Isaiah 25:6-9

Isaiah 25:6-9
Easter, A20


6 On this mountain the LordA of hostsB will make for all peoplesC
    a feastD of rich food,E a feast of well-aged wines,F
    of rich food filled with marrow,G of well-aged wines strained clear.H

Notes on verse 6

A “Lord” = YHVH. From havah (to be, become) or hayah (to come to pass, become, be). This is the name of the God of Israel, the self-existent and eternal one, the tetragrammaton. This pronunciation has been lost to time so “Lord” is generally used in its place.
B “hosts” = tsaba. From tsaba (to wage war, serve, assemble, fight, perform, muster, wait on). This is a large group of persons (used figuratively for a group of things). It implies a campaign literally as with army, war, warfare, battle, company, soldiers. Can also be used figuratively for hardship or for worship.
C “peoples” = am. From amam (to darken, hide, associate; creating shadows by huddling together). This is people or nation. It can be used specifically for a tribe, collectively of troops or armies, or figuratively to refer to a flock of animals.
D “feast” = mishteh. From shathah (to drink literally or figuratively; a drinker). This is drink or the act of drinking. So it is a feast or banquet, as occasions with drinking.
E “rich food” = shemen. From shamen (to shine, which implies being oily, growing fat). This is fat, oil, grease, olive oil – often with perfume. Used figuratively for fertile, lavish, rich.
F “well-aged wines” = shemer. 5x in OT. Perhaps from shamar (to keep, watch, or preserve; to guard something or to protect it as a thorny hedge protects something). This is the dregs or settling of wine, a sprit, or aged wine (perhaps as preserved).
G “filled with marrow” = machah. This is to rub or wipe away, which implies blotting out or erasing, which can be used to mean destroy. This can also be rub in the sense of rubbing oil or grease on something or, more generally, reaching or touching.
H “strained clear” = zaqaq. 7x in OT. This is to refine, purify, or distill. Figuratively, it can mean to extract.

And he will destroyI on this mountain
    the shroudJ that is castK over all peoples,
    the sheetL that is spreadM over all nations;N

Notes on verse 7

I “destroy” = bala. This is to swallow, engulf, cover, or destroy.
J “shroud” = paneh + lot. Paneh is from panah (to turn, appear). This is a face in a literal or figurative sense. Lot is 1x in OT. From lut (to envelop or cast – refers to something that is tightly wrapped). This is a covering or veil.
K “cast” = lut Related to “shroud” in v7. 3x in OT. See note J above.
L “sheet” = massekah. From nasak (to cover, pour out, offer; by analogy anointing a king). This is a pouring out or over. So it could be pouring molten metal to cast an image, making a libation (pouring out a drink offering), or otherwise covering.
M “spread” = nasak. Perhaps related to “sheet” in v7. 1x in OT. Perhaps from the same as nasak (see note L above). This is to weave, stretch, or spread over.
N “nations” = goy. From the same root as gevah (the back, person, or body); related to gev (among); related to gaah (to rise up). This is nation or people. Often used to refer to Gentiles or foreign nations. It can also be used figuratively for a group of animals. This is where the Yiddish “goy” comes from.

    he will swallow upO death forever.P
Then the LordQ God will wipe awayR the tears from all faces,
    and the disgraceS of his people he will take awayT from all the earth,
    for the Lord has spoken.

Notes on verse 8

O “swallow up” = bala. Same as “destroy” in v7. See note I above.
P “forever” = netsach. From natsach (something that glitters from a distance or stands out, excels, has status/standing; also to be permanent or enduring). This is properly a goal or destination as the bright focus to which one journeys. It can be splendor, truthfulness, or confidence. Most often, it refers to everlastingness, always, continually.
Q “Lord” = Adonai. From adon (lord, master, owner); root means to rule or be sovereign. This is the actual Hebrew word for Lord used (in a different form) of humans and (in the present form) of God. It means someone who is in control.
R “wipe away” = machah. Same as “filled with marrow” in v6. See note G above.
S “disgrace” = cherpah. From charaph (to expose and so figuratively to reproach, defame, carp at, defy). This is reproach, rebuke, shame, or disgrace. It can also refer to genitals.
T “take away” = sur. This is to turn aside in a literal or figurative sense – to depart, decline, rebel, remove, or withdraw.

9 It will be said on that day,
    Lo,U this is our God;V we have waitedW for him, so that he might saveX us.
    This is the Lord for whom we have waited;
    let us be gladY and rejoiceZ in his salvation.AA

Notes on verse 9

U “lo” = hinneh.From hen (lo! Behold! If, though; an expression of surprise). This is to draw attention, show suddenness or surprise, or to emphasize the importance of the coming statement. See! Lo! Behold!
V “God” = Elohim.
W “waited” = qavah. It can mean to bind or gather together, especially in the sense of twisting together. In that light, it can mean collect. Figuratively, this can mean to wait, await, expect, or tarry
X “save” = yasha. To deliver, defend, help, preserve, rescue, be safe. Properly, to be open, wide or free, which implies being safe. Used causatively, it means to free.
Y “glad” = gil.Properly, this is twirling around because of a strong feeling whether of rejoicing or from fear. This can be rejoice, be glad or joyful, or to cry.
Z “rejoice” = samach. This is to rejoice or be glad. Properly, it is to brighten up in a literal or figurative sense.
AA “salvation” = yeshuah. Related to “save” in v9. From yasha (see note X above). This is salvation, deliverance, health, victory, prosperity.

Image Credit: Fresco of an Agape Meal from Catacomb of Priscilla in Rome, 3rd century.

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