Hebrews 11:29-12:2

Hebrews 11:29-12:2
Ordinary C38


11:29 By faithI the people passed throughII the RedIII SeaIV

Notes on verse 11:29a

I “faith” = pistis. From peitho (to have confidence, urge, be persuaded, agree, assure, believe, have confidence, trust). This is less about knowing, believing, and repeating a list of doctrines then it is about trusting God. Faith means listening to God and seeking to live a holy life even (and especially) when we don’t understand how everything works or fits together. Faith is about being faithful (trusting and doing) rather than being all knowing.
II “passed through” = diabaino. 3x in NT. From dia (through, for the sake of, across, thoroughly) + baino (to walk, to go). This is to pass through or step across.
III “Red” = Eruthros. 2x in NT. This is red. It is where “erythrocyte” comes from.
IV “Sea” = Thalassa. Perhaps from hals (sea, salt, a boy of saltwater) or halas (salt; can be figurative for prudence). This is the sea, a lake, or seashore.

as if it were dryV land,VI but when the EgyptiansVII attemptedVIII to do so they were drowned.IX 

Notes on verse 11:29b

V “dry” = xeros. 8x in NT. This is dry, arid, withered. It can also refer to dry land or imply something that is shrunken.
VI “land” = ge. This is earth, land, soil, region, country, the inhabitants of an area.
VII “Egyptians” = Aiguptios. 5x in NT. From Aiguptos (Egyptian); from Egyptian ḥwt-kꜣ-ptḥ (Egypt; literally “the temple of the ka of Ptah in Memphis, Egypt”); from ḥwt (hut, large structure, palace, temple, estate) + ka (“a spiritual part of the soul in Egyptian mythology, which survived after death”; “something like ‘life-force’; the part of the soul which the living have and the dead do not…goodwill – especially of the king) + ptah (“a god of creativity and craftsmen, sometimes also identified with gods of death and the birth of the sun”; “Ptah, creator god and patron of craftsmen, worshipped at Memphis”).. This is Egyptian. See https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/Egypt
VIII “attempted” = peira + lambano. Literally, “an attempt was made.” Peira is 2x in NT. From the base of peran (over, beyond, across); akin to pera (on the far side); from a derivative of peiro (to pierce). This is trial, experiment, attempt, experience, assaying.  Lambano does not refer to passive receiving of something, but active acceptance or taking of something whether it is offered or simply nearby. It focuses on individual decision and action.
IX “drowned” = katapino. 7x in NT. From kata (down, against, throughout, among) + pino (to drink literally or figuratively). This is literally to drink down – to gulp something down whole, devour, destroy, consume, or overwhelm. It is to drink down in a literal or figurative sense.

30 By faith the wallsX of JerichoXI fellXII after they had been encircledXIII for sevenXIV days.XV 

Notes on verse 11:30

X “walls” = teichos. 9x in NT. Perhaps from tikto (to beget, bring forth, produce). This is a wall – particular of a house or around a city.
XI “Jericho” = Hiericho. 7x in NT. From Hebrew Yriychow (Jericho); {perhaps from yareach (moon); {from the same as yerach (month)} OR from ruach (small, breathe, perceive, anticipate, accept, enjoy).}. This is Jericho, meaning either “fragrant” or “moon.”
XII “fell” = pipto. This is to fall literally or figuratively.
XIII “encircled” = kukloo. 5x in NT. From the same as kuklo (circle, surrounding); from kuklos (circle, ring). This is to encircle, surround, gather. It is where the word “cycle” comes from.
XIV “seven” = hepta. This is seven or seventh. Figuratively, seven is the number of completeness or perfection.
XV “days” = hemera. Perhaps from hemai (to sit). This is day, time, or daybreak.

31 By faith RahabXVI the prostituteXVII did not perish withXVIII those who were disobedient,XIX 

Notes on verse 11:31a

XVI “Rahab” = Rhaab. 2x in NT. From Hebrew Rachab (Rahab, meaning “wide” or “spacious”); from rachab (to grow wide or enlarge in a literal or figurative sense; extend, relieve, rejoice, or speak boldly). This is Raab or Rahab, a name meaning “wide” or “spacious.” See https://www.abarim-publications.com/Meaning/Rahab.html
XVII “prostitute” = porne. 12x in NT. From pornos (fornicator or immoral person); perhaps from pernemi (to sell off or export); related to piprasko (to sell with travel involved; to sell into slavery; to be devoted to); from perao (to travel); from peran (over, beyond). This is prostitute. Can be used figuratively to refer to a community that is taken with idolatry.
XVIII “perish with” = sunapollumi. 1x in NT. From sun (with, together with) + apollumi (to destroy, cut off, to perish – perhaps violently; to cancel or remove); {from apo (from, away from) + ollumi (to destroy or ruin; the loss that comes from a major ruination)}. This is to destroy with or perish with.
XIX “were disobedient” = apeitheo. Related to “faith” in v11:29. 14x in NT. From apeithes (unbelieving, disobedient, spiritually rebellious); {from a (not, without) + peitho (see note I above)}. This is to disobey or rebel. It refers to those who refuse to be convinced of something – willful disbelief.

because she had receivedXX the spiesXXI in peace.XXII

Notes on verse 11:31b

XX “received” = dechomai. This is to warmly receive, be ready for what is offered, take, accept, or welcome. It is to receive in a literal or figurative sense.
XXI “spies” = kataskopos. 1x in NT. Probably from kataskopeo (to inspect, spy out, to look in secret or with bad motives); {from kataskopos (a spy or scout); {from kata (down, against, throughout, among) + skopeo (to look at, take heed, consider, observe, ai at, or spy); {from skopos (a mark or goal like the marker at the end of a race; figuratively, other goals or destinations; also, a watch or sentry); from skeptomai (to peer out, consider, gaze carefully); perhaps related to skapto (to dig or excavate)}}}. This is a spy or scout.
XXII “peace” = eirene. Perhaps from eiro (to join, tie together to form a whole). This is one, peace, quietness, rest, peace of mind, harmony. Peace was a common farewell among Jews (i.e. shalom) and this well-wishing included a blessing of health and wholeness for the individual. This word also indicates wholeness and well-being – when everything that is essential is joined together properly. This is peace literally or figuratively. By implication, it is prosperity (but not in the sense of excessive wealth. Prosperity would have meant having enough from day to day.)

32 And what more should I say? For timeXXIII would failXXIV me to tellXXV of Gideon,XXVI

Notes on verse 11:32a

XXIII “time” = chronos. Time in the chronological sense, quantitative time or a duration of time.
XXIV “fail” = epileipo. 1x in NT. From epi (on, upon, among, what is fitting) + leipo (to leave behind, remain, lack, abandon, fall behind while racing). This is to fail or fall short.
XXV “tell” = diegeomai. 8x in NT.  From dia (through, because of, across, thoroughly) + hegeomai (to think, suppose, have an opinion; to lead the way, what comes in front or first, initial thought, high esteem or authority; one who commands in an official capacity); {from ago (lead, bring, carry, drive, go)}. This is to describe fully, narrate, declare, tell something clearly so that one knows what is most important.
XXVI “Gideon” = Gedeon. 1x in NT. From Hebrew Gidon (Gideon, meaning “feller” or “warrior”); from gada (to cut or chop as one cuts down a tree; cutting off or destroying things). This is Gideon or Gedeon, meaning “feller” or “warrior.”

Barak,XXVII Samson,XXVIII Jephthah,XXIX

Notes on verse 11:32b

XXVII “Barak” = Barak. 1x in NT. From Hebrew Baraq (Barak or Baraq; “flash of lightning”); from the same as baraq (lightning; figuratively, a gleaming or glittering; concretely, a flashing sword); from baraq (to flash, a flash of lightning). This is Barak, meaning “flash of lightning.”
XXVIII “Samson” = Sampson. 1x in NT. From Hebrew Shimshon (Samson, “sunlight” or “sun-like”); from the same as shemesh (sun or toward the east; root may mean being brilliant; figuratively, a ray or an arch). This is Sampson or Samson, meaning “sunlight” or “sun-like.” See https://www.abarim-publications.com/Meaning/Samson.html
XXIX “Jephthah” = Iephthae. 1x in NT. From Hebrew Yiphtach (Jephthah or Iphthah, “he opens”); from pathach (to open wide in a literal or figurative sense; to open, draw out, let something go free, break forth, to plow, engrave, or carve). This is Jephtah or Jephtahe, meaning “he opens.”

of DavidXXX and SamuelXXXI and the prophets,XXXII 

Notes on verse 11:32c

XXX “David” = Dauid. From the same as dod (beloved, love, uncle); the root may mean to boil, which is used figuratively to describe love. So, this implies someone you love such as a friend, a lover, or a close family member like an uncle. David’s name likely means something like “beloved one.”
XXXI “Samuel” = Samouel. 3x in NT. From Hebrew Shemuel (Samuel, “name of God” or “heard of God”); {from shem (name, fame, renown; indicating something essential about a person; honor, authority, or character); {may be from sum (to put, place, set)} + el (God, a god) OR from shama (hear, call, consent, or consider; implies listening intelligently, giving attention; obedience and action are often implied) + el (God, a god)}. This is Samuel, meaning “name of God” or “heard of God.”
XXXII “prophets” = prophetes. From pro (before, in front of, earlier than) + phemi (to declare, say, use contrasts in speaking to shed light on one point of view); {from phao (to shine) or phaino (to bring light, cause to appear, shine, become visible or clear)}. This is a prophet or poet – one who speaks with inspiration from God.

33 who through faith conqueredXXXIII kingdoms,XXXIV administeredXXXV justice,XXXVI

Notes on verse 11:33a

XXXIII “conquered” = katagonizomai. Related to “tell” in v11:32. 1x in NT. From kata (down, against, among) + agonizomai (to struggle, strive, or fight; contending to win a prize or against an adversary or in war; striving to accomplish something); {from agon (a gathering or contest – as an athletic competition such as a race; also conflict, struggle, opposition or a fight; used figuratively in a positive sense – as fighting the good fight of faith; used in a negative figurative sense for effort or anxiety; properly, refers to a place where people gather, which implies the game or contest); from ago (see note XXV above)}. This is to struggle against, defeat, conquer in war.
XXXIV “kingdoms” = basileia. Related to “passed through” in v11:29. From basileus (king, emperor, sovereign); probably from basis (step, hence foot; a pace); from baino (see note II above). This is kingdom, rule, authority, sovereignty, royalty, a realm.
XXXV “administered” = ergazomai. From ergon (work, task, action, employment). This is to work, labor, perform, toil.
XXXVI “justice” = dikaiosune. From dikaios (correct, righteous – implies innocent; this is that which conforms to God’s notion of justice, uprightness); from dike (the principle of justice; that which is right in a way that is very clear; a decision or the execution of that decision; originally, this word was for custom or usage; evolved to include the process of law, judicial hearing, execution of sentence, penalty, and even vengeance; more commonly, it refers to what is right); may be from deiknumi (to show, point out, exhibit; figurative for teach, demonstrate, make known). This is judicial or divine approval of character or action. This is righteousness, justice, justness, divine righteousness.

obtainedXXXVII promises,XXXVIII shutXXXIX the mouthsXL of lions,XLI 

Notes on verse 11:33b

XXXVII “obtained” = epitugchano. 5x in NT. From epi (on, upon, against, what is fitting) + tugchano (root means to become ready; to hit, meet, happen, obtain, chance, perhaps; properly, to hit the mark or be spot on; the opposite of the Greek word for sin hamartano, which literally means to miss the mark); {perhaps from tucho (to make ready, bring about). This is to obtain by chancing upon something, to acquire.
XXXVIII “promises” = epaggelia. Related to “tell” in v11:32 & “conquered” in v11:33. From epi (on, upon, against, what is fitting) + aggello (to announce, report); {from aggelos (angel, messenger); probably from ago (see note XXV above)}. This is a summons, promise, or message. It is a formal promise that is officially sanctioned. In the New Testament, this usually refers to a promise made in the Old Testament.
XXXIX “shut” = phrasso. 3x in NT. Perhaps from phren (diaphragm, heart, intellect, understanding; figurative for personal opinion or inner mindset; thought regulating action; sympathy, feelings, cognition); perhaps from phrao (to rein in or curb). This is to stop, fence in, or obstruct, silence.
XL “mouths” = stoma. Perhaps from tomoteros (sharp, keener); from temno (to cut). This is mouth, speech, language, the tip of a sword, an opening in the ground.
XLI “lions” = leon. 9x in NT. This is lion, which is where our word “lion” comes from.

34 quenchedXLII the powerXLIII of fire,XLIV escapedXLV the edgeXLVI of the sword,XLVII

Notes on verse 11:34a

XLII “quenched” = sbennumi. 8x in NT. This is to quench or extinguish in a literal or figurative sense. It can also mean suppress.
XLIII “power” = dunamis. From dunamai (to be able, have power or ability). This is might, strength, physical power, efficacy, energy, and miraculous power. It is force literally or figuratively – the power of a miracle or the miracle itself.
XLIV “fire” = pur. This is fire, lightning, heat from the sun. Figuratively, it can refer to strife or trials.
XLV “escaped” = pheugo. This is to run away in a literal or figurative sense. It can also be to flee, escape, shun, or vanish.
XLVI “edge” = stoma. Same as “mouths” in v11:33. See note XL above.
XLVII “sword” = machaira. Perhaps from mache (fight, battle, conflict; figuratively, controversy); from machomai (to fight, strive, dispute, quarrel; to war). This is a short sword, slaughter knife, or dagger. It is a stabbing weapon. Figuratively, associated with retribution, war, or legal punishment.

were made strongXLVIII out of weakness,XLIX becameL mightyLI

Notes on verse 11:34b

XLVIII “made strong” = dunamoo. Related to “power” in v11:34. 2x in NT. From dunamis (see note XLIII above). This is to empower, strengthen, enable.
XLIX “weakness” = astheneia. From asthenes (without strength, sick, deprivation; weak in a moral or physical sense); {From a (not) + sthenes (strong, vigor); {from the base of sthenoo (to strengthen so that one can be mobile); from sthenos (strength)}}. This is weakness, frailty, illness, suffering, or calamity. It is any kind of sickness or injury that includes weakness or diminishes your ability to enjoy or accomplish what you would choose.
L “became” = ginomai. This is to come into being, to happen, become, be born. It can be to emerge from one state or condition to another or is coming into being with the sense of movement or growth.
LI “mighty” = ischuros. From ischuo (to be strong, healthy and vigorous, able, have power, prevail; strength that engages a resisting force); from ischus (strength, might, power, force, ability; power that engages immediate resistance). This is strong – first of physical strength. Later, also used figuratively for forcible, powerful, mighty, vehement, or sure.

in war,LII put foreignLIII armiesLIV to flight.LV 

Notes on verse 11:34c

LII “war” = polemos. 18x in NT. From pelomai (to bustle) or from polus (much, many, abundant). This is war, quarrel, strife; battle, whether one time or on-going. It is war in a literal or figurative sense.
LIII “foreign” = allotrios. 14x in NT. From allos (other, different, another; this is one more of the same kind or a similar type). This is something or someone that belongs to others. By extension, this is another, stranger, foreign, or foreigner.
LIV “armies” = parembole. 11x in NT. From para (by, beside, in the presence of) + emballo (to throw in, subject to); {from en (in, on, at, by, with) + ballo (to throw, cast, place, put, drop)}. This is a juxtaposition, camp, barracks.
LV “put…to flight” = klino. 7x in NT. This is to slant, rest, recline, approach an end, wear. It can be bend in a literal or figurative sense – to lay down, a day ending, causing an opposing army to flee.

35 WomenLVI receivedLVII their deadLVIII by resurrection.LIX

Notes on verse 11:35a

LVI “women” = gune. Related to “became” in v11:34. Perhaps from ginomai (see note L above). This is woman, wife, or bride. This is where the word “gynecologist” comes from.
LVII “received” = lambano. Same as “attempted” in v11:29. See note VIII above.
LVIII “dead” = nekros. Perhaps from nekus (corpse). This is dead or lifeless, mortal, corpse. It can also be used figuratively for powerless or ineffective. It is where the word “necrotic” comes from.
LIX “resurrection” = anastasis. From anistemi (to raise up, rise, appear; to stand up literally or figuratively. Can also mean to resurrect); from ana (upwards, up, again, back, anew) + histemi (to make to stand, place, set up, establish, appoint, stand by, stand still, stand ready, stand firm, be steadfast). This is literally standing up or standing again. It is used figuratively for recovering a spiritual truth. It can be raising up, rising, or resurrection.

OthersLX were tortured,LXI refusing to acceptLXII

Notes on verse 11:35b

LX “others” = allos. Related to “foreign” in v11:34. See note LIII above.
LXI “tortured” = tumpanizo. 1x in NT. From tumpanon (kettle drum) OR from tupto (to strike repeatedly, wound, punish; figuratively to offend). This is to beat a drum. Figuratively, it is torture or beat to death.
LXII “accept” = prosdechomai. Related to “received” in v11:31. 14x in NT. From pros (at, to, toward, with) + dechomai (see note XX above). This is to receive, welcome, expect, accept. It is reception with a warm, personal welcome or active waiting. It can also mean endurance or patience.

release,LXIII in order to obtainLXIV a betterLXV resurrection. 

Notes on verse 11:35c

LXIII “release” = apolutrosis. 10x in NT. From apo (from, away from) + lutroo (to redeem, liberate, release because ransom was paid in full; figuratively, returning something or someone to their rightful owner) [from lutron (ransom, the money used to free slaves; also a sacrifice of expiation; figurative for atonement); from luo (to loose, release, untie; figuratively, to break, destroy, or annul; releasing what had been withheld)]. This is redemption, deliverance, or release particularly with the notion of ransom paid – a buying back what had been lost.
LXIV “obtain” = tugchano. Related to “obtained” in v11:33. 12x in NT. See note XXXVII above.
LXV “better” = kreitton. 15x in NT. From the same as kratistos (strongest, noblest – high in dignity or honor; used to speak to a high ranking Roman; can also differentiate an equestrian from a senator); from kratus (strong); from kratos (strength, power, dominion; vigor in a literal or figurative sense; power that is exercised). This is stronger, better, more dominant or nobler. It is better in the sense that it is mastered or developed.

36 OthersLXVI sufferedLXVII mockingLXVIII

Notes on verse 11:36a

LXVI “others” = heteros. This is other, another, different, strange. It is another of a different kind in contrast to the Greek word allos, which is another of the same kind. This could be a different quality, type, or group.
LXVII “suffered” = peira + lambano. Same as “attempted” in v11:29. See note VIII above.
LXVIII “mocking” = empaigmos. 2x in NT. From empaizo (to mock, ridicule, jeer); {from en (in, on, at, by, with, among) + paizo (to play like a child does – can include singing and dancing); {from pais (child, youth, servant, slave); perhaps from paio (to strike or sting)}}. This is scorn or derision.

and floggingLXIX and even chainsLXX and imprisonment.LXXI 

Notes on verse 11:36b

LXIX “flogging” = mastix. 6x in NT. Probably from massaomai (to chew, gnaw, consume); from masso (to handle, squeeze). This is a whip that had leather straps with metal bits sewn onto them. It is figurative for great pain, suffering, disease, or plague. It is a Roman whip used on criminals, the flagellum.
LXX “chains” = desmos. 18x in NT. From deo (to tie, bind, fasten, impel, compel; to declare something against the law or prohibited). This is a chain, bond, infirmity, impediment.
LXXI “imprisonment” = phulake.  From phulasso (to guard something so that it doesn’t escape – to watch over it vigilantly; being on guard in a literal or figurative sense); related to phulaks (military guard, sentry, watcher). This is the act of guarding, the person who guards, the place where guarding occurs (i.e. a prison), or the times of guarding (the various watches).

37 They were stonedLXXII, LXXIII to death;LXXIV they were sawn in two;LXXV 

Notes on verse 11:37a

LXXII “stoned” = lithazo. 9x in NT. From lithos (stone literal of figurative). This is to stone someone.
LXXIII {untranslated} = peirazo. Related to “attempted” in v11:29. From peira (see note VIII above). This is to test, try, tempt, or make proof of. It is to test, scrutinize, or assay something. It could also be examine, entice, prove, or discipline.
LXXIV “death” = phonos. 9x in NT. From pheno (to slay). This is killing, murder, or slaughter. It is one of the crimes that Barabbas and Saul are accused of.
LXXV “sawn in two” = prizo. 1x in NT. From prio (to saw). This is to saw through or in two.

they were killedLXXVI by the sword; they went aboutLXXVII in skins of sheepLXXVIII and goats,LXXIX

Notes on verse 11:37b

LXXVI “killed” = apothnesko. From apo (from, away from) + thnesko (to die, be dead). This is to die off. It is death with an emphasis on the way that death separates. It can also mean to wither or decay.
LXXVII “went about” = perierchomai. 3x in NT. From peri (all-around, encompassing, excess) + erchomai (to come, go). This is to go around, visit, sail around, stroll, veer.
LXXVIII “skins of sheep” = melote. 1x in NT. From melon (sheep, goat). This is a sheepskin. It may refer to a pig skin.
LXXIX {untranslated} = derma. 1x in NT. From dero (to skin, hit, flog, flay, thrash). This is skin or hide.

destitute,LXXX persecuted,LXXXI tormentedLXXXII— 

Notes on verse 11:37c

LXXX “destitute” = hustereo. 16x in NT– same verb used by the rich young man when he asks Jesus what do I still lack? (Mt 19:20); used in the parable of the prodigal son to describe him as impoverished (Lk 15:14); used when the wine ran out at the wedding at Cana (Jn 2:3); all have sinned and fall short of the glory of God (Rom 3:23); used in describing the body of Christ – that we give greater honor to the inferior member (1 Cor 12:24). From husteros (last, later). This is to fall behind, come late, be interior, suffer need, be left out., to fail to meet a goal.
LXXXI “persecuted” = thlibo. 10x in NT. Perhaps from tribos (worn track or path like a rut that is formed from rubbing i.e. steady use; also road or highway); from tribo (to rub or thresh). This is to press in on and make narrow, rub together, constrict. Figuratively, it is to oppress or afflict.
LXXXII “tormented” = kakoucheo. 2x in NT. From kakos (bad, evil, harm, ill; evil that is part of someone’s core character – intrinsic, rotted, worthless, depraved, causing harm; deep inner malice that comes from a rotten character; can be contrasted with the Greek poneros, which is that which bears pain – a focus on the miseries and pains that come with evil; also contrasting the Greek sapros, which deals with falling away from a previously embodied virtue) + echo (to have, hold, possess). This is to mistreat or treat in an evil way.

38 of whom the worldLXXXIII was not worthy.LXXXIV They wanderedLXXXV in desertsLXXXVI

Notes on verse 11:38a

LXXXIII “world” = kosmos. Perhaps from the base of komizo (to carry, convey, recover); from komeo (to take care of). This is order, the world, the universe, including its inhabitants. Literally, this is something that is ordered so it can refer to all creation. It can also refer to decoration in the sense that something is better ordered and, thus, made more beautiful. This is where “cosmos” and “cosmetics” come from.
LXXXIV “worthy” = axios. Related to “tell” in v11:32 & “conquered” and “promises” in v11:33. From ago (see note XXV above). This is related to weight or worth – deserving, suitable, corresponding, due reward.
LXXXV “wandered” = planao. From plane (wandering – used figuratively for deceit, error, sin, fraudulence, or wandering from orthodoxy); from planos (wandering, misleading, a deceiver or imposter). This is to wander, lead astray, mislead, mistake, seduce, or deceive. Generally used to refer to sin – going off the right path or roaming from truth/virtue. This word shares a root with “planet” (as a heavenly body that wanders).
LXXXVI “deserts” = eremia. 4x in NT. From eremos (properly, a place that is not settled or farmed, not populated; could be a deserted area or a desert place; secluded, solitary, or lonesome; any kind of vegetation is sparse, but so are people generally). This is solitude or an uninhabited place like a desert or desolate region.

and mountainsLXXXVII and in cavesLXXXVIII and holesLXXXIX in the ground.XC

Notes on verse 11:38b

LXXXVII “mountains” = oros. Perhaps from oro (to rise); perhaps akin to airo (raise, take up, lift, remove). This is mountain or hill.
LXXXVIII “caves” = spelaion. 6x in NT. From speos (cave, grotto). This is a cavern, which implies a place to hide. So, this word can also mean den or hideout. This is the word used for “den of robbers” in Matthew 21:13. Also, this is where the word “spelunk” comes from.
LXXXIX “holes” = ope. 2x in NT. Probably from optanomai (to appear, be seen); from horao (become, seem, appear). This is opening, crevice, cavern. It could also refer to a spring of water.
XC “ground” = ge. Same as “land” in v11:29. See note VI above.

39 Yet allXCI these, though they were commendedXCII for their faith, did not receiveXCIII what was promised,XCIV 

Notes on verse 11:39

XCI “all” = pas. This is all or every.
XCII “commended” = martureo. From martus (a witness whether having heard or seen something; witness literally, judicially, or figuratively; by analogy, a martyr). This is to bear witness, testify, give evidence. It is to testify in a literal or figurative sense.
XCIII “receive” = komizo. Related to “world” in v11:38. 10x in NT. See note LXXXIII above.
XCIV “what was promised” = epaggelia. Same as “promises” in v11:33. See note XXXVIII above.

40 since GodXCV had providedXCVI something better so that they would not, apart fromXCVII us, be made perfect.XCVIII

Notes on verse 11:40

XCV “God” = Theos. From Proto-Indo-European origins, meaning do, put, place. This is God or a god in general.
XCVI “provided” = problepo. 1x in NT. From pro (before, first, in front of, earlier) + blepo (to see, used primarily in the physical sense; figuratively, seeing, which includes attention and so to watchfulness, being observant, perceiving, beware, and acting on the visual information). This is to see ahead of time, foresee, provide in advance.
XCVII “apart from” = choris. From chora (space, land, region, fields, open area); from chasma (gap, gulf, chasm, open space); from chasko (to gape, yawn). This is apart from, separate from.
XCVIII “made perfect” = teleioo. From teleios (going through the steps to complete a stage or phase and then moving on to the next one; reaching an end and so being complete or “perfect”; also full grown or mature); from telos (an end, aim, purpose, completion, end goal, consummation, tax).  This is finish, accomplish, bring to an end, complete, reach a goal, finish a race, to consummate. It refers to completing stages or phases to get to an ultimate conclusion. It can also mean consecrate or fulfill.

12:1 Therefore, since weXCIX are surroundedC by so great a cloudCI of witnesses,CII

Notes on verse 12:1a

XCIX {untranslated} = echo. Related to “tormented” in v11:37. See note LXXXII above.
C “surrounded” = perikeimai. 5x in NT. From peri (about, concerning, all around, encompassing) + keimai (to lie, recline, be placed, lie outstretched, be appointed). This is to lie around, surround, be clothed in, be bound, hang, be subject to.
CI “cloud” = nephos. 1x in NT. This is a collection of clouds or a large crowd.
CII “witnesses” = martus. Related to “commended” in v11:39. See note XCII above.

let us also lay asideCIII everyCIV weightCV and the sinCVI that clings so closely,CVII 

Notes on verse 12:1b

CIII “lay aside” = apotithemi. 9x in NT. From apo (from, away from) + tithemi (to put, place, set, fix, establish in a literal or figurative sense; properly, this is placing something in a passive or horizontal position). This is to put aside, put away, renounce.
CIV “every” = pas. Same as “all” in v11:39. See note XCI above.
CV “weight” = ogkos. 1x in NT. Perhaps from the same as agkale (the arm, particularly one that is bent to carry a load); from agkos (a bend). This is an encumbrance, a weight, or a hindrance.
CVI “sin” = hamartia. From hamartano (to miss the mark, do wrong, make a mistake, sin); {from a (not) + meros (a part or share)}. Literally, this means not having one’s share or portion – like not receiving inheritance or what was allotted to you. This word means missing the mark so it is used for guilt, fault, and acts of sin.
CVII “clings so closely” = euperistatos. Related to “resurrection” in v11:35. 1x in NT. From eu (good, well done, rightly); {from eus (good)} + periistemi (to stand around, surround, be a bystander, avoid); {from peri (about, concerning, around, encompassing) + histemi (see note LIX above)}. This is encircling well, entangling. Figuratively, it is something that presents a significant hindrance on one looking to move forward. It is used of sin figuratively.

and let us runCVIII with perseveranceCIX the raceCX that is set beforeCXI us, 

Notes on verse 12:1c

CVIII “run” = trecho. 20x in NT. To run, make progress, rush. This is running like an athlete in a race. Figuratively, to work quickly towards a goal in a focused way.
CIX “perseverance” = hupomone. From hupo (by, under, about) + meno (to stay, remain, wait, await, continue, abide). This is properly to remain behind or remain under. It implies endurance, patience, steadfastness, and waiting in hope.
CX “race” = agon. Related to “tell” in v11:32 & “conquered” and “promises” in v11:33 & “worthy” in v11:38. 6x in NT. From ago (see note XXV above). This can refer to a gathering or contest – as an athletic competition such as a race. It can also refer to conflict, struggle, opposition or a fight. It is used figuratively in a positive sense – as fighting the good fight of faith. It is also used in a negative figurative sense for effort or anxiety. Properly, this word refers to a place where people gather, which implies the game or contest.
CXI “set before” = prokeimai. Related to “surrounded” in v12:1. 5x in NT. From pro (before, ahead, earlier than, above) + keimai (see note C above). This is to be present, set forth, exhibit, to set in view, to show as an example, be first.

lookingCXII to Jesus,CXIII the pioneerCXIV and perfecterCXV of faith,

Notes on verse 12:2a

CXII “looking” = aphorao. Related to “holes” in v11:38. 2x in NT. From apo (from, away from) + horao (see note LXXXIX above). This is to see clearly or to turn one’s attention away from something else to gaze at the thing in question.
CXIII “Jesus” = Iesous. From Hebrew Yehoshua (Joshua, the Lord is salvation); {from YHVH (proper name of the God of Israel; the self-existent and eternal one); {from havah (to become) or from hayah (to come to pass, become, be)} + yasha (to deliver, defend, help, preserve, rescue; properly, to be open, wide or free, which implies being safe. So, in a causative sense, this is to free someone)}. This is Jesus or Joshua in Greek – the Lord saves or the Lord is salvation.
CXIV “pioneer” = archegos. Related to “tell” in v11:32 & “conquered” and “promises” in v11:33 & “worthy” in v11:38 & “race” in v12:1. 4x in NT. From archo (to rule, begin, have first rank or have political power) + hegeomai (to think, suppose, have an opinion; to lead the way, what comes in front or first, initial thought, high esteem or authority; one who commands in an official capacity); {from ago (see note XXV above)}. This is leader, founder, captain – someone who begins or pioneers a movement with followers.
CXV “perfecter” = teleiotes. Related to “made perfect” in v11:40. 1x in NT. From teleioo (see note XCVIII above).  This is finisher, consummator, completer.

who for the sake of the joyCXVI that was set before him enduredCXVII the cross,CXVIII

Notes on verse 12:2b

CXVI “joy” = chara. From chairo (to rejoice, be glad or cheerful; a greeting); from char– (to extend favor, lean towards, be inclined to be favorable towards). This is joy, delight, gladness. Can be understood as the feeling you get when you are aware of grace.
CXVII “endured” = hupomeno. Related to “perseverance” in v12:1. 17x in NT. From hupo (by, under, about, subordinate to) + meno (see note CIX above). This is properly to remain behind or remain under. It implies endurance, patience, steadfastness, enduring trials, and waiting in hope.
CXVIII “cross” = stauros. Related to “resurrection” in v11:35 & “clings so closely” in v12:1. From the same as histemi (see note LIX above). This is an upright stake, cross. Literally refers to the horizontal beam of a Roman cross, generally carried by the one convicted to die.

disregardingCXIX its shame,CXX and has taken his seatCXXI at the right handCXXII of the throneCXXIII of God.

Notes on verse 12:2c

CXIX “disregarding” = kataphroneo. Related to “shut” in v11:33. 9x in NT. From kata (down, against, among, according to) + phroneo (to think, judge, use one’s mind, have an opinion, shape one’s opinion through action); from phren (see note XXXIX above). This is to disregard despise look down, think little of. It can be active scorn or a generally hostile view. It can be disregarding or ignoring something because it is considered of little importance. This can also be thinking someone unworthy and hating them. Additionally, it can be to think against something.
CXX “shame” = aischune. 6x in NT. From the same as aischuno (to dishonor, put to shame, shrink, disfigure); from aischos (shame, disgrace, disfigurement). This is shame, disgrace, dishonesty, a shameful thing. This can be used in an abstract or concrete sense.
CXXI “taken…seat” = kathizo. From kathezomai (to sit down, be seated); {from kata (down, against, according to, among) + hezomai (to sit); {from aphedron (a seat, a base)}}. This is to sit, set, appoint, stay, rest.
CXXII “right hand” = dexios. Related to “received” in v11:31 & “accept” in v11:35. Perhaps from dechomai (see note XX above). This is right, right side, or the right hand.
CXXIII “throne” = thronos. Probably from thanos (bench); from thrao (to sit). This is throne or seat – the place where the king sits. So, it is used figuratively to mean power, dominion, or a potentate. This is where the word “throne” comes from.

Image credit: “Were you There? (Right Panel)” by Frank Wesley.

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