John 13:21-32

John 13:21-32
Wednesday of Holy Week ABC

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21 After saying this JesusA was troubledB in spirit,C and declared,D “Very truly,E I tell you, one of you will betrayF me.” 

Notes on verse 21

A “Jesus” = iesous. From Hebrew Yehoshua (Joshua, the Lord is salvation); {from YHVH (proper name of the God of Israel; the self-existent and eternal one); {from havah (to become) or from hayah (to come to pass, become, be)} + yasha (to deliver, defend, help, preserve, rescue; properly, to be open, wide or free, which implies being safe. So, in a causative sense, this is to free someone)}. This is Jesus or Joshua in Greek – the Lord saves or the Lord is salvation.
B “troubled” = tarasso. 18x in NT. This is trouble, agitate, stir up. It is motion back and forth, creating inner turmoil or confusion, roiling water.
C “spirit” = pneuma. From pneo (to blow, breath, breathe hard). This is wind, breath, or ghost. A breeze or a blast or air, a breath. Figuratively used for a spirit, the human soul or part of us that is rational. It is also used supernaturally for angels, demons, God, and the Holy Spirit. This is where pneumonia comes from.
D “declared” = martureo. From martus (a witness whether having heard or seen something; witness literally, judicially, or figuratively; by analogy, a martyr). This is to bear witness, testify, give evidence. It means to testify in a literal or figurative sense. This root is where we get the word “martyr” from.
E “very truly” = amen + amen. From Hebrew amen (verily, truly, amen, truth, so be it, faithfulness); from aman (to believe, endure, fulfill, confirm, support, be faithful, put one’s trust in, be steadfast. Figuratively, this is to be firm, steadfast, or faithful, trusting, believing, being permanent, morally solid). This word is literally firmness, but figuratively fidelity, faithfulness, honesty, responsibility, trust, truth, steadfastness. Properly, it is to be sure, certain, or firm. This is a word of emphasis indicating that something crucial follows.
F “betray” = paradidomi. From para (from beside, by) + didomi (give, offer, place, bestow, deliver; give in a literal or figurative sense). This is literally to hand over – hence to deliver, abandon, or betray. It implies a personal involvement.

22 The disciplesG lookedH at one another, uncertainI of whom he was speaking. 23 One of his disciples—the one whom Jesus lovedJ—was recliningK next to him;L 

Notes on verses 22-23

G “disciples” = mathetes. From matheteuo (to make a disciple of); from mathnao (to learn key facts, gain knowledge from experience; generally implies reflection as part of the learning process); from math– (thinking things through). This is a disciple, learner, or student. It is where we get “mathematics” from.
H “looked” = blepo. This is literally to see – it is primarily used in the physical sense. However, figuratively it can be seeing, which includes attention and so to watchfulness, being observant, perceiving, and acting on the visual information. It can also mean beware.
I “uncertain” = aporeo. 6x in NT. From a (not) + poros (way, resource, passageway); {related to poreuomai (to go, travel, journey, or die; transporting things from one place to another and focuses on the personal significance of the destination)}. This is feeling like you have no way out, being perplexed or doubting.
J “loved” = agapao. Perhaps from agan (much). This is love, longing for, taking pleasure in. It is divine love or human love that echoes divine love.
K “reclining” = anakeimai. 14x in NT. From ana (up, again, back, among, between, anew) + keimai (to lie, recline, be set, appointed, destined; to lie down literally or figuratively). This is to recline, particularly as one does for dinner. It can also be reclining as a corpse.
L “next to him” = en + ho + kolpos. Literally “on his breast.” Kolpos is 6x in the NT. It is bosom (as in the bosom of Abraham from Like 16:22-23). It is also chest, where their garments would fold over. Reclining in this position connoted intimacy and union.

24 SimonM PeterN therefore motionedO to him to askP Jesus of whom he was speaking. 

25 So while reclining next toQ Jesus, he asked him, “Lord,R who is it?” 

Notes on verses 24-25

M “Simon” = simon. From Hebrew Shimon (Simon – Jacob’s son and his tribe); from shama (to hear, often implying attention and obedience). This is Simon, meaning “he who hears.”
N “Peter” = petros. Related to petra (large rock that is connected and or projecting like a rock, ledge, or cliff; can also be cave or stony ground). This is Peter, a stone, pebble, or boulder.
O “motioned” = neuo. 2x in NT. This is to nod or gesture at someone to call them over or to make some other sign.
P “ask” = punthanomai. 12x in NT. This is to ask in order to learn. It is not to ask a favor (erotao in Greek), to demand something felt to be owed (aiteo), to search for a hidden thing (zeteo), or to ask for urgent help (deomai). This is to figure something out through questions.
Q “next to” = epi + ho + stethos. Literally “upon his chest.” Stethos is 5x in NT. It is the breast chest, or bosom. This is where the word “stethoscope” comes from.
R “Lord” = kurios. From kuros (authority, supremacy). This is a respectful address meaning master or sir. It refers to one who has control or power greater than one’s own. So, it was also applied to God and Jesus as Master or Lord.

26 Jesus answered, “It is the one to whom I giveS this piece of breadT when I have dippedU it in the dish.” So when he had dipped the piece of bread, he gave it to JudasV son of Simon Iscariot.W 

Notes on verse 26

S “give” = didomi. Related to “betray” in v21. See note F above.
T “piece of bread” = psomion. 4x in NT – all in John 13. From psomos (fragment or morsel) OR from the base of socho (to rub something until it breaks into pieces; to rub the husks from kernels); from psao (to rub). This is a morsel, mouthful, or crumb.
U “dipped” = bapto. 4x in NT. This is to cover something entirely with a liquid. So, it could be dip or dye. This is related to the word “baptism.”
V “Judas” = ioudas. From Hebrew Yehudah (Judah, son of Jacob, his tribal descendants, a name for the southern kingdom. Literally, it means praised); probably from yadah (to throw one’s hands into the air in a gesture of praise); from yad (hand). This is Judah or Judas, meaning praised.
W “Iscariot” = iskariotes. 11x in NT. From Hebrew probably ish (man, husband); {perhaps from enosh (human, humankind, mortal); from anash (to be frail, feeble)} + qirya (city); {Aramaic corresponding to qiryah (city, building); from qarah (to happen, meet, bring about)}. Iscariot means person from Kerioth.

27 After he received the piece of bread, SatanX entered into him. Jesus said to him, “Do quicklyY what you are going to do.” 

28 Now no one at the tableZ knewAA why he said this to him. 29 Some thoughtBB that, because Judas had the common purse, Jesus was telling him, “Buy what we need for the festival”; or, that he should give something to the poor.CC 30 So, after receiving the piece of bread, he immediately went out. And it was night.

Notes on verses 27-30

X “Satan” = satanas. From Hebrew satan (adversary, Satan); from satan (to be an adversary, attack, accuse, resist). This is Satan, the adversary, or an adversary.
Y “quickly” = tachion. 4x in NT. From tachus (quickly, promptly; without unreasonable delay). This is more rapidly, more swiftly, without unnecessary delay.
Z “at the table” = ho + anakeimai. Literally “of those reclining.” See note K above.
AA “knew” = ginosko. This is to know, recognize, realize, perceive, learn. It is knowledge gained through personal experience
BB “thought” = dokeo. From dokos (opinion). This is to have an opinion, seem, appear, think, suppose. It deals with a personal judgment. This is the root of the word “doxology.”
CC “poor” = ptochos. From ptosso (to crouch or cower as a beggar does). This is poor or destitute – someone who is extremely poor and bowed down because of a long struggle under poverty. Properly, it means bent over so figuratively it is someone who is deeply destitute and lacking tangible resources. This is a beggar – as extremely opposite a wealthy person as possible.

31 When he had gone out, Jesus said, “Now the Son of ManDD has been glorified,EE and GodFF has been glorified in him. 32 If God has been glorified in him, God will also glorify him in himself and will glorify him at once.

Notes on verses 31-32

DD “Man” = anthropos. Probably from aner (man, male, husband) + ops (eye, face). This is human, humankind. Used for all genders.
EE “glorified” = doxazo. Related to “thought” in v29. From doxa (glory, opinion, praise, honor, renown; particularly used as a quality of God or manifestation of God – splendor); from dokeo (see note BB above). This is to render or hold something as glorious, to glorify, honor, magnify, or celebrate. This is ascribing weight to something by recognizing its true value or essence.
FF “God” = theos. From Proto-Indo-European origins, meaning do, put, place. This is God or a god in general.


Image Credit: “The Lord’s Supper” by Rubem Zevallos

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