXIV of the oliveCXXV failsCXXVI

Notes on verse 3:17b

CXXIV “produce” = maaseh. From asah (to do, make, accomplish, become). This is a work – any action whether positive or negative. It can also be a transaction, construction, activity, property, or something that is produced.
CXXV “olive” = zayit. This is olive tree, grove, or other parts of the olive tree like the branch or berry.
CXXVI “fails” = kachash. This is deceive, fail, or deny. It can be lying or disappointing. It can also mean becoming lean or cringe.

    and the fieldsCXXVII yieldCXXVIII no food;CXXIX

Notes on verse 3:17c

CXXVII “fields” = shedemah. Related to “destruction” in v1:3. 5x in OT. Perhaps from sadeh (literally field, ground, soil, or land; wild like a wild animal); from the same as shadday (almighty, field); from shadad (see note XV above). This is a cultivated field.
CXXVIII “yield” = asah. Related to “produce” in v3:17. See note CXXIV above.
CXXIX “food” = okel. From akal (to eat, devour, burn up, or otherwise consume; eating in a literal or figurative sense). This is food, supply of provisions, the act of eating, or the time when one eats.

though the flockCXXX is cut offCXXXI from the foldCXXXII
    and there is no herdCXXXIII in the stalls,CXXXIV

Notes on verse 3:17d

CXXX “flock” = tson. This is a flock of sheep and goats.
CXXXI “cut off” = gazar. 13x in OT. This is to cut or cut down. Used figuratively, it can mean to divide, exclude, decree, or destroy.
CXXXII “fold” = miklaah. 3x in OT. From kala (to stop in the sense of holding back or restraining; to keep, refuse, forbid, or to prohibit by word). This is an enclosure such as a fold for sheep or goats.
CXXXIII “herd” = baqar. From baqar (to plow, break forth; figuratively, to inquire, inspect, consider). This is cattle – an animal used for plowing.
CXXXIV “stalls” = repheth. 1x in OT. Perhaps from raphah (to slacken in a literal or figurative sense; to hang, be feeble, fail, drop, be helpless, relax, slink, subside, or wait). This is a stable or stall used for cows.

18 yet I will rejoiceCXXXV in the Lord;
    I will exultCXXXVI in the GodCXXXVII of my salvation.CXXXVIII

Notes on verse 3:18

CXXXV “rejoice” = alaz. 16x in OT. This is to jump for joy, rejoice, triumph, or be jubilant.
CXXXVI “exult” = gil. Properly, this is twirling around because of a strong feeling whether of rejoicing or from fear. This can be rejoice, be glad or joyful, or to cry.
CXXXVII “God” = Elohim. Related to “God” in v3:3. See note LXXXVII above.
CXXXVIII “salvation” = yasha. Related to “save” in v1:2. From yasha (see note X above).

19 God,CXXXIX the Lord,CXL is my strength;CXLI

Notes on verse 3:19a

CXXXIX “God” = YHVH. Related to “Lord” in v1:2 & {untranslated} in v1:3. From the same as YHVH (see note V above). It has the same meaning as “Lord” in v1:2, but with a different vowel pointing.
CXL “Lord” = Adonai. From adon (lord, master, owner); root means to rule or be sovereign. This is the actual Hebrew word for Lord used (in a different form) of humans and (in the present form) of God. It means someone who is in control.
CXLI “strength” = chayil. From chul (to be firm, strong, prosperous; to endure). This is strength, wealth, ability, activity. It can refer to soldier or a company of soldiers as well as goods. It is a force of people, means, or goods. It can speak of valor, virtue, or strength.

    he makesCXLII my feetCXLIII like the feet of a deerCXLIV

Notes on verse 3:19b

CXLII “makes” = sim. This is to put or place in a literal or figurative sense. It can be appoint, care, change, make, and may other things.
CXLIII “feet” = regel. Same as “close behind” in v3:5. See note CIX above.
CXLIV “deer” = ayyalah. 8x in OT. From ayyal (deer, stag); from the same as ulam (porch, hall); from the same as ul (mighty, strength, body, belly; root may mean to twist and that implies strength and power); from alam (to bind or tie fast; to be silent or speechless, whether voluntary or involuntary) or from ayil (strength; things that are strong or powerful: political chiefs, rams, posts, trees, oaks). This is a doe, female deer.

    and makes me treadCXLV upon the heights.CXLVI

To the leader:CXLVII with stringed instruments.CXLVIII

Notes on verse 3:19c

CXLV “makes…tread” = darak. This is to tread, march, to walk. Can also mean affixing a string to a box since one needs to step on it to bend it in the process. So, also an archer.
CXLVI “heights” = bamah. The root might mean being high. This is height, wave, or elevation.
CXLVII “leader” = natsach. Related to “never” in v1:4. See note XXV above.
CXLVIII “stringed instruments” = neginah. 13x in OT. From nagan (to strike a stringed instrument, to pluck or play it). This is music, a song, a taunt, or a stringed instrument. It can also be a poem given a musical setting.

Image credit: “Habakkuk” by Matteo Civitali at Cappella di San Giovanni in Genoa. Photo by Sailko, 2014.

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