Hebrews 9:11-15

Hebrews 9:11-15
Monday of Holy Week ABC


11 But when ChristA cameB as a high priest of the good thingsC that have come, then through the greater and perfectD tentE (not made with hands, that is, not of this creation),F 

Notes on verse 11

A “Christ” = christos. From chrio (consecrate by anointing with oil; often done for prophets, priests, or kings). Literally, the anointed one, Christ. The Greek word for Messiah.
B “came” = paraginomai. From para (from beside, by) + ginomai (to come into being, to happen, become, be born; to emerge from one state or condition to another; this is coming into being with the sense of movement or growth). This is to arrive, appear, reach. It implies appearing publicly.
C “good things” = agathos. This is good, a benefit, or a good thing. It is good by its very nature, intrinsically good. A different word, kalos, refers to external signs of goodness.
D “perfect” = teleios. 19x in NT. From telos (an end, aim, purpose, completion, end goal, consummation, tax). This is going through the steps to complete a stage or phase and then moving on to the next one. This is reaching an end and so being complete or “perfect.” It is also full grown or mature.
E “tent” = skene. Perhaps related to skeuos (vessel, tool, container, implement; also vessel in a figurative or literal sense) or perhaps related to skia (shadow, thick darkness, outline; figurative for a spiritual situation that is good or bad). This is a tent, booth, tabernacle, or dwelling. It could be a cloth hut. This is a tent in a literal or figurative sense.
F “creation” = ktisis. 19x in NT. From ktizo (to build, create, form, shape; God’s acts of creation); probably akin to ktaomai (to get, purchase, possess). This is creation, creature, or ordinance. It is also used for when a city is founded and creation as origin.

12 he entered once for allG into the Holy Place,H not with the blood of goatsI and calves, but with his ownJ blood, thus obtainingK eternalL redemption.M

Notes on verse 12

G “once for all” = ephapax. 5x in NT. From epi (on, upon, what is fitting) + hapax (once, once for all); {from a (with – signifying fellowship) + pag-} or {from hapas (all; every part working together as a unit); from hama (at once, together with) + pas (all, every, every kind of) or from a (with) + pas (all, every)}. This is once for all, at once, one time.
H “Holy Place” = hagios. From hagnos (holy, sacred, pure ethically, ritually, or ceremonially; prepared for worship, chaste, unadulterated, pure to the core; undefiled by sin; figurative for innocent, modest, perfect). God is totally different from humanity and thus set apart. That which is consecrated to worship God (elements of worship) or to serve God (as the saints) are holy because they are now set apart for God’s purposes. Holy because important to God. This is sacred physically, pure. It can be morally blameless or ceremonially consecrated.
I “goats” = tragos. 4x in NT. From trogo (to gnaw, munch, eat); {from trauma (wound); {from titrosko (to wound)} + tribos (path, road, rut; a path worn in by repeated use); {from trizo (to grate, gnash teeth, creak, squeak)}}. This is a male goat.
J “own” = idios. This is something that belongs to you or that is personal, private, apart. It indicates a stronger sense of possession than a simple possessive pronoun. This is where “idiot” comes from (denoting someone who hasn’t had formal training or education and so they rely on their own understanding).
K “obtaining” = heurisko. This is to find, learn, or obtain. It is to discover something, which generally implies a period of searching for it. This is to find in a literal or figurative sense. This is where the word “heuristic” comes from.
L “eternal” = aionios. From aion (an age, length of time). This is age-long, forever, everlasting. Properly, that which lasts for an age. This is where eon comes from.
M “redemption” = lutrosis. 3x in NT. From lutroo  (to redeem, liberate, release because ransom was paid in full; figuratively, returning something or someone to their rightful owner);from lutron (ransom, the money used to free slaves; also a sacrifice of expiation; figurative for atonement); from luo (to loose, release, untie; figuratively, to break, destroy, or annul; releasing what had been withheld). This is ransoming, release, liberation, or redemption It is paying to free someone from imprisonment because of debt or from slavery more generally. Used figuratively for spiritual redemption.

13 For if the blood of goats and bulls,N with the sprinklingO of the ashes of a heifer,P sanctifiesQ those who have been defiledR so that their fleshS is purified,T 

Notes on verse 13

N “bulls” = tauros. 4x in NT. This is bull or ox.
O “sprinkling” = rhantizo. 4x in NT. From rhaino (to sprinkle). This is to sprinkle, but can also be used for ceremonially cleansing (that included sprinkling).
P “heifer” = damalis. 1x in NT. From damazo (to tame or subdue). This is a young cow.
Q “sanctifies” = hagiazo. Related to “Holy Place” in v12. From hagios (see note H above). This is to make holy, consecrate, sanctify, set apart as holy, purify, venerate.
R “who have been defiled” = koinoo. 14x in NT. From koinos (common, shared, unclean, ritually profane); probably from sun (with, together with). This is to make something common i.e. treated as ordinary and so not ceremonially pure/sacred. So, it can also mean to pollute or desecrate.
S “flesh” = sarx. May be from saroo (to sweep, cleanse by sweeping); from sairo (to brush off). This is flesh, the body, human nature, materiality, kindred. Flesh is not always evil in scripture (as when it refers to Jesus taking on a human body). However, it is generally used in a negative way for actions made selfishly and not through faith. This can mean animal flesh, i.e. meat, or refer to body in contrast to soul/spirit. Flesh can be a way of talking about how things or people are related or talking about human frailty (physical or moral).
T “purified” = katharotes. 1x in NT. From katharos (clean, clear, pure, unstained; clean in a literal, ritual, or spiritual sense; so, also guiltless, innocent or upright; something that is pure because it has been separated from the negative substance or aspect; spiritually clean because of God’s act of purifying). This is cleanness, purity, or purification – especially ceremonial cleansing.

14 how much more will the blood of Christ, who through the eternal SpiritU offeredV himself without blemishW to God,X purifyY our conscienceZ from dead works to worshipAA the living God!

Notes on verse 14

U “Spirit” = pneuma. From pneo (to blow, breath, breathe hard). This is wind, breath, or ghost. A breeze or a blast or air, a breath. Figuratively used for a spirit, the human soul or part of us that is rational. It is also used supernaturally for angels, demons, God, and the Holy Spirit. This is where pneumonia comes from.
V “offered” = prosphero. From pros (at, to, with, towards, advantageous for) + phero (to bear, bring, lead, make known publicly; to carry in a literal or figurative sense). This is to offer gifts or sacrifices, to bring up.
W “without blemish” = amomos. 9x in NT. From a (not) + momos (literally a spot; figuratively blame, disgrace, flaw, censure); {perhaps from memphomai (to blame, be disgraceful; be rejected due to doing bad things); from mempteos (rejected because one has been condemned)}. This is literally without blemish. Figuratively it can mean blameless or without fault i.e. without sin. This word might also be related to a plant from India called amomum, which was used in ointment. It may be akin to black cardamom. See https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/%E1%BC%84%CE%BC%CF%89%CE%BC%CE%BF%CE%BD#Ancient_Greek
X “God” = theos. From Proto-Indo-European origins, meaning do, put, place. This is God or a god in general.
Y “purify” = katharizo. Related to “purified” in v13. From katharos (see note T above). This is to cleanse, make clean, purify, purge, or declare to be clean. Like its roots, it includes cleansing in a literal, ritual, or spiritual sense. Being pure or purified is not something that is only available to the rare few or the innocent. Anyone can be purified.
Z “conscience” = suneidesis. From suneidon (to see together and so know, realize, consider, be conscious of); {from sun (with, together with) + eidon (shape, appearance, kind; something observable; form in a literal or figurative sense); from eido (to know, remember, perceive – to see and so understand)}. This is properly to know together. The conscience, found in all, is a moral and spiritual capacity granted by God so that we can understand together what is good and right.
AA “worship” = latreuo. From latris (a hired servant; someone who is qualified to perform a technical task). Properly, this is giving good, technical service because qualified or equipped to do so. It can be serve, minister, worship, or give homage.

15 For this reason he is the mediatorBB of a newCC covenant,DD so that those who are called may receive the promisedEE eternal inheritance,FF because a death has occurred that redeemsGG them from the transgressionsHH under the first covenant.

Notes on verse 15

BB “mediator” = mesites. 6x in NT. From mesos (middle, among, center); perhaps from meta (with among, behind, beyond; implies a change following contact or action). This is arbitrator, intermediary, or mediator. This is someone whose function it is (also in the secular sense) to make sure that an agreement or covenant is followed by all parties. So, a mediator restores piece (reconciles) to make sure the covenant succeeds.
CC “new” = kainos. This is not new as in new versus old. This is new in the sense of novel, innovative, or fresh.
DD “covenant” = diatheke. From diatithemi (to place separately – to make a will or covenant; this is arranging ahead of time how things will be accomplished); {from dia (through, because of, across, thoroughly) + tithemi (to put, place, set, fix, establish in a literal or figurative sense; properly, this is placing something in a passive or horizontal position)}. This is a will, covenant, contract, or agreement.
EE “promised” = epaggelia. From epi (on, upon, against, what is fitting) + aggello (to announce, report); {from aggelos (angel, messenger); probably from ago (to lead, bring, carry, guide, drive)}. This is a summons, promise, or message. It is a formal promise that is officially sanctioned. In the New Testament, this usually refers to a promise made in the Old Testament.
FF “inheritance” = kleronomia. 14x in NT. From kleronomos (heir); {from kleros (lot, portion, heritage; that share assigned to you; also a lot used to determine something by fate, chance, or divine will); {perhaps from klero (casting a lot) or from klao (to break in pieces as one breaks bread)} + the same as nomos (what is assigned – usage, law, custom, principle; used for the law in general or of God’s law; sometimes used to refer to the first five books of the Bible or the entire Old Testament; also used to refer to theology or the practice and tradition of interpreting and implementing the law of God); {from nemo (to parcel out, assign)}}. This is inheritance, heritage, or possession.
GG “redeems” = apolutrosis. Related to “redemption” in v12. 10x in NT. From apolutroo (setting someone free once the redemption price is paid); {from apo (from, away from) + lutroo (see note M above)}. This is release or redemption that comes once the redemption price is paid.
HH “transgressions” = parabasis. 7x in NT. From para (from beside, by, in the presence of) + the same as basis (a pace, which implies a foot or step); {from baino (to walk, to go)}. Literally, this is an overstepping or a going aside. It is a transgression or violation that is deliberate. So, this is one who knows the law, or knows what they ought to do, and chooses to do otherwise.

Image Credit: Icon of Christ the High Priest

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