I “Zion’s” = Tsiyyon. Related to tsyiyyun (signpost, monument); from tsavah (to charge someone, to command, order); from the same as tsiyyah (dryness drought); from a root meaning parched as desert, dry land. Zion can refer to a mountain in Jerusalem as well as another name for Jerusalem itself or the people.
II “keep silent” = chashah. 15x in OT. This is to be silent or not doing anything.
III “Jerusalem’s” = Yerushalaim. From yarah (to throw, shoot, be stunned; to flow as water so figuratively to instruct or teach) + shalam (to make amends, to be complete or sound). This is Jerusalem, dwelling of peace.
IV “rest” = shaqat. This is to be quiet, rest, calm, settle, be still, peace.
V “vindication” = tsedeq. This is rightness, righteousness, vindication. It is everything that is just or ethical. That which is right in a natural, moral, or legal sense. It also includes just weights (i.e. true weights). Figuratively, this is justice, righteousness, equity – even prosperity.
VI “shines out like the dawn” = yatsa + nogah. Literally, “goes out as brightness.” Yatsa is to go or come out, bring forth, appear. It is to go out in a literal or figurative sense. Nogah is 19x in OT. From nagah (to shine – root may mean to glitter). This is light, radiance, being bright, sunshine.
VII “salvation” = yeshuah. From yasha (to deliver, defend, help, preserve, rescue, be safe. Properly, to be open, wide or free, which implies being safe. Used causatively, it means to free). This is salvation, deliverance, health, victory, prosperity.
VIII “burning” = ba’ar. This is to burn, consume, heat, remove. It can also be to consume by a fire or through eating, being brutish or wasting.
IX “torch” = lappid. 14x in OT. Root may mean to shine. This is torch, lamp, or flash of lightning.
X “nations” = goy. From the same root as gevah (the back, person, or body); related to gev (among); related to gaah (to rise up). This is nation or people. Often used to refer to Gentiles or foreign nations. It can also be used figuratively for a group of animals. This is where the Yiddish “goy” comes from.
XI “see” = raah. This is to see in a literal or figurative sense so stare, advise, think, view.
XII “all” = kol. From kalal (to complete). This is all or every.
XIII “kings” = melek. From malak (to be or become king or queen, to rise to the throne, to be crowned; by implication, to take counsel). This is king or royal.
XIV “glory” = kabod. From kabad (to be heavy, weighty, burdensome). This is weighty. Figuratively, glorious, abundant, riches, honor, splendor – a reference to one’s reputation or character. This word is often used to describe God and God’s presence.
XV “called” = qara. This is to call or call out – to call someone by name. Also used more broadly for calling forth.
XVI “new” = chadash. From chadash (to renew or restore, to repair or rebuild). This is something fresh or new.
XVII “name” = shem. May be from sum (to put, place, set). This is name, fame, renown. A name was thought to indicate something essential about a person – something about their individuality. So, this word can also mean honor, authority, or character.
XVIII “mouth” = peh. This is mouth in a literal or figurative sense. So, more literally, it can be beak or jaws. More figuratively, it refers to speech, commands, or promises.
XIX “Lord” = YHVH. From havah (to be, become) or hayah (to come to pass, become, be). This is the name of the God of Israel, the self-existent and eternal one, the tetragrammaton. This pronunciation has been lost to time so “Lord” is generally used in its place.
XX “give” = naqab. This is to pierce, bore holes, puncture; to make a hole more or less forcefully. It is also to curse or libel. It can also mean to appoint, express, blaspheme, or name.
XXI “be” = hayah. Related to “Lord” in v2. See note XIX above.
XXII “crown” = atarah. From atar (to surround or encircle to defend, protect, or attack; to crown in a literal or figurative sense). This is a crown or wreath. Figuratively, it can mean honor.
XXIII “beauty” = tipharah. From paar (to beautify or adorn, to gleam; can refer to showing honor or glorifying someone; also to boast or to shake a tree for harvest). This is beautiful, splendor, adornment, honor, bravery.
XXIV “hand” = yad. This is hand, ability, power. Hand in a literal sense, but also what one can do or the means by which one does it.
XXV “royal” = melukah. Related to “kings” in v2. From the same as melek (see note XIII above). This is kingship, kingdom, reign. It can also mean royalty.
XXVI “diadem” = tsaniph. 5x in OT. From tsanaph (to wrap or wind up). This is a diadem, turban, or other head wear.
XXVII “hand” = kaph. From kaphaph (to bend – from a root meaning curve or bend down). This is palm of the hand or sole of the foot, footstep, grasp. Figuratively, it can also mean power.
XXVIII “God” = Elohim.
4 You shall no more be termedXXIX Forsaken,XXX
and your landXXXI shall no more be termed Desolate;XXXII
but you shall be called My Delight Is in Her,XXXIII
and your land Married;XXXIV
for the Lord delightsXXXV in you,
and your land shall be married.
XXIX “termed” = amar. This is to say or answer.
XXX “Forsaken” = azubah. 5x in OT. From azab (to leave, forsake, permit). This word is forsakenness, desolation, emptiness.
XXXI “land” = erets. Root may mean to be firm. This is earth, ground, field land, or country.
XXXII “Desolate” = shemamah. From shamem (to be appalled, astonished; to stun or devastate, be destitute). This is a devastation, ruin, or waste.
XXXIII “My Delight is in Her” = Chephtsi-bah. 2x in OT. From chephets (a delight, care, or pleasure; what you desire or what is acceptable; a precious thing or something that one is thinking about); from chaphets (properly, inclined towards or bending to; figuratively, to desire, delight in, or be pleased with). This is Hephzibah, meaning “my delight is in her.”
XXXIV “Married” = baal. 15x in OT. This is to marry, master, become a husband, have power over.
XXXV “delights” = chaphets. Related to “My Delight is in Her” in v4. See note XXXIII above.
XXXVI “young man” = bachur. From bachar (to choose, appoint, try, excellent). This is choice, chosen, selected. It is a youth or young man.
XXXVII “young woman” = bethulah. This is virgin, maiden, or bride. Can also be used figuratively for a place.
XXXVIII “builder” = ben. From banah (to build or obtain children). This is son, age, child. It is son in a literal or figurative sense.
XXXIX “bridegroom” = chathan. From chathan (to intermarry, make an alliance through marriage, father-in-law, son-in-law, give one’s daughter in marriage). This is bridegroom, son-in-law. It is someone who is related through marriage. Figuratively, it can be a child who is circumcised.
XL “rejoices” = masos. 17x in OT. From sus (to rejoice, be glad; properly, to be bright or cheerful). This is delight, joy, something that causes joy or the feeling itself.
XLI “bride” = kallah. Related to “all” in v2. Perhaps from kalal (see note XII above). This is bride or daughter-in-law and the term is used before and after marriage.
XLII “rejoice” = sus. Related to “rejoices” in v5. See note XL above.
Image credit: “America Windows” by Marc Chagall, 1977.