James 5:7-10

James 5:7-10
Third Sunday of Advent A


Be patient,A therefore, brothersB and sisters, until the comingC of the Lord.D

Notes on verse 7a

A “be patient” = makrothumeo. 10x in NT. From makros (long, long lasting) {from mekos (length); probably related to megas (great or large)} + thumos (passion, wrath; actions emerging from passion or impulse) {from thuo (to rush along, breathe violently, offer sacrifice)}. This is properly long tempered. It refers to one who delays anger, perseveres, or is patient. One could also say longsuffering or forbearing.
B “brothers” = adelphos. From a (with, community, fellowship) + delphus (womb). This is a brother in a literal or figurative sense. It is also used of another member of the Church.
C “coming” = parousia. From pareimi (to be present, have come) {from para (from beside, by, in the presence of) + eimi (to be, exist)}. This is presence, coming, arrival, advent. Properly, it was the term for an official visit of a king or someone else with formal authority. It is used specifically in the New Testament to refer to Jesus’s second coming.
D “Lord” = Kurios. From kuros (authority, supremacy). This is a respectful address meaning master or sir. It refers to one who has control or power greater than one’s own. So, it was also applied to God and Jesus as Master or Lord.

EThe farmerF waitsG

Notes on verse 7b

E {untranslated} = idou. From eido (to be aware, see, know, remember, appreciate). This is see! Lo! Behold! Look! Used to express surprise and or draw attention to the statement.
F “farmer” = georgos. 19x in NT. From ge (earth, land, soil, region, country, the inhabitants of an area) + ergon (word, task, action, employment); {from ergo (to work, accomplish) or from erdo (to do)}. This is wine-dresser, farmer, someone who works the land. It is also where the name “George” comes from.
G “waits” = ekdechomai. 7x in NT. From ek (from, from out of) + dechomai (to warmly receive, be ready for what is offered, take, accept, or welcome; to receive in a literal or figurative sense)}. This is to take or receive, expect, await; to welcome someone from your heart; focusing on the goal of waiting or the outcome.

for the preciousH cropI from the earth,J

Notes on verse 7c

H “precious” = timios. 13x in NT. From time (worth or something’s perceived value; literally, price, but figuratively, the honor or value one sees in someone or something else; also esteem or dignity; also precious or valuables); {From tino (to pay, be punished, pay a penalty or fine because of a crime); from tio (to pay respect, value)}. This is valued, precious, respected, or dear. It is something that holds value.
I “crop” = karpos. Perhaps from harpazo (to seize by force, snatch away); from haireo (to choose, take). This is a fruit or vegetable, through sometimes it refers to an animal. Figuratively, it is deeds, results, profits, or gain.
J “earth” = ge. Related to “farmer” in v7. See note F above.

being patient with it until it receivesK the earlyL and the lateM rains. 

Notes on verse 7d

K “receives” = lambano. It does not refer to passive receiving of something, but active acceptance or taking of something whether it is offered or simply nearby. It focuses on individual decision and action.
L “early” = proimos. 1x in NT. From proi (early, at dawn, during the daybreak watch); from pro (before, earlier than, ahead, prior). This is early or dawning. So, it is used to refer to the first rains of autumn.
M “late” = opsimos. 1x in NT. From opse (after, late, in the end, in the evening); from opiso (back, behind, after); from the same as opisthen (after, back, from the rear); probably from opis (back). This is late so it is used to refer to the rains of spring.

You also must be patient. StrengthenN your hearts,O for the coming of the Lord is near.P 

Notes on verse 8

N “strengthen” = sterizo. 13x in NT. From sterigx (a support, plant down); perhaps from histemi (to stand, place, set up, establish, stand firm). This is to make fast, support, strengthen, establish, fix firmly, to go resolutely.
O “hearts” = kardia. Literally the heart, but figuratively mind, character, inner self, will, intention, thoughts, feelings. Also, the center of something. The word heart is only used figuratively in the Old and New Testaments. This is where “cardiac” comes from.
P “is near” = eggizo. From eggus (nearby or near in time). This is extremely close by – approaching, at hand, immediately imminent.

Brothers and sisters, do not grumbleQ against one another, so that you may not be judged.R See,S

Notes on verse 9a

Q “grumble” = stenazo. Related to “strengthen” in v8. 6x in NT. From steno (to sigh or groan) OR from stenos (narrow, confined, constricted; confined because of obstacles); {probably from histemi (see note N above)}. This is to sigh or groan. It is a way of showing mourning, anger, or longing. It can also refer to the pain of childbirth. Figuratively, it is pressure or feeling of getting to what comes next.
R “judged” = krino. To judge, decide, think good, condemn, determine, pass judgment, stand trial, sue. This is judging whether it is done in court or in a private setting. Properly, it refers to mentally separating or distinguishing an issue – to come to a choice or decision, to judge positively or negatively in seeking what is right or wrong, who is innocent or guilty. It can imply trying, condemning, punishing, or avenging.
S “see” = idou. Same as {untranslated} in v7. See note E above.

the JudgeT is standingU at the doors!V 10 As an exampleW of sufferingX

Notes on verses 9b-10a

T “Judge” = krites. Related to “judged” in v9. 19x in NT. From krino (see note R above). This is judge or ruler.
U “standing” = histemi. Related to “strengthen” in v8 & “grumble” in v9. See note N above.
V “doors” = thura. This is opening or closure so it’s a door, gate, or entrance. Figuratively, this can refer to an opportunity.
W “example” = hupodeigma. 6x in NT. From hupodeiknumi (to teach, indicate, suggest, prove, exhibit, to show secretly, admonish); {from hupo (by, under, about, under someone’s authority) + deiknumi (to show, demonstrate, teach, make known)}. This is a copy or example, either to imitate or as a cautionary tale. It can be used of a specimen or sketch.
X “suffering” = kakopatheia. 1x in NT. From kakos (bad, evil, harm, ill; evil that is part of someone’s core character – intrinsic, rotted, worthless, depraved, causing harm; deep inner malice that comes from a rotten character) + pathos (passion, lust, suffering, something that happens to you, strong feelings); {from pascho (to be acted on for good or ill; often used for negative treatment; properly, feeling strong emotions – especially suffering; can also be the ability to feel suffering)}}. This is suffering or distress.

and patience,Y brothers and sisters, takeZ the prophetsAA who spoke in the nameBB of the Lord. 

Notes on verse 10b

Y “patience” = makrothumia. Related to “be patient” in v7. 14x in NT. From makros (see note A above) + thumos (see note A above). Properly, this is long-passion or long-suffering – one who waits the needed amount of time before expressing anger. This is also patience, perseverance, and fortitude.
Z “take” = lambano. Same as “receives” in v7. See note K above.
AA “prophets” = prophetes. From pro (before, in front of, earlier than) + phemi (to declare, say, use contrasts in speaking to shed light on one point of view); {from phao (to shine) or phaino (to bring light, cause to appear, shine, become visible or clear)}. This is a prophet or poet – one who speaks with inspiration from God.
BB “name” = onoma. May be from ginosko (know, recognize, learn from firsthand experience). This is a name, authority, cause, character, fame, reputation. The name was thought to include something of the essence of the person so it was not thought to be separate from the person.

Image credit: “Parable of the Sower” by LUMO Project.

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