John 11

John 11


Now a certain man wasI ill,II LazarusIII of Bethany,IV

Notes on verse 1a

I “was” = eimi. This is to be, exist.
II “ill” = astheneo. From asthenes (not having strength or weak in a moral sense; sick); {from a (not) + sthenes (strong, vigor); {from the base of sthenoo (to strengthen so that one can be mobile); from sthenos (strength)}}. This is sick, feeble, languishing, impotent. Can also refer to moral weakness.
III “Lazarus” = Lazaros. 15x in NT. From Hebrew Elazar (God has helped or God is helper); {from el (God, a god) + azar (to help, protect, support, ally; properly, to surround so as to provide aid)}. This is Lazarus or Eliezer, meaning “God has helped” or “God is helper.”
IV “Bethany” = Bethania. 12x in NT. From Aramaic beth anya (house of affliction, misery, wretchedness). This is Bethany.

the villageV of MaryVI and her sisterVII Martha.VIII 

Notes on verse 1b

V “village” = kome. Perhaps related to keimai (to lie, recline, set, be appointed, be destined). This is a village as contrasted with a city that has a wall.
VI “Mary” = Maria. From Hebrew Miryam (Aaron and Moses’s sister); from marah (to be contentious, rebellious, bitter, provoking, disobedient; to be or make bitter or unpleasant; figuratively, to rebel or resist; causatively to provoke). This is Miriam or Mary.
VII “sister” = adelphe. From adelphos (brother in a literal or figurative sense); {from a (with, sharing) + delphus (womb)}. This is sister in a literal or figurative sense.
VIII “Martha” = Martha. 13x in NT. From Aramaic marta (mistress, lady); from mar (master). This is Martha. See also (

Mary was the one who anointedIX the LordX with perfumeXI

Notes on verse 2a

IX “anointed” = aleipho. 9x in NT. From a (with) + liparos (oil, fatty; something luxurious); {from lipos (fat, grease)}. This is to anoint whether for medical reasons, as part of hospitality, for a dead body, for a celebration or festival, or to show respect.
X “Lord” = Kurios. From kuros (authority, supremacy). This is a respectful address meaning master or sir. It refers to one who has control or power greater than one’s own. So, it was also applied to God and Jesus as Master or Lord.
XI “perfume” = muron. 14x in NT. This is ointment, perfume, or anointing oil. Probably olive oil mixed with spices and scents such as myrrh.

and wipedXII his feetXIII with her hair;XIV her brotherXV Lazarus was ill. 

Notes on verse 2b

XII “wiped” = ekmasso. 5x in NT– 4x related to Jesus being anointed by the woman & 1x of Jesus washing the disciples’ feet. From ek (from, from out of) + massaomai (to chew, gnaw); {from masso (to knead, squeeze)}. This is to knead something out, which figuratively indicates wiping something off or wiping it dry.
XIII “feet” = pous. This is foot in a literal or figurative sense.
XIV “hair” = thrix. 15x in NT. This is hair, whether human or animal.
XV “brother” = adelphos. Related to “sister” in v1. See note VII above.

So the sisters sentXVI a message to Jesus,XVII “Lord,XVIII he whom you loveXIX is ill.” 

Notes on verse 3

XVI “sent” = apostello. From apo (from, away from) + stello (to send, set, arrange, prepare, gather up); {probably from histemi (to make to stand, stand, place, set up, establish, appoint, stand firm, be steadfast)}. This is to send forth, send away, dismiss, send as a messenger. It implies one that is sent for a particular mission or purpose rather than a quick errand. This is where “apostle” comes from.
XVII {untranslated} = lego. This is to speak, say, name, call, command. It is generally to convey verbally.
XVIII {untranslated} = idou. From eido (to be aware, see, know, remember, appreciate). This is see! Lo! Behold! Look! Used to express surprise and or draw attention to the statement.
XIX “love” = phileo. From philos (dear, beloved, a friend, an associate; friendship with personal affection, a trusted confidante; love from personal experience with another person). This is friendship love and fondness with personal attachment.

But when JesusXX heardXXI it, he said, “This illnessXXII does not leadXXIII to death;XXIV

Notes on verse 4a

XX “Jesus” = Iesous. From Hebrew Yehoshua (Joshua, the Lord is salvation); {from YHVH (proper name of the God of Israel; the self-existent and eternal one); {from havah (to become) or from hayah (to come to pass, become, be)} + yasha (to deliver, defend, help, preserve, rescue; properly, to be open, wide or free, which implies being safe. So, in a causative sense, this is to free someone)}. This is Jesus or Joshua in Greek – the Lord saves or the Lord is salvation.
XXI “heard” = akouo. This is hear or listen, but it also means to understand by hearing. This is where the word “acoustics” comes from.
XXII “illness” = astheneia. Related to “ill” in v1. From asthenes (see note II above). This is weakness, frailty, illness, suffering, or calamity. It is any kind of sickness or injury that includes weakness or diminishes your ability to enjoy or accomplish what you would choose.
XXIII “lead” = eimi. Same as “was” in v1. See note I above.
XXIV “death” = thanatos. From thnesko (to die, be dead). This is death, whether literal or spiritual. It can also refer to something that is fatal.

rather, it is for God’sXXV glory,XXVI so that the SonXXVII of God may be glorifiedXXVIII through it.” 

Notes on verse 4b

XXV “God’s” = Theos. From Proto-Indo-European origins, meaning do, put, place. This is God or a god in general.
XXVI “glory” = doxa. From dokeo (to have an opinion, seem, appear, suppose; a personal judgment; to think); from dokos (opinion). This is literally something that evokes a good opinion – something that connects to our understanding of intrinsic worth. The ultimate expression of this is, of course, God and God’s manifestation. So, this is opinion, honor, and dignity, but also praise, glory, renown, and worship.
XXVII “Son” = Huios. This is son, descendant – a son whether natural born or adopted. It can be used figuratively for other forms of kinship.
XXVIII “be glorified” = doxazo. Related to “glory” in v4. From doxa (see note XXVI above). This is to render or hold something as glorious, to glorify, honor, magnify, or celebrate. This is ascribing weight to something by recognizing its true value or essence.

Accordingly, though Jesus lovedXXIX Martha and her sister and Lazarus, after having heard that Lazarus was ill,XXX he stayedXXXI twoXXXII daysXXXIII longer in the placeXXXIV where he was.

Notes on verses 5-6

XXIX “loved” = agapao. Perhaps from agan (much). This is love, longing for, taking pleasure in. It is divine love or human love that echoes divine love.
XXX {untranslated} = men. This is truly, indeed, even, in fact. Often, it is not translated, but used to emphasize affirmation.
XXXI “stayed” = meno. This is to stay, remain, wait, await, continue, abide, endure. It can mean to literally stay in a place or to remain in a condition or to continue with hope and expectation.
XXXII “two” = duo. This is two or both.
XXXIII “days” = hemera. Perhaps from hemai (to sit). This is day, time, or daybreak.
XXXIV “place” = topos. This is a place or region. It is a smaller space that can only hold a limited number of people whereas chora is a larger place. Figuratively it could be an opportunity.

Then after this he said to the disciples,XXXV “Let us goXXXVI to JudeaXXXVII again.” 

Notes on verse 7

XXXV “disciples” = mathetes. From matheteuo (to make a disciple of); from manthano (to learn key facts, gain knowledge from experience; generally implies reflection as part of the learning process); from math– (thinking things through). This is a disciple, learner, or student. It is where we get “mathematics” from.
XXXVI “go” = ago. This is lead, bring, carry, guide, drive, go.
XXXVII “Judea” = Ioudaia. From Hebrew Yehudah (Judah, son of Jacob, his tribal descendants, a name for the southern kingdom. Literally, it means praised); probably from yadah (to throw one’s hands into the air in a gesture of praise); from yad (hand). This is Judea, which was a Roman province.

The disciples said to him, “Rabbi,XXXVIII the JewsXXXIX were just now tryingXL to stoneXLI you, and are you goingXLII there again?” 

Notes on verse 8

XXXVIII “Rabbi” = Rhabbi. 15x in NT– 8x in the Gospel of John. From Hebrew rab (chief); from rabab (to be many, increase, multiply). This is a title of respect for a teacher-scholar. Literally, it means great one or honorable sir. It can also be understood as my master or my teacher.
XXXIX “Jews” = Ioudaios. Related to “Judea” in v7. From Ioudas (Judah, Judas); from Hebrew Yehudah (see note XXXVII above). This is Jewish, a Jew, or Judea.
XL “trying” = zeteo. This is to seek, search for, desire. It is searching for something by inquiring or investigation. It can be seek in a literal or figurative sense. There is a Hebrew figure of speech “to seek God’s face” so it can also mean to worship God. Alternately, you could seek someone’s life i.e. plot to kill them.
XLI “stone” = lithazo. 9x in NT. From lithos (stone literal of figurative). This is to stone someone.
XLII “going” = hupago. Related to “go” in v7. From hupo (by, under, under the authority of) + ago (see note XXXVI above). This is to lead under so to depart, go away, or die. It is to lead away under the command of someone else, being given a mission or objective to carry out.

Jesus answered, “Are there not twelveXLIII hoursXLIV of daylight?XLV Those who walkXLVI during the day

Notes on verse 9a

XLIII “twelve” = dodeka. Related to “two” in v6. From duo (see note XXXII above) + deka (ten). This is twelve – also shorthand for the apostles.
XLIV “hours” = hora. This is a set time or period, an hour, instant, or season. This is where the word “hour” comes from.
XLV “daylight” = hemera. Same as “days” in v6. See note XXXIII above.
XLVI “walk” = peripateo. From peri (about, concerning, around, encompassing) + pateo (to read, trample on; to trample literally or figuratively); {from patos (trodden) OR from paio (to strike, smite, sting; a hit like a single blow)}. This is to walk. Going from Hebrew figurative language, to walk referred to how you conducted your life, how you chose to live. This word is most literally walking around. Figuratively, it is living, behaving, following, how you occupy yourself. This is where “peripatetic” comes from.

do not stumbleXLVII because they seeXLVIII the lightXLIX of this world.L 10 But those who walk at night stumble because the light is not in them.” 

Notes on verses 9b-10

XLVII “stumble” = proskopto. 8x in NT. From pros (at, towards, for) + kopto (to cut, strike, cut off; beating the chest to lament and so to mourn). This is to kick against, stumble, strike, beat on, surge against like water does, or take offense. It is to trip up in a literal or figurative sense.
XLVIII “see” = blepo. This is literally to see – it is primarily used in the physical sense. However, figuratively it can be seeing, which includes attention and so to watchfulness, being observant, perceiving, and acting on the visual information. It can also mean beware.
XLIX “light” = phos. From phao (to shine or make visible, especially with rays of light); from the same as phaino (to bring light, cause to appear, shine, become visible or clear). This is light, a source of light, fire, or radiance. This is light with specific reference to what it reveals. It is luminousness whether natural or artificial, abstract or concrete, literal or figurative.
L “world” = kosmos. Perhaps from the base of komizo (to carry, convey, recover); from komeo (to take care of). This is order, the world, the universe, including its inhabitants. Literally, this is something that is ordered so it can refer to all creation. It can also refer to decoration in the sense that something is better ordered and, thus, made more beautiful. This is where “cosmos” and “cosmetics” come from.

11 After saying this, he toldLI them, “Our friendLII Lazarus has fallen asleep,LIII but I am goingLIV there to awakenLV him.” 

Notes on verse 11

LI “told” = lego. Same as {untranslated} in v3. See note XVII above.
LII “friend” = philos. Related to “love” in v3. See note XIX above.
LIII “fallen asleep” = koimao. Related to “village” in v1. 18x in NT. From keimai (see note V above). This is to sleep or put to sleep. Figuratively, it can mean to die. In the New Testament, it is used 15x for death and 3x for sleep.
LIV “going” = poreuomai. From poros (ford, passageway). This is to go, travel, journey, or die. It refers to transporting things from one place to another and focuses on the personal significance of the destination.
LV “awaken” = exupnizo. 1x in NT. From exupnos (awake); {from ek (from, from out of) + hupnos (sleep – literal or figurative); {perhaps related to hupo (by, under, about, subordinate to)}}. This is to wake up from sleep.

12 The disciples said to him, “Lord, if he has fallen asleep, he will be all right.”LVI 13 Jesus, however, had been speaking about his death, but they thoughtLVII that he was referringLVIII merely to sleep.LIX 

Notes on verses 12-13

LVI “be all right” = sozo. From sos (safe, rescued, well). This is to save, heal, preserve, or rescue. Properly, this is taking someone from danger to safety. It can be delivering or protecting literally or figuratively. This is the root that “savior” and “salvation” come from in Greek.
LVII “thought” = dokeo. Related to “glory” and “be glorified” in v4. See note XXVI above.
LVIII “referred” = lego. Same as {untranslated} in v3. See note XVII above.
LIX “sleep” = ho + koimesis + ho + hupnos. Koimesis is related to “village” in v1 & “fallen asleep” in v11. 1x in NT. From koimao (see note LIII above). This is resting or sleeping. Hupnos is related to “awaken” in v11. 6x in NT. See note LV above.

14 Then Jesus told them plainly,LX “Lazarus is dead.LXI 15 For your sake I am gladLXII I was not there, so that you may believe.LXIII But let us goLXIV to him.” 

Notes on verses 14-15

LX “plainly” = parresia. From pas (all, every, each) + rhesis (speech); {from rheo (say, speak of, command)}. This is confidence, openness, boldness, outspokenness. It can imply assurance – free speech.
LXI “is dead” = apothnesko. Related to “death” in v4. From apo (from, away from) + thnesko (see note XXIV above). This is to die off. It is death with an emphasis on the way that death separates. It can also mean to wither or decay.
LXII “am glad” = chairo. From char– (to extend favor, lean towards, be inclined to be favorable towards). This is to rejoice, be glad or cheerful; a greeting. This is the root verb that the Greek word for “grace” comes from (charis).
LXIII “believe” = pisteuo. From pistis (faith, faithfulness, belief, trust, confidence; to be persuaded or come to trust); from peitho (to have confidence, urge, be persuaded, agree, assure, believe, have confidence, trust). This is to believe, entrust, have faith it, affirm, have confidence in. This is less to do with a series of beliefs or doctrines that one believes and more to do with faithfulness, loyalty, and fidelity. It is trusting and then acting based on that trust.
LXIV “go” = ago. Same as “go” in v7. See note XXXVI above.

16 Thomas,LXV who was calledLXVI the Twin,LXVII said to his fellow disciples,LXVIII “Let us also go,LXIX that we may dieLXX with him.”

Notes on verse 16

LXV “Thomas” = Thomas. 11x in NT. From Hebrew toam (twin). This is Thomas, meaning twin.
LXVI “called” = lego. Same as {untranslated} in v3. See note XVII above.
LXVII “Twin” = Didumos. Related to “two” in v6 & “twelve” in v9. 3x in NT. From dis (twice, utterly, again); from duo (see note XXXII above). This is Didymus, which means twin or double in Greek.
LXVIII “fellow disciples” = summathetes. Related to “disciples” in v7. 1x in NT. From sun (with, together with) + mathetes (see note XXXV above). This is a fellow disciple.
LXIX “go” = ago. Same as “go” in v7. See note XXXVI above.
LXX “die” = apothnesko. Same as “is dead” in v14. See note LXI above.

17 When Jesus arrived,LXXI he foundLXXII that Lazarus had already beenLXXIII in the tombLXXIV fourLXXV days. 

Notes on verse 17

LXXI “arrived” = erchomai. This is to come or go.
LXXII “found” = heurisko. This is to find, learn, or obtain. It is to discover something, which generally implies a period of searching for it. This is to find in a literal or figurative sense. This is where the word “heuristic” comes from.
LXXIII “been” = echo. This is to have, hold, possess.
LXXIV “tomb” = mnemeion. Related to “wiped” in v2 & “stayed” in v6. From mousikos (to remember); from mneme (memory or mention); from mnaomai (to remember; by implication give reward or consequence); perhaps from meno (see note XXXI above). This is properly a memorial – a tomb, grave, monument.
LXXV “four” = tessares. This is four – used figuratively for total coverage.

18 Now Bethany was nearLXXVI Jerusalem,LXXVII some two milesLXXVIII away, 

Notes on verse 18

LXXVI “near” = eggus. Perhaps from agcho (to squeeze). This is nearby or near in time.
LXXVII “Jerusalem” = Hierosoluma. From Hebrew Yerushalaim (probably foundation of peace); {from yarah (to throw, shoot, be stunned; to flow as water so figuratively to instruct or teach) + shalam (to make amends, to be complete or sound)}. This is Jerusalem, dwelling of peace.
LXXVIII “two miles” = stadion + dekapente. Literally, “fifteen stadia.” Stadion is related to “sent” in v3. 7x in NT. From the same as histemi (see note XVI above). This is a stadium, which was a unit of length. By implication, this would refer to a racing track for a foot race. Dekapente is related to “twelve” in v9. 3x in NT.  From deka (see note XLIII above) + pente (five). This is fifteen.

19 and manyLXXIX of the Jews had comeLXXX to Martha and Mary to consoleLXXXI them about their brother. 

Notes on verse 19

LXXIX “many” = polus. This is much, often, plenteous – a large number or a great extent.
LXXX “come” = erchomai. Same as “arrived” in v17. See note LXXI above.
LXXXI “console” = paramutheomai. 4x in NT. From para (from beside, by, alongside of) + mutheomai (to speak); {from muthos (speech, story, myth, tale); perhaps from the same as mueo (to initiate someone into the secrets or mysteries of an order; to instruct learn, be disciples; properly, shutting your mouth and eyes to experience mystery); from muo (shutting eyes or mouth)}. This is comforting in a sympathetic or encouraging way. It could also be to console or exhort.

20 When Martha heard that Jesus was coming, she went and metLXXXII him, while Mary stayedLXXXIII at home.LXXXIV 21 Martha said to Jesus, “Lord, if you had been here, my brother would not have died. 22 But even now I knowLXXXV that God will giveLXXXVI you whatever you askLXXXVII of him.” 

Notes on verses 20-22

LXXXII “went and met” = hupantao. 10x in NT. From hupo (by, under, about, subordinate to) + antao (to meet with personally) OR from hupo (see above) + anti (opposite, instead of, against). This is to encounter someone or to go to meet them.
LXXXIII “stayed” = kathezomai. 7x in NT. From kata (down, against, according to, among) + hezomai (to sit); {from aphedron (a seat, a base).  This is to sit down or be sitting.
LXXXIV “home” = oikos. This is house – the building, the household, the family, descendants, the temple.
LXXXV “know” = eido. Related to {untranslated} in v3. See note XVIII above.
LXXXVI “give” = didomi. To give, offer, place, bestow, deliver. This is give in a literal or figurative sense.
LXXXVII “ask” = aiteo. This is to ask, demand, beg, desire.

23 Jesus said to her, “Your brother will rise again.”LXXXVIII 

24 Martha said to him, “I know that he will rise again in the resurrectionLXXXIX on the lastXC day.” 

Notes on verses 23-24

LXXXVIII “rise again” = anistemi. Related to “sent” in v3 & “miles” in v18. From ana (upwards, up, again, back, anew) + histemi (see note XVI above). This is to raise up, rise, appear. It is to stand up literally or figuratively. Can also mean to resurrect.
LXXXIX “resurrection” = anastasis. Related to “sent” in v3 & “miles” in v18 & “rise again” in v23. From anistemi (see note LXXXVIII above). This is literally standing up or standing again. It is used figuratively for recovering a spiritual truth. It can be raising up, rising, or resurrection.
XC “last” = eschatos. Related to “been” in v17. Related to eschaton (end, last); perhaps from echo (see note LXXIII above). This is last, end, extreme, final. It is often used to discuss the end times, prophecies of the future, and the afterlife. The branch of theology focusing on all these topics is called “eschatology.”

25 Jesus said to her, “I am the resurrection and the life.XCI Those who believe in me, even though they die, will live,XCII 26 and everyoneXCIII who lives and believes in me will never die.XCIV Do you believe this?” 

27 She said to him, “Yes,XCV Lord, I believe that you are the Messiah,XCVI the Son of God, the one coming into the world.”

Notes on verses 25-27

XCI “life” = zoe. From zao (to live, be alive). This is life including the vitality of humans, plants, and animals – it is life physical and spiritual and life everlasting.
XCII “live” = zao. Related to “life” in v25. See note XCI above.
XCIII “everyone” = pas. Related to “plainly” in v14. See note LX above.
XCIV {untranslated} = eis + ho + aion. Literally, “to the age.” Aion is from the same as aei (ever, always, unceasingly, perpetually; on every occasion). This is an age, cycle of time, course, continued duration. It is also used to describe the eternal or forever. This is the word used to discuss the present age or the messianic age.
XCV “yes” = nai. This is yes, truly, indeed. It is a strong affirmation.
XCVI “Messiah” = Christos. From chrio (consecrate by anointing with oil; often done for prophets, priests, or kings). Literally, the anointed one, Christ. The Greek word for Messiah.

28 When she had said this, she went backXCVII and calledXCVIII her sister Mary and told her privately,XCIX “The TeacherC is hereCI and is calling for you.” 

Notes on verse 28

XCVII “went back” = aperchomai. Related to “arrived” in v17. From apo (from, away from) + erchomai (see note LXXI above). This is to depart, follow, or go off in a literal or figurative sense.
XCVIII “called” = phoneo. Related to “light” in v9. From phone (voice, sound, tone or noise; also a language or dialect); probably from phemi to declare, say, use contrasts in speaking to shed light on one point of view); {from phao (see note XLIX above) or phaino (see note XLIX above). This is to call out, summon, shout, address. It is making a sound whether of an animal, a person, or an instrument.
XCIX “privately” = lathra. 4x in NT. From lanthano (concealed, hidden, unnoticed; to shut one’s eyes to, unwittingly, unawares). This is secretly or privately.
C “Teacher” = didaskalos. From didasko (to teach, direct, instruct, or impart knowledge; in the New Testament, almost always used for teaching scripture); from dao (to learn). This is teacher or master.
CI “is here” = pareimi. Related to “was” in v1. From para (from beside, by, in the presence of) + eimi (see note I above). This is to be near, to be there, to come.

29 And when she heard it, she got upCII quicklyCIII and wentCIV to him. 

Notes on verse 29

CII “got up” = egeiro. This is to awake, raise up or lift up. It can be to get up from sitting or lying down, to get up from sleeping, to rise from a disease or from death. Figuratively, it can be rising from inactivity or from ruins.
CIII “quickly” = tachu. 12x in NT. From tachus (quickly, promptly; without unreasonable delay). This is quickly, but not immediately. It is without undue delay.
CIV “went” = erchomai. Same as “arrived” in v17. See note LXXI above.

30 Now Jesus had not yet come to the village but was still at the place where Martha had met him. 31 The Jews who were with her in the houseCV consoling her sawCVI Mary get upCVII quicklyCVIII and go out.CIX

Notes on verses 30-31a

CV “house” = oikia. Related to “home” in v20. From oikos (see note LXXXIV above). This is a house, household, goods, property, family, or means.
CVI “saw” = horao. To see, perceive, attend to, look upon, experience. Properly, to stare at and so implying clear discernment. This, by extension, would indicate attending to what was seen and learned. This is to see, often with a metaphorical sense. Can include inward spiritual seeing.
CVII “get up” = anistemi. Same as “rise again” in v23. See note LXXXVIII above.
CVIII “quickly” = tacheos. Related to “quickly” in v29. 10x in NT. From tachus (see note CIII above). This is quickly, at once, soon, suddenly.
CIX “go out” = exerchomai. Related to “arrived” in v17 & “went back” in v28. From ek (from, from out of) + erchomai (see note LXXI above). This is to go out, depart, escape, proceed from, spread news abroad.

They followedCX her because they thought that she was goingCXI to the tomb to weepCXII there. 32 When Mary came where Jesus was and sawCXIII him, she kneltCXIV at his feet and said to him, “Lord, if you had been here, my brother would not have died.” 

Notes on verses 31b-32

CX “followed” = akoloutheo. From a (with, fellowship, union) + keleuthos (road, way). This is to accompany or follow someone, especially the way a disciple does.
CXI “going” = hupago. Same as “going” in v8. See note XLII above.
CXII “weep” = klaio. This is to weep, lament, or sob. It is weeping aloud.
CXIII “saw” = horao. Same as “saw” in v31. See note CVI above.
CXIV “knelt” = pipto. This is to fall literally or figuratively.

33 When Jesus sawCXV her weeping and the Jews who came withCXVI her also weeping, he was greatly disturbedCXVII in spiritCXVIII and deeply moved.CXIX 34 He said, “Where have you laidCXX him?”

Notes on verses 33-34a

CXV “saw” = horao. Same as “saw” in v31. See note CVI above.
CXVI “came with” = sunerchomai. Related to “arrived” in v17 & “went back” in v28 & “go out” in v31. From sun (with, together with) + erchomai (see note LXXI above). This is to go with, assemble, leave together with, cohabit.
CXVII “greatly disturbed” = embrimaomai. 5x in NT. From en (in, on, at, by, with) + brimaomai (snorting due to anger). This is affected by anger, stern admonishment, scolding, or being deeply moved. It is snorting displeasure or anger or roaring from rage. It can also mean to blame, sigh or murmur against someone.
CXVIII “spirit” = pneuma. From pneo (to blow, breathe, breathe hard). This is wind, breath, or ghost. A breeze or a blast or air, a breath. Figuratively used for a spirit, the human soul or part of us that is rational. It is also used supernaturally for angels, demons, God, and the Holy Spirit. This is where pneumonia comes from.
CXIX “deeply moved” = tarasso. 18x in NT. This is trouble, agitate, stir up. It is motion back and forth, creating inner turmoil or confusion, roiling water.
CXX “laid” = tithemi. This is to put, place, set, fix, establish in a literal or figurative sense. Properly, it is placing something in a passive or horizontal position.

They said to him, “Lord, come and see.”CXXI 35 Jesus began to weep.CXXII 

36 So the Jews said, “SeeCXXIII how he lovedCXXIV him!” 

Notes on verses 34b-36

CXXI “see” = idou. Same as {untranslated} in v3. See note XVIII above.
CXXII “weep” = dakruo. 1x in NT. From dakruon (teardrop). This is to cry or weep.
CXXIII “see” = idou. Same as {untranslated} in v3. See note XVIII above.
CXXIV “loved” = phileo. Same as “love” in v3. See note XIX above.

37 But some of them said, “CouldCXXV not he who openedCXXVI the eyesCXXVII of the blindCXXVIII man have keptCXXIX this man from dying?”

Notes on verse 37

CXXV “could” = dunamai. This is to be able, or something that is possible. It can also be empowered or being powerful. The Greek word for “miracle” (dunamis) comes from this root.
CXXVI “opened” = anoigo. From ana (up, back, again, among, between, anew) + oigo (to open). This is to open in literal or figurative sense.
CXXVII “eyes” = ophthalmos. Related to “saw” in v31. From optanomai (to appear, be seen by); from horao (see note CVI above). This is eye or sight. It is used figuratively for the mind’s eye, a vision, or for envy.
CXXVIII “blind” = tuphlos. Derivation unclear. Perhaps from tuphoo (to be conceited, foolish, puffed up, haughty; properly, to blow smoke; figuratively being muddled or cloudy in mind; poor judgment that harms spiritual clarity; also, being covered with smoke – so filled with pride); from tuphos (smoke, vanity, arrogance); from tupho (to raise smoke, smolder, slowly consume without flame). This is blind or a blind person – perhaps in the sense of smoke making things opaque and impossible to see. This is blind literally or figuratively.
CXXIX “kept” = poieo. This is to make, do, act, construct, abide, or cause.

38 Then Jesus, again greatly disturbed, came to the tomb. It was a cave,CXXX and a stoneCXXXI was lyingCXXXII against it. 39 Jesus said, “Take awayCXXXIII the stone.”

Notes on verses 38-39a

CXXX “cave” = spelaion. 6x in NT. From speos (cave, grotto). This is a cavern, which implies a place to hide. So, this word can also mean den or hideout. This is the word used for “den of robbers” in Matthew 21:13. Also, this is where the word “spelunk” comes from.
CXXXI “stone” = lithos. Related to “stone” in v8. See note XLI above.
CXXXII “lying” = epikeimai. Related to “village” in v1 & “fallen asleep” in v11 & {untranslated} in v13. 7x in NT. From epi (on, upon, what is fitting) + keimai (see note V above). This is to lie up, impose, insist, oblige, press on.
CXXXIII “take away” = airo. This is to lift up in a literal or figurative sense. So, it could mean to lift, carry, or raise. It could also imply lifting something in order to take it away or remove it. Figuratively, this can be used for raising the voice or level of suspense. It can mean sailing off as raising the anchor. It can also correspond to a Hebrew expression for atonement of sin (lift/remove sin).

Martha, the sister of the dead man,CXXXIV said to him, “Lord, already there is a stenchCXXXV because he has been dead four days.”CXXXVI 

40 Jesus said to her, “Did I not tell you that if you believed you would seeCXXXVII the glory of God?” 

Notes on verses 39b-40

CXXXIV “dead man” = teleutao. 13x in NT. From teleute (end, finishing, consummation; can also be used for death); from teleo (to complete, fulfill, accomplish, end); from telos (an end, aim, purpose, completion, end goal, consummation, tax; going through the steps to complete a stage or phase and then moving on to the next one). This is to complete or come to the end/end goal. It can also mean to finish life or to meet one’s ultimate fate in heaven or hell.
CXXXV “is a stench” = ozo. 1x in NT. This is to stink or be offensive.
CXXXVI “four days” = tetartaios. Related to “four” in v17. 1x in NT. From tessares (see note LXXV above). This is four days or fourth day.
CXXXVII “see” = horao. Same as “saw” in v31. See note CVI above.

41 So they took away the stone. And Jesus lookedCXXXVIII upwardCXXXIX and said, “Father,CXL I thankCXLI you for having heard me. 

Notes on verse 41

CXXXVIII “looked” = airo + ho + ophthalmos. Literally, “lifted his eyes.” Airo is the same as “take away” in v39. See note CXXXIII above. Ophthalmos is the same as “eyes” in v37. See note CXXVII above.
CXXXIX “upward” = ano. 9x in NT. From ana (up, back, again, among, between, anew). This is literally up, upward, to the brim. Figuratively, it can refer to things above, i.e. of the heavens.
CXL “Father” = pater. This is father in a literal or figurative sense. Could be elder, senior, ancestor, originator, or patriarch.
CXLI “thank” = eucharisteo. Related to “am glad” in v15. From eu (good, well, well done, rightly) + charis (grace, kindness, favor, gratitude, thanks; being inclined to or favorable towards – leaning towards someone to share some good or benefit; literal, figurative, or spiritual; grace as abstract concept, manner, or action); {from chairo (see note LXII above)}. This is giving thanks, being thankful. It is a recognition that God’s grace is good and actively showing gratitude. It can also be used for saying grace before eating. This is where “eucharist” comes from.

42 I knew that you alwaysCXLII hear me, but I have said this for the sake of the crowdCXLIII standing here,CXLIV so that they may believe that you sent me.” 

Notes on verse 42

CXLII “always” = pantote. Related to “plainly” in v14 & “everyone” in v26. From pas (see note LX above) + tote (then, whether past or future); {from hote (when); from ho (the)}. This is literally every when. It is always, at all times.
CXLIII “crowd” = ochlos. Related to “been” in v17 & “last” in v24. Perhaps from echo (see note LXXIII above). This is a crowd, the common people, a rabble. Figuratively, it can refer to a riot.
CXLIV “standing here” = periistemi. Related to “sent” in v3 & “miles” in v18 & “rise again” in v23 & “resurrection” in v24. 4x in NT. From peri (about, concerning, around, encompassing) + histemi (see note XVI above). This is to stand around, surround, be a bystander, avoid.

43 When he had said this, he criedCXLV with a loudCXLVI voice,CXLVII “Lazarus, comeCXLVIII out!” 

Notes on verse 43

CXLV “cried” = kraugazo. 9x in NT. From krauge (a very emotional shout or cry generally or clamor against someone else; a cry of alarm, trouble, or grief); from krazo (to cry out, scream, shriek; onomatopoeia for the sound of a raven’s call; figuratively, this is means crying out urgently without intelligible words to express something that is deeply felt). This is to cry, shout, clamor. It is a screaming or shrieking that is often impossible to understand exact words in. It is sound expressing feeling/urgency. Properly, this refers to loud animal sounds.
CXLVI “loud” = megas. This is big in a literal or figurative sense – great, large, exceeding, abundant, high, mighty, perfect, strong, etc.
CXLVII “voice” = phone. Related to “light” in v9 & “called” in v28. See note XCVIII above.
CXLVIII “come” = deuro. 9x in NT. This is come here, hither, hence, now, until now.

44 The dead manCXLIX came out,CL his handsCLI and feet boundCLII

Notes on verse 44a

CXLIX “dead man” = thnesko. Related to “death” in v4 & “is dead” in v14. 9x in NT. See note XXIV above.
CL “came out” = exerchomai. Same as “go out” in v31. See note CIX above.
CLI “hands” = cheir. This is the hand in a literal sense. Figuratively, the hand is the means a person uses to accomplish things so it can also mean power, means, or instrument.
CLII “bound” = deo. To tie, bind, compel, put in chains. This is to bind in a literal or figurative sense. Can also mean declaring something unlawful.

with strips of clothCLIII and his faceCLIV wrappedCLV in a cloth.CLVI

Jesus said to them, “UnbindCLVII him, and letCLVIII him go.”CLIX

Notes on verse 44b

CLIII “strips of cloth” = keiria. 1x in NT. This is a bandage, a sheet, something to clothe a dead body.
CLIV “face” = opsis. Related to “saw” in v31 & “eyes” in v37. 3x in NT. From horao (see note CVI above). This is seeing, face, features, appearance.
CLV “wrapped” = perideo. Related to “bound” in v44. 1x in NT. From peri (about, around, concerning, encompassing) + deo (see note CLII above). This is to tie around or enwrap.
CLVI “cloth” = soudarion. 4x in NT.  From Latin sudarium (sweat cloth) This is a napkin, face cloth, or handkerchief. It can be used as a towel to wipe sweat from the face or a cloth for the head of a corpse.
CLVII “unbind” = luo. This is to loose, release, or untie. Figuratively, it can mean to break, destroy, or annul. This is releasing what had been withheld.
CLVIII “let” = aphiemi. From apo (from, away from) + hiemi (to send). This is send away, release, permit, forgive, allow to depart, discharge, or send forth.
CLIX “go” = hupago. Same as “going” in v8. See note XLII above.

45 Many of the Jews, therefore, who had come with Mary and had seenCLX what Jesus didCLXI believed in him. 46 But some of them wentCLXII to the PhariseesCLXIII and told them what Jesus had done. 

Notes on verses 45-46

CLX “seen” = theaomai. From thaomai (to gaze at a spectacle; to look at or contemplate as a spectator; to interpret something in efforts to grasp its significance). This is to behold, look upon, see, contemplate, visit like a spectator. This is the root of the word “theatre.”
CLXI “did” = poieo. Same as “kept” in v37. See note CXXIX above.
CLXII “went” = aperchomai. Same as “went back” in v28. See note XCVII above.
CLXIII “Pharisees” = Pharisaios. From Aramaic peras (to divide, separate) and from Hebrew parash (to make distinct, separate, scatter). This is a Pharisee, a member of a Jewish sect active in the 1st century. Their name meant separate in the sense of wanting to live a life separated from sin. Whereas the Sadducees were part of the priestly line and inherited their religious position and responsibilities, Pharisees were regular people who studied the scriptures and offered guidance to regular folk. Sadducees were often wealthier and willing to sacrifice their identity to rub elbows with Roman society. Pharisees were often more concerned with what it meant to follow God without compromising what made them different as followers of God. Sadducees primarily believed in that which was written down (the first five books of the Bible) and Pharisees believed in the Bible and the traditions of the elders. Pharisees had a very wide range of interpretations and diversity of opinion. Their standard mode of religious engagement was lively debate with one another. To argue religion with another teacher was to recognize that they had something of value to offer.

47 So the chief priestsCLXIV and the Pharisees called a meetingCLXV of the councilCLXVI

Notes on verse 47a

CLXIV “chief priests” = archiereus. From archo (to rule, begin, have first rank or have political power) + hiereus (a priest literal or figurative – of any faith); {from hieros (sacred, something sacred, temple, holy, set apart; something consecrated to God or a god)} This is a high or chief priest.
CLXV “called a meeting” = sunago. Related to “go” in v7 & “going” in v8. From sun (with, together with, closely associated) + ago (see note XXXVI above). This is to lead together and so to assemble, bring together, welcome with hospitality, or entertain. In the sense of assembly, this is the root of the word “synagogue.”
CLXVI “council” = sunedrion. Related to “stayed” in v20. From sun (with, together with) + hedra (convening, siting together, being firm and faithful); {from aphedron (see note LXXXIII above)}. This is Sanhedrin – literally a sitting together. It was the high court for Jews and had 71 members. This term could also mean council or meeting place and was used for the lower courts that were throughout the land and had 23 members.

and said, “What are we to do? This manCLXVII is performingCLXVIII many signs.CLXIX 

Notes on verse 47b

CLXVII “man” = anthropos. Related to “saw” in v31 & “eyes” in v37 & “face” in v44. Probably from aner (man, male, husband) + ops (eye, face); {from optanomai (see note CXXVII above)}. This is human, humankind. Used for all genders.
CLXVIII “performing” = poieo. Same as “kept” in v37. See note CXXIX above.
CLXIX “signs” = semeion. From the same as semaino (to give a sign, signify, indicate, make known); from sema (a sign or mark). It is literally a sign of any kind. It also refers to a sign given by God to confirm or authenticate a message or prophecy. It is not necessarily miraculous, but it can be. The Gospel of John generally uses this word instead of miracle.

48 If we let him go onCLXX like this, everyone will believe in him, and the RomansCLXXI will come and destroyCLXXII both our holy place and our nation.”CLXXIII 

Notes on verse 48

CLXX “let…go on” = aphiemi. Same as “let” in v44. See note CLVIII above.
CLXXI “Romans” = Rhomaios. 12x in NT. From rhome (Rome); from the base of rhonnumi (to strengthen, be firm, have health; used as a salutation in letters at the end); {probably from rhoomai (to move quickly)} OR from Latin Romulus (the one who founded Rome according to legend – many scholars believe this was suggested after the fact i.e. long after Rome was called Rome) OR from Rumon or Rumen (the Tiber river); {related to Proto-Indo-European root *srew- (to flow)} OR from Etruscan ruma (teat). This is Rome, Roman, or Roman citizen. See
CLXXII “destroy” = airo. Same as “take away” in v39. See note CXXXIII above.
CLXXIII “nation” = ethnos. Probably from etho (a custom or culture). This is people who are united by having similar customs or culture. Generally, it is used to refer to Gentiles. This is a tribe, race, nation, or Gentiles in general. This is where the term “ethnicity” comes from.

49 But oneCLXXIV of them, Caiaphas,CLXXV who was high priest that year,CLXXVI said to them, “You know nothing at all! 50 You do not understandCLXXVII that it is betterCLXXVIII for you

Notes on verses 49-50a

CLXXIV “one” = heis. This is one, a person, only, some.
CLXXV “Caiaphas” = Kaiaphas. 9x in NT. From Aramaic (as beautiful) OR from kefa (rock, stone) OR from Akkadian kaypha (dell, depression). This is Caiaphas. See
CLXXVI “year” = eniautos. 14x in NT. Perhaps from enos (a year). This is a duration of time – a year.
CLXXVII “understand” = logizomai. Related to {untranslated} in v3. From logos (word, statement, speech, analogy; here, word as an account or accounting; can also be a word that carries an idea or expresses a thought, a saying; a person with a message or reasoning laid out in words; by implication, a topic, line of reasoning, or a motive; can be used for a divine utterance or as Word – Christ); from lego (see note XVII above). This is this is to compute or reckon up, to count; figuratively, it is coming to a conclusion or decision using logic; taking an inventory in a literal or figurative sense.
CLXXVIII “is better” = sumphero. 17x in NT. From sun (with, together with) + phero (to bear, bring, lead, make known publicly; to carry in a literal or figurative sense). This is to collect, bring together, or be profitable to. It is combining things such that there is gain or profit or advantage.

to have one man die for the peopleCLXXIX than to have the wholeCLXXX nation destroyed.”CLXXXI 51 He did not say this on his own, but being high priest that year he prophesiedCLXXXII that Jesus was about toCLXXXIII die for the nation, 

Notes on verses 50b-51

CLXXIX “people” = laos. This is the people or crowd – often used for the chosen people. This is where the word “laity” comes from.
CLXXX “whole” = holos. This is whole, complete, or entire. It is a state where every member is present and functioning in concert. This is the root of the word “whole.”
CLXXXI “destroyed” = apollumi. From apo (from, away from) + ollumi (to destroy or ruin; the loss that comes from a major ruination). This is to destroy, cut off, to perish – perhaps violently. It can also mean to cancel or remove.
CLXXXII “prophesied” = propheteuo. Related to “light” in v9 & “called” in v28 & “voice” in v43. From prophetes (prophet or poet; one who speaks with inspiration from God); {from pro (before, in front of, earlier than) + phemi (see note XCVIII above); {from phao (see note XLIX above) or phaino (see note XLIX above)}}. This is to prophesy, foretell, or tell forth.
CLXXXIII “was about to” = mello. Perhaps from melo (something that one is worried or concerned about, something one pays attention to or thinks about). Properly, this is ready, about to happen, to intend, delay, or linger. This is just on the point of acting.

52 and not for the nation only,CLXXXIV but to gatherCLXXXV into one the dispersedCLXXXVI

Notes on verse 52a

CLXXXIV “only” = monon. Related to “stayed” in v6 & “tomb” in v17. From monos (alone, single, remaining, mere, desolate); from meno (see note XXXI above). This is merely, only, simply, sole. It can also imply alone.
CLXXXV “gather” = sunago. Same as “called a meeting” in v47. See note CLXV above.
CLXXXVI “dispersed” = diaskorpizo. 9x in NT. From dia (through, on account of, across, thoroughly) + skorpizo (to scatter, distribute, dissipate, waste). This is to separate or disperse. Figuratively, it can be squander or waste.

childrenCLXXXVII of God. 53 So from that day on they plannedCLXXXVIII to put him to death.CLXXXIX

Notes on verses 52b-53

CLXXXVII “children” = teknon. From tikto (to beget, bring forth, produce). This is a child, descendant, or inhabitant.
CLXXXVIII “planned” = bouleuo. 6x in NT. From boule (counsel, plan, purpose, decision; wisdom that comes from deliberation); from boulomai (to wish, desire, intend; to plan with great determination). This is to deliberate, consider, plan together, advise, or resolve to do something.
CLXXXIX “put…to death” = apokteino. From apo (from, away from) + kteino (to kill). To put to death, kill, slay. Figuratively, this word can mean abolish, destroy, or extinguish.

54 Jesus therefore no longer walked about openlyCXC among the Jews but wentCXCI from there to a townCXCII calledCXCIII EphraimCXCIV

Notes on verse 54a

CXC “openly” = parresia. Same as “plainly” in v14. See note LX above.
CXCI “went” = aperchomai. Same as “went back” in v28. See note XCVII above.
CXCII “town” = polis. This is a city or its inhabitants. It is a town of variable size, but one that has walls. This is where “metropolis” and “police” come from.
CXCIII “called” = lego. Same as {untranslated} in v3. See note XVII above.
CXCIV “Ephraim” = Ephraim. 1x in NT. From Hebrew Ephrayim (Ephraim, one of Joseph’s sons, his descendants, and their land); from the same as epher (ashes or dust – properly something strewn) OR from parah (to grow, increase, be fruitful in a literal or figurative sense). This is Ephraim, one of Joseph’s sons, his descendants, and their land. It means “two-fold increase” or “doubly fruitful” or “exhausted” or “ashes.” See

in the regionCXCV near the wilderness,CXCVI and he remainedCXCVII there with the disciples.

Notes on verse 54b

CXCV “region” = chora. From chasma (gap, gulf, chasm, open space); from chasko (to gape, yawn). This is space, land, region, fields, open area – the countryside in contrast to the town.
CXCVI “wilderness” = eremos. Properly, a place that is not settled or farmed, not populated. It could be a deserted area or a desert place. It could be seen as secluded, solitary, or lonesome. Any kind of vegetation is sparse, but so are people generally.
CXCVII “remained” = meno. Same as “stayed” in v6. See note XXXI above.

55 Now the PassoverCXCVIII of the Jews was near, and many went upCXCIX from the countryCC to Jerusalem before the Passover to purifyCCI themselves. 

Notes on verse 55

CXCVIII “Passover” = Pascha. From Aramaic corresponding to Hebrew pesach (Passover or the offering for Passover); from pasach (to stop, pass over, skit over, to spare). This is Passover – used for the feast, the lamb of sacrifice, the day, and the festival itself. This is where the term “paschal” comes from as in the “paschal lamb.”
CXCIX “went up” = anabaino. From ana (up, back, among, again, anew) + the same as basis (step, hence foot; a pace); {from baino (to walk, to go)}. This is to come up in a literal or figurative sense – ascent, rise, climb, enter.
CC “country” = chora. Same as “region” in v54. See note CXCV above.
CCI “purify” = hagnizo. 7x in NT. From hagnos (holy, sacred, pure ethically, ritually, or ceremonially; prepared for worship, chaste, unadulterated, pure to the core; undefiled by sin; figurative for innocent, modest, perfect). This is to purify, or sanctify. It is to clean in a ritual, literal, or ethical sense.

56 They were lookingCCII for Jesus and were asking one another as they stoodCCIII in the temple,CCIV “What do you think? Surely he will not come to the festival,CCV will he?” 

Notes on verse 56

CCII “looking” = zeteo. Same as “trying” in v8. See note XL above.
CCIII “stood” = histemi. Related to “sent” in v3 & “miles” in v18 & “rise again” in v23 & “resurrection” in v24 & “standing here” in v42. See note XVI above.
CCIV “temple” = hieros. Related to “chief priests” in v47. See note CLXIV above.
CCV “festival” = heorte. This is a holiday or feast.

57 Now the chief priests and the Pharisees had given ordersCCVI that anyone who knewCCVII where Jesus was should let them know,CCVIII so that they might arrestCCIX him.

Notes on verse 57

CCVI “orders” = entole. Related to “dead man” in v39. From entellomai (to charge, command, give orders or instructions) {from en (in, on, at, by, with) + tellomai (to accomplish); {from telos (see note CXXXIV above)}}. This is an order, command, ordinance, or law. It focuses on the purpose of the command and its end result.
CCVII “knew” = ginosko. This is to know, recognize, realize, perceive, learn. It is knowledge gained through personal experience.
CCVIII “let…know” = menuo. Related to “wiped” in v2 & “stayed” in v6 & “tomb” in v17 & “only” in v52. 4x in NT. Perhaps from mnaomai (see note LXXIV above); perhaps from meno (see note XXXI above). OR from massaomai (see note XII above); from masso (see note XII above) OR from mao (to strive). This is to show, inform, reveal, report. It is to disclose in a legal setting. It implies mental effort.
CCIX “arrest” = piazo. 12x in NT. From piezo (to press down or together, to pack) OR related to biazo (to force, use power to seize); {from bia (strength, force, violence) or bios (life, livelihood, goods, wealth)}. This is to take, catch,  squeeze, capture from hunting, or arrest. This is the root of “piezoelectricity.”

Image credit: “Raising of Lazarus” by Frank Wesley.

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