Isaiah 66:10-14

Isaiah 66:10-14
Ordinary C32


10 RejoiceA with Jerusalem,B and be gladC for her,
    allD you who loveE her;
rejoiceF with her in joy,G
    all you who mournH over her—

Notes on verse 10

A “rejoice” = samach. This is to rejoice or be glad. Properly, it is to brighten up in a literal or figurative sense.
B “Jerusalem” = Yerushalaim. From yarah (to throw, shoot, be stunned; to flow as water so figuratively to instruct or teach) + shalam (to make amends, to be complete or sound). This is Jerusalem, dwelling of peace.
C “be glad” = gil. Properly, this is twirling around because of a strong feeling whether of rejoicing or from fear. This can be rejoice, be glad or joyful, or to cry.
D “all” = kol. From kalal (to complete). This is all or every.
E “love” = aheb. This is to love, beloved, friend. It is to have affection for sexually or otherwise.
F “rejoice” = sus. This is to rejoice or be glad. Properly, it is to be bright or cheerful.
G “joy” = masos. Related to “rejoice” in v10. 17x in OT. From sus (see note F above). This is delight, joy, something that causes joy or the feeling itself.
H “mourn” = abal. This is to mourn or bewail.

11 that you may nurseI and be satisfiedJ
    from her consolingK breast,L

Notes on verse 11a

I “nurse” = yanaq. This is to suckle or to nurse. In a causative sense, it can mean to give milk. So, this word can be used for a nursing mother or for her suckling child.
J “be satisfied” = saba. To be satisfied or full in a literal or figurative sense. Also, to have plenty of.
K “consoling” = tanchum. 5x in OT. From nacham (a strong breath or sigh; to be sorry, to pity, console, comfort, or repent; also to comfort oneself with thoughts of vengeance). This is consolation, comfort, or solace.
L “breast” = shad. This is breast, whether of a human woman or an animal.

that you may drink deeplyM with delightN
    from her gloriousO bosom.P

Notes on verse 11b

M “drink deeply” = matsats. 1x in OT. This is to suck or milk.
N “delight” = anog. 10x in OT. This is soft or delicate. Figuratively, it can mean luxurious or effeminate. Also, a dainty, delight, or joke.
O “glorious” = kabod. From kabad (to be heavy, weighty, burdensome). This is weighty. Figuratively, glorious, abundant, riches, honor, splendor – a reference to one’s reputation or character. This word is often used to describe God and God’s presence.
P “bosom” = ziyz. 3x in OT. This is moving things like animals, abundance, a full chest.

12 For thus says the Lord:Q
RI will extendS prosperityT to her like a riverU

Notes on verse 12a

Q “Lord” = YHVH. From havah (to be, become) or hayah (to come to pass, become, be). This is the name of the God of Israel, the self-existent and eternal one, the tetragrammaton. This pronunciation has been lost to time so “Lord” is generally used in its place.
R {untranslated} = hen. This is a remark of surprise or excitement: lo! Behold! It can also mean if or though.
S “extend” = natah. This is to stretch or spread out, to extend, or bend. In can also imply moral deflection.
T “prosperity” = shalom. Related to “Jerusalem” in v10. From shalam (see note B above). This is completeness, soundness, welfare, favor, friend, good health. It is to be safe and figuratively well, happy, at peace, friendly. Abstractly, it includes the ideas of welfare and prosperity (not in excessive wealth, but in having enough).
U “river” = nahar. From nahar (to flow, sparkle, be cheerful). This is a stream, river, or flood. Particularly used for the Nile or Euphrates. Figuratively, this can mean prosperity.

    and the wealthV of the nationsW like an overflowingX stream,Y

Notes on verse 12b

V “wealth” = kabod. Same as “glorious” in v11. See note O above.
W “nations” = goy. From the same root as gevah (the back, person, or body); related to gev (among); related to gaah (to rise up). This is nation or people. Often used to refer to Gentiles or foreign nations. It can also be used figuratively for a group of animals. This is where the Yiddish “goy” comes from.
X “overflowing” = shataph. This is to overflow, rinse, overwhelm, run, drown, rush, flood, cleanse, gallop, conquer.
Y “stream” = nachal. From nachal (to take as heritage, inherit, or distribute). This is a river or stream. It could be a wadi or arroyo – sometimes a narrow valley with no water at all, but in strong rains or when winter snow melts, it swells or floods with water.

and you shall nurse and be carriedZ on her armAA
    and bouncedBB on her knees.CC

Notes on verse 12c

Z “carried” = nasa. This is to lift in a broad sense, literally and figuratively. So it could be to carry, take, or arise. It could also be bring forth, advance, accept.
AA “arm” = tsad. Root may mean to sidle. This is a side or an arm. It can also be used to mean beside or, figuratively, an adversary.
BB “bounced” = sha’a. 9x in OT– all in the Psalms and Isaiah. This is to play, delight, stare, cry out, cheer. It can also be to shut eyes, to be blind.
CC “knees” = berek. From barak (to kneel, bless; blessing God as part of worship and adoration; blessing humans to help them; can be used as a euphemism to say curse God). This is the knee.

13 As a motherDD comfortsEE her child,FF
    soGG I will comfort you;
    you shall be comforted in Jerusalem.

Notes on verse 13

DD “mother” = em. This is a mother as binding a family together or a breeding female animal. It could be mother in a literal or figurative sense.
EE “comforts” = nacham. Related to “consoling” in v11. See note K above.
FF “child” = ish. Perhaps from enosh (human, humankind, mortal); from anash (to be weak, sick, or frail). This is man, husband, another, or humankind.
GG “so” = ken. Perhaps from kun (properly, in a perpendicular position; literally, to establish, fix, fasten, prepare; figuratively, it is certainty, to be firm, faithfulness, render sure or prosperous). This is to set upright. Generally used figuratively to mean thus, so, afterwards, rightly so.

14 You shall see,HH and your heartII shall rejoice;JJ
    your bodiesKK shall flourishLL like the grass,MM

Notes on verse 14a

HH “see” = raah. This is to see in a literal or figurative sense so stare, advise, think, view.
II “heart” = leb. May be related to labab (to encourage; properly, to be encased as with fat; used in a good sense, this means to transport someone with love; used in a bad sense, it can mean to dull one’s senses). This is the heart, courage, one’s inner self, the mind, or the will. Heart is only used in a figurative sense in the Old and New Testaments.
JJ “rejoice” = sus. Same as “rejoice” in v10. See note F above.
KK “bodies” = etsem. From atsam (vast, numerous, strong; to close one’s eyes, to make powerful; to break bones). This is self, life, strength, bone, or substance.
LL “flourish” = parach. This is to sprout, blossom, bloom, spread, flourish.
MM “grass” = deshe. 15x in OT– including “vegetation” from Genesis 1:11-12. From dasha (to sprout, grow green). This is grass, a shoot, or a tender herb.

and it shall be knownNN that the powerOO of the Lord is with his servants,PP
    and his indignationQQ is against his enemies.RR

Notes on verse 14b

NN “known” = yada. This is to know, acknowledge, advise, answer, be aware, be acquainted with. Properly, this is to figure something out by seeing. It includes ideas of observation, recognition, and care about something. It can be used causatively for instruction, designation, and punishment.
OO “power” = yad. This is hand, ability, power. Hand in a literal sense, but also what one can do or the means by which one does it.
PP “servants” = ebed. From abad (to work, serve, compel; any kind of work; used causatively, can mean to enslave or keep in bondage). This is a servant, slave, or bondservant.
QQ “indignation” = zaam. 12x in OT. Properly, this refers to foaming at the mouth and so being enraged or angry. It can also be to curse or denounce.
RR “enemies” = oyeb. From ayab (to hate or be hostile to). This is a foe or enemy as one that you are hostile to.

Image credit: “Mother & Baby” by cloud.shepherd, 2014.

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