John 4:1-42

John 4:1-42
Narrative Lectionary 424


Now when JesusI learnedII that the PhariseesIII had heard,IV

Notes on verse 1a

I “Jesus” = Iesous. From Hebrew Yehoshua (Joshua, the Lord is salvation); {from YHVH (proper name of the God of Israel; the self-existent and eternal one); {from havah (to become) or from hayah (to come to pass, become, be)} + yasha (to deliver, defend, help, preserve, rescue; properly, to be open, wide or free, which implies being safe. So, in a causative sense, this is to free someone)}. This is Jesus or Joshua in Greek – the Lord saves or the Lord is salvation.
II “learned” = ginosko. This is to know, recognize, realize, perceive, learn. It is knowledge gained through personal experience.
III “Pharisees” = Pharisaios. From Aramaic peras (to divide, separate) and from Hebrew parash (to make distinct, separate, scatter). This is a Pharisee, a member of a Jewish sect active in the 1st century. Their name meant separate in the sense of wanting to live a life separated from sin. Whereas the Sadducees were part of the priestly line and inherited their religious position and responsibilities, Pharisees were regular people who studied the scriptures and offered guidance to regular folk. Sadducees were often wealthier and willing to sacrifice their identity to rub elbows with Roman society. Pharisees were often more concerned with what it meant to follow God without compromising what made them different as followers of God. Sadducees primarily believed in that which was written down (the first five books of the Bible) and Pharisees believed in the Bible and the traditions of the elders. Pharisees had a very wide range of interpretations and diversity of opinion. Their standard mode of religious engagement was lively debate with one another. To argue religion with another teacher was to recognize that they had something of value to offer.
IV “heard” = akouo. This is hear or listen, but it also means to understand by hearing. This is where the word “acoustics” comes from.

“Jesus is makingV and baptizingVI moreVII disciplesVIII than John”IX —although it was not Jesus himself but his disciples who baptized— 

Notes on verses 1b-2

V “making” = poieo. This is to make, do, act, construct, abide, or cause.
VI “baptizing” = baptizo. From bapto (to dip or dye; to entirely cover with liquid, to stain). This is to submerge, wash, or immerse. Used specially for baptism.
VII “more” = pleion. From polus (much, many, abundant). This is many, more, great, having a greater value, more excellent.
VIII “disciples” = mathetes. From matheteuo (to make a disciple of); from manthano (to learn key facts, gain knowledge from experience; generally implies reflection as part of the learning process); from math– (thinking things through). This is a disciple, learner, or student. It is where we get “mathematics” from.
IX “John” = Ioannes. Related to “Jesus” in v1. From Hebrew yochanan (Johanan); from Yehochanan (“the Lord has been gracious”); {from YHVH (see note I above)} + chanan (beseech, show favor, be gracious; properly, to bend in kindness to someone with less status). This is John, meaning “the Lord has been gracious.”

he leftX JudeaXI and startedXII back to Galilee.XIII 

Notes on verse 3

X “left” = aphiemi. From apo (from, away from) + hiemi (to send). This is send away, release, permit, forgive, allow to depart, discharge, or send forth.
XI “Judea” = Ioudaia. From Hebrew Yehudah (Judah, son of Jacob, his tribal descendants, a name for the southern kingdom. Literally, it means praised); probably from yadah (to throw one’s hands into the air in a gesture of praise); from yad (hand). This is Judea, which was a Roman province.
XII “started” = aperchomai. From apo (from, away from) + erchomai (to come or go). This is to depart, follow, or go off in a literal or figurative sense.
XIII “Galilee” = Galilaia. From Hebrew galil (cylinder, circuit, district); from galal (to roll in a literal or figurative sense, roll away, roll down, wallow, remove, trust). This is Galilee, meaning perhaps region or cylinder.

But he had toXIV goXV through Samaria.XVI 

Notes on verse 4

XIV “had to” = dei. From deo (to tie, bind, compel; declare unlawful). This is what is necessary or proper. It is what is needed or what one should do – a duty or something inevitable. This refers to something absolutely necessary.
XV “go” = dierchomai. Related to “started” in v3. From dia (through, across to the other side, thoroughly) + erchomai (see note XII above). This is to go through, come, depart, pierce, travel, traverse.
XVI “Samaria” = Samareia. 11x in NT. From Hebrew Shomron (capital of the northern kingdom of Israel); from shamar (to keep, watch, or preserve; to guard something or to protect it as a thorny hedge protects something). This is Samaria, meaning watch station.

So he cameXVII to a SamaritanXVIII cityXIX calledXX Sychar,XXI

Notes on verse 5a

XVII “came” = erchomai. Related to “started” in v3 & “go” in v4. See note XII above.
XVIII “Samaritan” = Samareia. Same as “Samaria” in v4. See note XVI above.
XIX “city” = polis. This is a city or its inhabitants. It is a town of variable size, but one that has walls. This is where “metropolis” and “police” come from.
XX “called” = lego. This is to speak, say, name, call, command. It is generally to convey verbally.
XXI “Sychar” = Suchar. 1x in NT. From Hebrew shekar (strong wine, strong drink); from shakar (to become drunk or tipsy, be merry, satiate with alcoholic beverage; figuratively, to influence). This is Sychar, perhaps meaning drunkard.

nearXXII the plot of groundXXIII that JacobXXIV had givenXXV to his sonXXVI Joseph.XXVII 

Notes on verse 5b

XXII “near” = plesion. 17x in NT. From pelas (near). This is near, nearby, or neighboring. As one nearby, it can also refer to a neighbor, a member of one’s country, a Christian, or a friend.
XXIII “plot of ground” = chorion. 10x in NT. From chora (space, land, region, fields, open area); from chasma (gap, gulf, chasm, open space); from chasko (to gape, yawn). This is place, estate, possession, piece of ground, property.
XXIV “Jacob” = Iakob. From Hebrew Yaaqov (Jacob); from the same as aqeb (heel, hind part, hoof, rear guard of an army, one who lies in wait, usurper). This is Jacob or James, meaning heel grabber or usurper.
XXV “given” = didomi. To give, offer, place, bestow, deliver. This is give in a literal or figurative sense.
XXVI “son” = huios. This is son, descendant – a son whether natural born or adopted. It can be used figuratively for other forms of kinship.
XXVII “Joseph” = Ioseph. From Hebrew Yoseph (he increases; Joseph); from yasaph (to add, increase, continue, exceed). This is Joseph, meaning “he increases.”

6 Jacob’s wellXXVIII wasXXIX there, and Jesus, tired outXXX by his journey,XXXI was sittingXXXII by the well. It was about noon.XXXIII

Notes on verse 6

XXVIII “well” = pege. 11x in NT. This is a fount in a literal or figurative sense. So, it could be a spring of water, a fountain, or a well. It is also used for a flow of blood. It can mean more generally the source of something: water, blood, fun.
XXIX “was” = eimi. This is to be or exist.
XXX “tired out” = kopiao. From kopos (labor that leads to exhaustion, depletion, weariness, fatigue; working until worn out); from kopto (to cut, strike, cut off; beating the chest to lament and so to mourn). This is working with effort, whether of the body or mind, growing weary, feeling tired, working hard.
XXXI “journey” = hodoiporia. 2x in NT. From hodoiporos (traveler); {from hodos (way, road, journey) + poreuomai (to travel, transport, journey, die; emphasizes the personal significance in reaching the destination); from poros (passageway, ford)}. This is journeying or travel.
XXXII “sitting” = kathezomai. 7x in NT. From kata kata (down, against, according to, among) + hezomai (to sit); {from aphedron (a seat, a base).  This is to sit down or be sitting.
XXXIII “noon” = horahektos. Literally, “sixth hour.” Hora is a set time or period, an hour, instant, or season. This is where the word “hour” comes from. Hektos is 14x in NT. From hex (six). This is sixth.

A Samaritan womanXXXIV came to drawXXXV water,XXXVI and Jesus said to her, “Give me a drink.”XXXVII 8 (His disciples had goneXXXVIII to the city to buyXXXIX food.)XL 

Notes on verses 7-8

XXXIV “woman” = gune. Perhaps from ginomai (to come into being, to happen, become, be born; to emerge from one state or condition to another; this is coming into being with the sense of movement or growth). This is woman, wife, or bride. This is where the word “gynecologist” comes from.
XXXV “draw” = antleo. 4x in NT– all in the wedding at Cana (John 2) & the Samaritan woman at the well (John 4). From antlos (ship’s hold; waste water in a ship’s hold). This is to bail out, draw water from a well with a bucket or pitcher.
XXXVI “water” = hudor. Perhaps from huetos (rain); from huo (to rain). This is water literal or figurative. It is one of the roots that “hydrogen” and “hydroelectric” come from.
XXXVII “drink” = pino. This is to drink, literally or figuratively.
XXXVIII “gone” = aperchomai. Same as “started” in v3. See note XII above.
XXXIX “buy” = agorazo. From agora (assembly, forum, marketplace, town square, thoroughfare); from ageiro (to gather). This is to go and buy something at market with a focus on goods being transferred. It can also mean to purchase or redeem.
XL “food” = trophe. 16x in NT. Perhaps from trepho (to bring up, rear, nourish, fatten, nurse; properly, to enlarge through proper nourishment). This is nourishment in a literal or figurative sense. By implication, it can be ration or wages.

The SamaritanXLI woman said to him, “How is it that you, a Jew,XLII askXLIII a drink of me, a woman of Samaria?” (Jews do not share things in commonXLIV with Samaritans.)XLV 

Notes on verse 9

XLI “Samaritan” = Samaritis. Related to “Samaria” in v4. 2x in NT. From Samarites (Samaritan); from Samareia (see note XVI above). This is Samaritan or a Samaritan woman.
XLII “Jew” = Ioudaios. Related to “Judea” in v3. From Ioudas (Judah, Judas); from Hebrew Yehudah (see note XI above). This is Jewish, a Jew, or Judea.
XLIII “ask” = aiteo. This is to ask, demand, beg, desire.
XLIV “share things in common” = sugchraomai. 1x n NT. From sun (with, together with; closely identified) + chraomai (to use, make use of, give what is needed, act in a specific way, request). This is dealing with or using something jointly. Figuratively, it can refer to associating with someone or something.
XLV “Samaritans” = Samarites. Related to “Samaria” in v4 & “Samaritan” in v9. 9x in NT. See note XLI above.

10 Jesus answered her, “If you knewXLVI the giftXLVII of God,XLVIII and who it is that is saying to you, ‘Give me a drink,’ you would have asked him, and he would have given you livingXLIX water.” 

Notes on verse 10

XLVI “knew” = eido. This is to know, consider perceive, appreciate, behold, or remember. It means seeing with one’s eyes, but also figuratively, it means perceiving – seeing that becomes understanding. So, by implication, this means knowing or being aware.
XLVII “gift” = dorea. Related to “given” in v5. 11x in NT. From doron (gift, offering, sacrifice; emphasizes that the gift is given freely, voluntarily); from didomi (see note XXV above). This is a free gift given voluntarily and not received by merit or entitlement. It emphasizes the benevolence of the giver.
XLVIII “God” = Theos. From Proto-Indo-European origins, meaning do, put, place. This is God or a god in general.
XLIX “living” = zao. This is to live literally or figuratively. It is used for life including the vitality of humans, plants, and animals – it is life physical and spiritual and life everlasting.

11 The woman said to him, “Sir,L you haveLI no bucket,LII and the wellLIII is deep.LIV Where do you getLV that living water? 

Notes on verse 11

L “sir” = kurios. From kuros (authority, supremacy). This is a respectful address meaning master or sir. It refers to one who has control or power greater than one’s own. So, it was also applied to God and Jesus as Master or Lord.
LI “have” = echo. This is to have, hold, or possess.
LII “bucket” = antlema. Related to “draw” in v7. 1x in NT. From antleo (see note XXXV above). This is a vessel one uses to draw water – a bucket.
LIII “well” = phrear. 7x in NT. This is a well, pit, or cistern. Figuratively it is used to refer to the pit in Revelation 9.
LIV “deep” = bathus. 4x in NT. Perhaps rom the same root as basis (step, foot); from baino (to walk, go). This is deep or profound in a literal or figurative sense. It can also mean very early.
LV “get” = echo. Same as “have” in v11. See note LI above.

12 Are you greater thanLVI our ancestorLVII Jacob, who gave us the well,LVIII and with his sons and his flocksLIX drank from it?” 

13 Jesus said to her, “EveryoneLX who drinks of this water will be thirstyLXI again, 14 but those who drink of the water that I will give them will never be thirsty.LXII

Notes on verses 12-14a

LVI “greater than” = megas. This is big in a literal or figurative sense – great, large, exceeding, abundant, high, mighty, perfect, strong, etc.
LVII “ancestor” = pater. This is father in a literal or figurative sense. Could be elder, senior, ancestor, originator, or patriarch.
LVIII “well” = phrear. Same as “well” in v11. See note LIII above.
LIX “flocks” = thremna. Related to “food” in v8. 1x in NT. From trepho (see note XL above). This is literally a nursling, but used for cattle or flocks.
LX “everyone” = pas. This is all or every.
LXI “be thirsty” = dipsao. 16x in NT. From dipsa (thirst); from dipsos (thirst). This is thirst in a literal or figurative sense. Can also mean keenly desire.
LXII {untranslated} = eis + ho + aion. Literally, “to the age.” Aion is from the same as aei (ever, always, unceasingly, perpetually; on every occasion). This is an age, cycle of time, course, continued duration. It is also used to describe the eternal or forever. This is the word used to discuss the present age or the messianic age.

The water that I will give will becomeLXIII in them a springLXIV of water gushing upLXV to eternalLXVI life.”LXVII 

Notes on verse 14b

LXIII “become” = ginomai. Related to “woman” in v7. See note XXXIV above.
LXIV “spring” = pege. Same as “well” in v6. See note XXVIII above.
LXV “gushing up” = hallomai. 3x in NT – elsewhere used of two different crippled men being healed and leaping up (Acts 3:8 & Acts 14:10). This is leap up or, when referring to water, it is bubbling up or gushing forth.
LXVI “eternal” = aionios. Related to {untranslated} in v14. From aion (see note LXII above). This is age-long, forever, everlasting. Properly, that which lasts for an age. This is where eon comes from.
LXVII “life” = zoe. Related to “living” in v10. From zao (see note XLIX above). This is life including the vitality of humans, plants, and animals – it is life physical and spiritual and life everlasting.

15 The woman said to him, “Sir, give me this water, so that I may never be thirsty or have to keep comingLXVIII here to draw water.”

16 Jesus said to her, “Go,LXIX callLXX your husband,LXXI and come back.” 

17 The woman answered him, “I have no husband.”

Notes on verses 15-17a

LXVIII “coming” = dierchomai. Same as “go” in v4. See note XV above.
LXIX “go” = hupago. From hupo (by, under, under the authority of) + ago (lead, bring, guide, spend, drive, carry). This is to lead under so to depart, go away, or die. It is to lead away under the command of someone else, being given a mission or objective to carry out.
LXX “call” = phoneo. From phone (voice, sound, tone or noise; also a language or dialect); probably from phemi to declare, say, use contrasts in speaking to shed light on one point of view); {from phao (to shine) or phaino (to bring light, cause to appear, shine, become visible or clear). This is to call out, summon, shout, address. It is making a sound whether of an animal, a person, or an instrument.
LXXI “husband” = aner. This is man, male, husband, or fellow. It can also refer to an individual.

Jesus said to her, “You are rightLXXII in saying, ‘I have no husband’; 18 for you have had fiveLXXIII husbands, and the one you have now is not your husband. What you have said is true!”LXXIV 

Notes on verses 17b-18

LXXII “right” = kalos. From kalos (good, noble, beautiful, correct, or worthy; external signs of goodness like beauty, demonstrations of honorable character, showing moral virtues; a different word, agathos, speaks of intrinsic good). This is nobly, rightly, well-perceived, seen as appealing, morally pleasing, honorably.
LXXIII “five” = pente. This is five. It may be symbolically associated with the Temple or redemption.
LXXIV “true” = alethes. From a (not) + lanthano (concealed, hidden, unnoticed; to shut one’s eyes to, unwittingly, unawares). This is true, unconcealed; true because it is in concert with fact and reality – attested. Literally, what cannot be hidden; truth stands up to test and scrutiny and is undeniable, authentic.

19 The woman said to him, “Sir, I seeLXXV that you are a prophet.LXXVI 20 Our ancestors worshipedLXXVII on this mountain,LXXVIII

Notes on verses 19-20a

LXXV “see” = theoreo. From theaomai (to behold, look upon, see, contemplate, visit); from thaomai (to gaze at a spectacle; to look at or contemplate as a spectator; to interpret something in efforts to grasp its significance); from theoros (a spectator or envoy). This is gazing, beholding, experiencing, discerning. It is looking at something to analyze it and concentrate on what it means. This is the root of the word “theatre” in that people concentrate on the action of the play to understand its meaning.
LXXVI “prophet” = prophetes. Related to “call” in v16. From pro (before, in front of, earlier than) + phemi (see note LXX above) or phaino (see note LXX above)}. This is a prophet or poet – one who speaks with inspiration from God.
LXXVII “worshiped” = proskuneo. From pros (advantageous for, at, to, toward, with) + kuneo (to kiss); {may be related to kuno (dog)}. This is to do reverence, kneel, to prostrate oneself in homage, to worship.
LXXVIII “mountain” = oros. Perhaps from oro (to rise); perhaps akin to airo (raise, take up, lift, remove). This is mountain or hill.

but you say that the placeLXXIX where people mustLXXX worship is in Jerusalem.”LXXXI 

Notes on verse 20b

LXXIX “place” = topos. This is a place or region. It is a smaller space that can only hold a limited number of people whereas chora is a larger place. Figuratively it could be an opportunity.
LXXX “must” = dei. Same as “had to” in v4. See note XIV above.
LXXXI “Jerusalem” = Hierosoluma. From Hebrew yerushalaim (probably foundation of peace); {from yarah (to throw, shoot, be stunned; to flow as water so figuratively to instruct or teach) + shalam (to make amends, to be complete or sound)}. This is Jerusalem, dwelling of peace.

21 Jesus said to her, “Woman, believeLXXXII me, the hourLXXXIII is coming when you will worship the FatherLXXXIV neither on this mountain nor in Jerusalem. 22 You worship what you do not know; we worship what we know, for salvationLXXXV is from the Jews. 

Notes on verses 21-22

LXXXII “believe” = pisteuo. From pistis (faith, faithfulness, belief, trust, confidence; to be persuaded or come to trust); from peitho (to have confidence, urge, be persuaded, agree, assure, believe, have confidence, trust). This is to believe, entrust, have faith it, affirm, have confidence in. This is less to do with a series of beliefs or doctrines that one believes and more to do with faithfulness, loyalty, and fidelity. It is trusting and then acting based on that trust.
LXXXIII “hour” = hora. Same as “noon” in v6. See note XXXIII above.
LXXXIV “Father” = pater. Same as “ancestor” in v12. See note LVII above.
LXXXV “salvation” = soteria. From soter (a savior, deliverer); from sozo (to save, heal, preserve, or rescue; taking someone from danger to safety; delivering or protecting literally or figuratively); from sos (safe, rescued, well). This is deliverance, salvation, preservation, welfare, prosperity, safety.

23 But the hour is coming, and is now here, when the trueLXXXVI worshipersLXXXVII will worship the Father in spiritLXXXVIII and truth,LXXXIX for the Father seeksXC such as these to worship him. 24 God is spirit, and those who worship him must worship in spirit and truth.” 

Notes on verses 23-24

LXXXVI “true” = alethinos. Related to “true” in v18. From alethes (see note LXXIV above). This is literally made of truth – that which is true or real, authentic. Something that is true from its source and has integrity.
LXXXVII “worshipers” = proskunetes. Related to “worshiped” in v20. 1x in NT. From proskuneo (see note LXXVII above). This is worshiper or adorer.
LXXXVIII “spirit” = pneuma. From pneo (to blow, breath, breathe hard). This is wind, breath, or ghost. A breeze or a blast or air, a breath. Figuratively used for a spirit, the human soul or part of us that is rational. It is also used supernaturally for angels, demons, God, and the Holy Spirit. This is where pneumonia comes from.
LXXXIX “truth” = aletheia. Related to “true” in v18 & “true” in v23. From alethes (see note LXXIV above). Truth is literally that which is not or cannot be concealed. This word covers more than the sense of true versus false. It spoke of truth as that which corresponds to reality – reality as opposed to illusion. Thus, it includes, sincerity, straightforwardness, and reality itself.
XC “seeks” = zeteo. This is to seek, search for, desire. It is searching for something by inquiring or investigation. It can be seek in a literal or figurative sense. There is a Hebrew figure of speech “to seek God’s face” so it can also mean to worship God. Alternately, you could seek someone’s life i.e. plot to kill them.

25 The woman said to him, “I know that MessiahXCI is coming” (who is called Christ).XCII “When he comes, he will proclaimXCIII all thingsXCIV to us.” 

Notes on verse 25

XCI “Messiah” = Messias. 2x in NT. From Hebrew mashiach (anointed, anointed one, messiah; someone consecrated such as a king, priest, or saint); from mashach (to smear, anoint, paint, spread; implies an act of consecration). This is Messiah or Anointed One.
XCII “Christ” = Christos. From chrio (consecrate by anointing with oil; often done for prophets, priests, or kings). Literally, the anointed one, Christ. The Greek word for Messiah.
XCIII “proclaim” = anaggello. Related to “go” in v16. 14x in NT. From ana (up, again, back, among, by, anew) + aggello (to announce, report) {from aggelos (angel, messenger – supernatural or human envoy of God); probably from ago (see note LXIX above)}. This is returning with word, reporting, declaring, announcing. It is to tell something all the way, which is to say to tell it clearly.
XCIV “all things” = hapas. Related to “everyone” in v13. From hama (at once, together with) + pas (see note LX above) OR from a (with) + pas (see above). This is all; every part working together as a unit.

26 Jesus said to her, “I am he, the one who is speakingXCV to you.”

27 Just then his disciples came. They were astonishedXCVI that he was speaking with a woman, but no one said, “What do you want?”XCVII or, “Why are you speaking with her?” 

28 Then the woman left her water jarXCVIII and went backXCIX to the city. She said to the people,C 

Notes on verses 26-28

XCV “speaking” = laleo. From lalos (talkative). This is to talk, say, or preach.
XCVI “astonished” = thaumazo. Related to “see” in v19. From thauma (a wonder or marvel; used abstractly for wonderment or amazement; something that evokes emotional astonishment); may be from theaomai (see note LXXV above). This is to marvel, wonder, or admire. To be amazed out of one’s senses or be awestruck. Being astonished and starting to contemplate what was beheld. This root is where the word “theatre” comes from.
XCVII “want” = zeteo. Same as “seeks” in v23. See note XC above.
XCVIII “water jar” = hudria. Related to “water” in v7. 3x in NT. From hudor (see note XXXVI above). This is a large vessel for carrying enough water for a family. So, a pot, jar, or pitcher.
XCIX “went back” = aperchomai. Same as “started” in v3. See note XII above.
C “people” = anthropos. Related to “husband” in v16. Probably from aner (see note LXXI above) + ops (eye, face); {from optanomai (to appear, be seen); perhaps from horao (become, seem, appear)}. This is human, humankind. Used for all genders.

29 “ComeCI and seeCII a manCIII who told me everythingCIV I have ever done!CV He cannotCVI be the Messiah,CVII can he?” 

Notes on verse 29

CI “come” = deute. 12x in NT. From deuro (come here, hither, hence, now, until now). This is come, follow – as an exclamatory mood.
CII “see” = horao. Related to “people” in v28. See note C above.
CIII “man” = anthropos. Same as “people” in v28. See note C above.
CIV “everything” = pas. Same as “everyone” in v13. See note LX above.
CV “done” = poieo. Same as “making” in v1. See note V above.
CVI “cannot” = meti. 17x in NT. From me (not, neither, never; rules out conditional statements and their implications) + tis (someone, anyone, anything). This is asking a question when you expect the answer to be no. It is if not, surely no. But it also keeps a small possibility floating – but could it be?
CVII “Messiah” = Christos. Same as “Christ” in v25. See note XCII above.

30 They leftCVIII the city and were on their wayCIX to him.

31 Meanwhile the disciples were urgingCX him, “Rabbi,CXI eatCXII something.” 

32 But he said to them, “I have foodCXIII to eat that you do not know about.” 

33 So the disciples said to one another, “Surely no one has broughtCXIV him something to eat?” 

Notes on verses 30-33

CVIII “left” = exerchomai. Related to “started” in v3 & “go” in v4 & “came” in v5. From ek (from, from out of) + erchomai (see note XVII above). This is to go out, depart, escape, proceed from, spread news abroad.
CIX “were on their way” = erchomai. Same as “came” in v5. See note XVII above.
CX “urging” = erotao. From eromai (to ask) OR from ereo (to say, tell, call, speak of). This is asking a question or making an earnest request. It is used between someone with whom the asker is close in some sense. So, they anticipate special consideration for their request.
CXI “Rabbi” = Rhabbi. 15x in NT– 8x in the Gospel of John. From Hebrew rab (chief); from rabab (to be many, increase, multiply). This is a title of respect for a teacher-scholar. Literally, it means great one or honorable sir. It can also be understood as my master or my teacher.
CXII “eat” = phago. This is to eat or figuratively to consume like rust does.
CXIII “food” = brosis. 11x in NT. From bibrosko (to eat). This is food and the act of eating. It is eating in a literal or figurative sense.
CXIV “brought” = phero. This is to bear, bring, lead, or make known publicly. It is to carry in a literal or figurative sense.

34 Jesus said to them, “My foodCXV is to do the willCXVI of him who sentCXVII me and to completeCXVIII his work.CXIX 

Notes on verse 34

CXV “food” = broma. Related to “food” in v32. 17x in NT. From bibrosko (see note CXIII above); related to bora (food); perhaps from bosko (to feed or pasture a flock; figuratively, to nourish spiritually). This is any kind of food in a literal or figurative sense.
CXVI “will” = thelema. From thelo (to desire, wise, will, intend). This is the act of will, choice, purpose, or decree.
CXVII “sent” = pempo. This is to send, put forth, or dispatch. This often refers to a temporary errand. It is sending someone with a focus on the place they departed from. By contrast, another Greek word, hiemi, emphasizes the destination and yet another word, stello, focuses on the motion that goes with the sending.
CXVIII “complete” = teleioo. From teleios (going through the steps to complete a stage or phase and then moving on to the next one; reaching an end and so being complete or “perfect”; also full grown or mature); from telos (an end, aim, purpose, completion, end goal, consummation, tax).  This is finish, accomplish, bring to an end, complete, reach a goal, finish a race, to consummate. It refers to completing stages or phases to get to an ultimate conclusion. It can also mean consecrate or fulfill.
CXIX “work” = ergon. From ergo (to work, accomplish, do). This is work, task, deed, labor, effort.

35 Do you not say, ‘Four monthsCXX more, then comes the harvest’?CXXI ButCXXII I tell you, look aroundCXXIII you, and seeCXXIV how the fieldsCXXV are ripeCXXVI for harvesting. 

Notes on verse 35

CXX “four months” = tetramenos. 1x in NT. From tessares (four; figuratively, total coverage) + men (a month). This is a span of four months.
CXXI “harvest” = therismos. 13x in NT. From therizo (to reap, gather, harvest); from theros (summer; the heat, which implies summer); from thero (to heat). This is harvesting or reaping. By implication, it is the crop that was harvested.
CXXII {untranslated} = idou. Related to “knew” in v10. From eido (see note XLVI above). This is see! Lo! Behold! Look! Used to express surprise and or draw attention to the statement.
CXXIII “look around” = epairo + ho + ophthalmos + su. Literally, “lift up your eyes.” Epairo is related to “mountain” in v20. From epi (on, upon, among, what is fitting) + airo (see note LXXVIII above). This is to lift up or raise in a literal or figurative sense. Figuratively, it could mean to exalt oneself. Ophthalmos is related to “people” in v28 & “see in v29. From optanomai (see note C above). This is eye or sight. It is used figuratively for the mind’s eye, a vision, or for envy.
CXXIV “see” = theaomai. Related to “see” in v19 & “astonished” in v27. See note LXXV above.
CXXV “fields” = chora. Related to “plot of ground” in v5. See note XXIII above.
CXXVI “ripe” = leukos. Related to luke (light). This is bright, white, or brilliant.

36 The reaperCXXVII is already receivingCXXVIII wagesCXXIX and is gatheringCXXX fruitCXXXI for eternal life, so that sowerCXXXII and reaper may rejoiceCXXXIII together. 

Notes on verse 36

CXXVII “reaper” = therizo. Related to “harvest” in v35. See note CXXI above.
CXXVIII “receiving” = lambano. It does not refer to passive receiving of something, but active acceptance or taking of something whether it is offered or simply nearby. It focuses on individual decision and action.
CXXIX “wages” = misthos. This is wages, pay, or salary. It can also be reward, recompense, or punishment. It is pay for services rendered in a literal or figurative way, either good or bad.
CXXX “gathering” = sunago. Related to “go” in v16 & “proclaim” in v25. From sun (with, together with, closely associated) + ago (see note LXIX above). This is to lead together and so to assemble, bring together, welcome with hospitality, or entertain. In the sense of assembly, this is the root of the word “synagogue.”
CXXXI “fruit” = karpos. Perhaps from harpazo (to seize by force, snatch away); from haireo (to choose, take). This is a fruit or vegetable, through sometimes it refers to an animal. Figuratively, it is deeds, results, profits, or gain.
CXXXII “sower” = speiro. Probably from spao (to pull or draw like one draws a sword). This is sowing a seed or scattering. It is sowing in a literal or figurative sense.
CXXXIII “rejoice” = chairo. From char– (to extend favor, lean towards, be inclined to be favorable towards). This is to rejoice, be glad or cheerful; a greeting. This is the root verb that the Greek word for “grace” comes from (charis).

37 For here the sayingCXXXIV holdsCXXXV true,CXXXVI ‘OneCXXXVII sows and anotherCXXXVIII reaps.’ 

Notes on verse 37

CXXXIV “saying” = logos. Related to “called” in v5. From lego (see note XX above). This is word, statement, speech, analogy. It is a word that carries an idea or expresses a thought, a saying. It could refer to a person with a message or reasoning laid out in words. By implication, this could be a topic, line of reasoning, or a motive. It can be used for a divine utterance or as Word – Christ.
CXXXV “holds” = eimi. Same as “was” in v6. See note XXIX above.
CXXXVI “true” = alethinos. Same as “true” in v23. See note LXXXVI above.
CXXXVII “one” = allos. This is other, another. Specifically, it is another of a similar kind or type. There is a different word in Greek that speaks of another as a different kind (heteros).
CXXXVIII “another” = allos. Same as “one” in v37. See note CXXXVII above.

38 I sentCXXXIX you to reap that for which you did not labor.CXL OthersCXLI have labored, and you have enteredCXLII into their labor.”CXLIII

Notes on verse 38

CXXXIX “sent” = apostello. From apo (from, away from) + stello (to send, set, arrange, prepare, gather up); {probably from histemi (to make to stand, stand, place, set up, establish, appoint, stand firm, be steadfast)}. This is to send forth, send away, dismiss, send as a messenger. It implies one that is sent for a particular mission or purpose rather than a quick errand. This is where “apostle” comes from.
CXL “labor” = kopiao. Same as “tired out” in v6. See note XXX above.
CXLI “others” = allos. Same as “one” in v37. See note CXXXVII above.
CXLII “entered” = eiserchomai. Related to “started” in v3 & “go” in v4 & “came” in v5 & “left” in v30. From eis (to, into, for, among) + erchomai (see note XII above). This is to go in in a literal or figurative sense.
CXLIII “labor” = kopos. Related to “tired out” in v6. 18x in NT. See note XXX above.

39 ManyCXLIV Samaritans from that city believed in him because of theCXLV woman’s testimony,CXLVI “He told me everything I have ever done.” 

40 So when the Samaritans came to him, they askedCXLVII him to stayCXLVIII with them; and he stayed there twoCXLIX days.CL 41 And many more believed because of his word.CLI 

Notes on verses 39-41

CXLIV “many” = polus. Related to “more” in v1. See note VII above.
CXLV {untranslated} = logos. Same as “saying” in v37. See note CXXXIV above.
CXLVI “testimony” = martureo. From martus (a witness whether having heard or seen something; witness literally, judicially, or figuratively; by analogy, a martyr). This is to bear witness, testify, give evidence. It is to testify in a literal or figurative sense.
CXLVII “asked” = erotao. Same as “urging” in v31. See note CX above.
CXLVIII “stay” = meno. This is to stay, remain, wait, await, continue, abide, endure. It can mean to literally stay in a place or to remain in a condition or to continue with hope and expectation.
CXLIX “two” = duo. This is two or both.
CL “days” = hemera. Perhaps from hemai (to sit). This is day, time, or daybreak.
CLI “word” = logos. Same as “saying” in v37. See note CXXXIV above.

42 They said to the woman, “It is no longer because of what you saidCLII that we believe, for we have heard for ourselves, and we know that this is trulyCLIII the SaviorCLIV of the world.”CLV

Notes on verse 42

CLII “said” = lalia. Related to “speaking” in v26. 4x in NT. From laleo (see note XCV above). This is talk, saying, the way one talks, a dialect.
CLIII “truly” = alethos. Related to “true” in v18 & “true” and “truth” in v23. 18x in NT. From alethes (see note LXXIV above). This is truly, really, surely, truthfully, indeed. Properly, this is saying “in accordance with fact…” – what one is about to say can be proven and is true to reality.
CLIV “Savior” = soter. Related to “salvation” in v22. See note LXXXV above.
CLV “world” = kosmos. Perhaps from the base of komizo (to carry, convey, recover); from komeo (to take care of). This is order, the world, the universe, including its inhabitants. Literally, this is something that is ordered so it can refer to all creation. It can also refer to decoration in the sense that something is better ordered and, thus, made more beautiful. This is where “cosmos” and “cosmetics” come from.

Image credit: “Woman at the Well” – photo by MTSOfan, 2011.

You May Also Like

Leave a Reply