Luke 1

Luke 1


Since manyI have undertakenII to compileIII

Notes on verse 1a

I “many” = polus. This is much, often, plenteous – a large number or a great extent.
II “undertaken” = epicheireo. 3x in NT. From epi (on, upon, against, what is fitting) + cheir (literally, hand; figuratively, the means a person uses to accomplish things; power, means, or instrument). This is to take in hand, i.e. to try or undertake.
III “compile” = anatassomai. 1x in NT. From ana (up, again, back, among, anew) + tasso (to arrange, appoint, determine). This is to arrange, compile, put in order.

a narrativeIV about the eventsV that have been fulfilledVI among us, 

Notes on verse 1b

IV “narrative” = diegesis. 1x in NT. From diegeomai (to describe fully, narrate, declare, tell something clearly so that one knows what is most important); {from dia (through, because of, across, thoroughly) + hegeomai (to think, suppose, have an opinion; to lead the way, what comes in front or first, initial thought, high esteem or authority; one who commands in an official capacity); {from ago (lead, bring, carry, drive, go)}}. This is a thorough account or narration.
V “events” = pragma. 11x in NT. From prasso (to do or practice – something done on an on-going basis or by habit; to accomplish, attend, or commit). This is an action, matter, or business. It is something done on a regular basis that is done in order to get something done.
VI “fulfilled” = plerophoreo. 6x in NT. From pleres (to be full, complete, abounding in, or occupied with); {from pletho (to fill, accomplish, supply; to fill to maximum capacity)} + phoreo (to bear constantly or habitually or repeatedly; it can mean to wear or carry a burden); {from phero (to bear, bring, lead, make known publicly; to carry in a literal or figurative sense)}. This is to fulfills, fully convince, satisfy, accomplish, fully assure. It can be to fully convince by using evidence or to make full.

just as they were handed onVII to us by those who from the beginningVIII wereIX

Notes on verse 2a

VII “handed on” = paradidomi. From para (from beside, by) + didomi (give, offer, place, bestow, deliver; give in a literal or figurative sense). This is literally to hand over – hence to deliver, abandon, or betray. It implies a personal involvement.
VIII “beginning” = arche. From archomai (to begin or rule); from archo (to rule, begin, have first rank or have political power). Properly, this is what is first. In a temporal sense, that is beginning or origin. It can also refer to the one who ranks first, i.e. king or ruler. So, it can also be magistrate, power, or principality. It can be used more generally for what is preeminent.
IX “were” = ginomai. This is to come into being, to happen, become, be born. It can be to emerge from one state or condition to another or is coming into being with the sense of movement or growth.

eyewitnessesX and servantsXI of the word,XII 

Notes on verse 2b

X “eyewitnesses” = autoptes. 1x in NT. From autos (he, she, self, they, same) + optanomai (to appear, be seen); {perhaps from horao (become, seem, appear)}. This is self-seeing, which it so say eyewitness.
XI “servants” = huperetes. From huper (by, under, subordinate to another) + eresso (to row). This is originally a rower or someone who crewed a boat on the lower deck. It came to mean underling, servant, or attendant. It is also used in the New Testament of disciples under the gospel.
XII “word” = logos. From lego (to speak, tell, mention). This is word, statement, speech, analogy. It is a word that carries an idea or expresses a thought, a saying. It could refer to a person with a message or reasoning laid out in words. By implication, this could be a topic, line of reasoning, or a motive. It can be used for a divine utterance or as Word – Christ.

I, too, decided,XIII as one having a graspXIV of everythingXV from the start,XVI 

Notes on verse 3a

XIII “decided” = dokeo. From dokos (opinion). This is to have an opinion, seem, appear, think, suppose. It deals with a personal judgment. This is the root of the word “doxology.”
XIV “having a grasp” = parakoloutheo. 3x in NT. From para (by, beside, in the presence of) + akoloutheo (to accompany or follow someone, especially the way a disciple does); {from a (with, fellowship, union) + keleuthos (road, way)}. This is to follow, investigate, resemble. It can be to know by conforming to what is found.
XV “everything” = pas. This is all or every.
XVI “start” = anothen. 13x in NT– this is the word used in John 3:3 in the being born “from above”/“again” conversation between Jesus and Nicodemus. From ano (up, above, up to the top, things above, heaven); from ana (up, upwards, again, back, among, anew). This is from above, from the top, again, beginning, from the source. It implies anew.

to writeXVII a well-orderedXVIII account for you, most excellentXIX Theophilus,XX 

Notes on verse 3b

XVII “write” = grapho. This is to write or describe. It is where the word “graphic” comes from.
XVIII “well-ordered” = akribos + kathexes. Akribos is 9x in NT. From akriboo (examine carefully, learn diligently); from akribes (high point, extreme) OR from akros (the point, end); from akrib– (learning precise information with as much accuracy as possible; probing inquiry to gain a comprehensive, exact sense of the facts). This is carefully, strictly, diligently, with great accuracy. This is investigated to the finest point and so precise. Kathexes is 5x in NT. From kata (down, against, throughout, among) + hexes (next, soon, the day after, adjoining); {from echo (to have, hold, possess)}. This is orderly, step by step, just after.
XIX “most excellent” = kratistos. 4x in NT. From kratus (strong) OR from kratos (strength, power, dominion; vigor in a literal or figurative sense; power that is exercised). This is strongest, noblest – high in dignity or honor; used to speak to a high ranking Roman. It can also differentiate an equestrian from a senator.
XX “Theophilus” = Theophilos. 2x in NT. From Theos (God, god) + philos (dear, beloved, a friend, an associate; friendship with personal affection, a trusted confidante; love from personal experience with another person). This is Theophilus, meaning “friend of God.”

so that you may haveXXI a firm graspXXII of the words in which you have been instructed.XXIII

Notes on verse 4

XXI “have” = epiginosko. From epi (on, upon, what is fitting) + ginosko (to know, recognize, realize, perceive, learn; gaining knowledge through personal experience). This is to perceive, discern, acknowledge, recognize, know exactly because of direct interaction.
XXII “firm grasp” = asphaleia. 3x in NT. From asphales (certain, reliable, secure, definite; literally unfailing – something that is secure because it is solid and constructed on something that will not fall or slip; it is literal or figurative); {from a (not, without) + sphallo (to trip up or fail)}. This is firmness, certainty, reliability. It is security in a literal or figurative sense.
XXIII “instructed” = katecheo. 8x in NT. From kata (down, against, according to, among) + echeo (to sound, reverberate, give a loud sound); {from echos (a loud sound, roaring, or echo. It can also be a report, rumor, or fame); from eche (noise or sound)}. This is literally to sound down. It is to study something by sounding it out and repeating it. It can also imply indoctrinate. This is where “catechism” comes from.

In the daysXXIV of KingXXV HerodXXVI of Judea,XXVII

Notes on verse 5a

XXIV “days” = hemera. Perhaps from hemai (to sit). This is day, time, or daybreak.
XXV “King” = Basileus. Probably from basis (step, hence foot; a pace); from baino (to walk, to go). This is king, emperor, or sovereign.
XXVI “Herod” = Herodes. Perhaps from heros (hero, warrior) + oide (song, ode, legend, tale); {from aoide (song, ode, legend, tale); {from aeido (to sing) + e (this is added to verbs to make them nouns)}} OR from hera (Hera) + oide (same as above). This is Herod, perhaps “hero’s song,” “Hera’s song,” or “heroic.” See
XXVII “Judea” = Ioudaia. From Hebrew Yehudah (Judah, son of Jacob, his tribal descendants, a name for the southern kingdom. Literally, it means praised); probably from yadah (to throw one’s hands into the air in a gesture of praise); from yad (hand). This is Judea, which was a Roman province.

there wasXXVIII a priestXXIX namedXXX

Notes on verse 5b

XXVIII “was” = ginomai. Same as “were” in v2. See note IX above.
XXIX “priest” = hiereus. From hieros (sacred, something sacred, temple, holy, set apart; something consecrated to God or a god). This is a priest, used for Jewish and Gentile priests.
XXX “named” = onoma. Related to “have” in v4. May be from ginosko (see note XXI above). This is a name, authority, cause, character, fame, reputation. The name was thought to include something of the essence of the person so it was not thought to be separate from the person.

Zechariah,XXXI who belonged to the priestly orderXXXII of Abijah.XXXIII

Notes on verse 5c

XXXI “Zechariah” = Zacharias. 11x in NT. From Hebrew Zekaryah (Zechariah, “the Lord has remembered”); {from zakar (to remember, to mark something so that it can be recalled, to be mindful of, to mention) + Yah (the shortened form of the name of the God of Israel; God, Lord); {from YHVH (proper name of the God of Israel; God, Lord; the self-existent or eternal one); from havah (to become) or hayah (to be, become, happen)}}. This is Zechariah, Zacharias, meaning “the Lord has remembered.”
XXXII “order” = ephemeria. Related to “days” in v5. 2x in NT. From ephemeros (daily, for a day, ephemeral); {from epi (on, upon, what is fitting) + hemera (see note XXIV above)}. This is a class, course, rotation.
XXXIII “Abijah” = Abia. Related to “Zechariah” in v5. 3x in NT. From Hebrew Abiyyah (Abiyyah, meaning “the Lord is my father” or “worshipper of the Lord”); {from ab (father, ancestor, grandfather; father in a literal or figurative sense) + Yah (the shortened form of the name of the God of Israel; God, Lord); {from YHVH (see note XXXI above}}. This is Abijah or Abia, meaning “the Lord is my father” or “worshipper of the Lord.”

His wifeXXXIV was descended from the daughtersXXXV of Aaron,XXXVI and her name was Elizabeth.XXXVII 

Notes on verse 5d

XXXIV “wife” = gune. Related to “were” in v2. Perhaps from ginomai (see note IX above). This is woman, wife, or bride. This is where the word “gynecologist” comes from.
XXXV “daughters” = thugater. This is daughter, a related female or one who lives with you.
XXXVI “Aaron” = Aaron. 5x in NT– 3x in Hebrews. From Hebrew Aharon (Aaron); {derivation uncertain. May mean “bearer of martyrs” OR be related to Ancient Egyptian ꜥḥꜣ rw (warrior lion) OR elevated, exalted, high mountain}. This is Aaron. See
XXXVII “Elizabeth” = Elisabet. 9x in NT. From Hebrew Elisheba (Elisheba, “God is an oath”); {from el (God or god) + sheba (seven – the number of perfection/sacred fullness); {from shaba (to swear, curse, vow, make a covenant; properly, to be complete; this is to seven oneself – as in affirming something so strongly it is as though it were said seven times)}}. This is Elizabeth or Elisabet, meaning “God is an oath.”

Both of them wereXXXVIII righteousXXXIX before God,XL

Notes on verse 6a

XXXVIII “were” = eimi. This is to be, exist.
XXXIX “righteous” = dikaios. From dike (the principle of justice; that which is right in a way that is very clear; a decision or the execution of that decision; originally, this word was for custom or usage; evolved to include the process of law, judicial hearing, execution of sentence, penalty, and even vengeance; more commonly, it refers to what is right); may be from deiknumi (to show, point out, exhibit; figurative for teach, demonstrate, make known). This is correct, righteous, just, or a righteous person. It implies innocent or conforming to God’s standard of justice.
XL “God” = Theos. Related to “Theophilus” in v3. See note XX above.

livingXLI blamelesslyXLII according to allXLIII

Notes on verse 6b

XLI “living” = poreuomai. From poros (ford, passageway). This is to go, travel, journey, or die. It refers to transporting things from one place to another and focuses on the personal significance of the destination.
XLII “blamelessly” = amemptos. 5x in NT. From a (not, without) + memphomai (to blame, be disgraceful; be rejected due to doing bad things); {from mempteos (rejected because one has been condemned)}. This is blameless, without fault, irreproachable, free of defect. So, this is one who is morally pure.
XLIII “all” = pas. Same as “everything” in v3. See note XV above.

the commandmentsXLIV and regulationsXLV of the Lord.XLVI 

Notes on verse 6c

XLIV “commandments” = entole. From entellomai (to charge, command, give orders or instructions) {from en (in, on, at, by, with) + tellomai (to accomplish); {from telos (an end, aim, purpose, completion, end goal, consummation, tax; going through the steps to complete a stage or phase and then moving on to the next one)}}. This is an order, command, ordinance, or law. It focuses on the purpose of the command and its end result.
XLV “regulations” = dikaioma. Related to “righteous” in v6. 10x in NT. From dikaiooa (to be righteous, plead the cause of, justify, acquit; properly, approved, particularly carrying the weight of a legal judgment; upright, render just or innocent); from dikaios (see note XXXIX above). This is justification or righteousness – it can be a second chance for a criminal, a verdict for or against, an act that is legally proper, or a statute or decision. It is something pronounced righteous by God.
XLVI “Lord” = Kurios. From kuros (authority, supremacy). This is a respectful address meaning master or sir. It refers to one who has control or power greater than one’s own. So, it was also applied to God and Jesus as Master or Lord.

But they hadXLVII no childrenXLVIII because Elizabeth was barren,XLIX and both were getting onL in years.LI

Notes on verse 7

XLVII “had” = eimi. Same as “were” in v6. See note XXXVIII above.
XLVIII “children” = teknon. From tikto (to beget, bring forth, produce). This is a child, descendant, or inhabitant.
XLIX “barren” = steira. 5x in NT. From steiros (barren) OR from stereos (hard, solid, steadfast, sure, stable; solid in a literal or figurative sense). This is barren or sterile. It may be from the root as stiff or not natural. This is the root that “sterile” comes from.
L “getting on” = probaino. Related to “King” in v5. 5x in NT. From pro (before, ahead, earlier than, above) + the same as basis (see note XXV above). This is to go forward literally or to advance in years.
LI “years” = hemera. Same as “days” in v5. See note XXIV above.

LIIOnce when he was serving as priestLIII before God during his section’sLIV turn of duty,LV 

Notes on verse 8

LII {untranslated} = ginomai. Same as “were” in v2. See note IX above.
LIII “serving as priest” = hierateuo. Related to “priest” in v5. 1x in NT. From hiereus (see note XXIX above). This is to be a priest or perform the priest’s office.
LIV “section’s” = ephemeria. Same as “order” in v5. See note XXXII above.
LV “turn of duty” = taxis. Related to “compile” in v1. 9x in NT. From tasso (see note III above). This is order, arrangement, position, discipline, being orderly, approval, morale. It is used in military settings to describe rank. Later included indication of dignity or character. It is part of the root of the word “taxonomy.”

he was chosen by lot,LVI according to the customLVII of the priesthood,LVIII

Notes on verse 9a

LVI “chosen by lot” = lagchano. 4x in NT. This is to choose by lot, to receive, determine.
LVII “custom” = ethos. 12x in NT. From etho (custom, what is customary). This is custom habit, rite – also, doing something that the law requires. It can be an unwritten custom, acting in accordance with tradition.
LVIII “priesthood” = hierateia. Related to “priest” in v5 & “serving as priest” in v8. 2x in NT. From hierateuo (see note LIII above). This is priesthood, priestliness, or priestly office.

to enterLIX the sanctuaryLX of the Lord to offer incense.LXI 

Notes on verse 9b

LIX “enter” = eiserchomai. From eis (to, into, for, among) + erchomai (to come, go). This is to go in in a literal or figurative sense.
LX “sanctuary” = naos. From naio (to dwell, inhabit). This is a place for God (or a god) to live – a sanctuary, shrine, or temple. It is a place for God or a god to manifest. For the Jewish Temple, it is used of the Temple itself and the two inner chambers.
LXI “offer incense” = thumiao. 1x in NT. From thuo (to breathe violently, seethe, rage; properly, to rush as breathing heavy; so smoke as in offering an animal sacrifice by fire; by extension, killing or slaying in general). This is to burn incense.

10 Now at the timeLXII of the incense offering,LXIII the wholeLXIV

Notes on verse 10a

LXII “time” = hora. This is a set time or period, an hour, instant, or season. This is where the word “hour” comes from.
LXIII “incense offering” = thumiama. Related to “offer incense” in v9. 6x in NT. From thumiao (to smoke burn incense); from thuo (see note LXI above). This is incense or an odor. It is incense as part of worship – the object or the act of burning.
LXIV “whole” = pas. Same as “everything” in v3. See note XV above.

assemblyLXV of the peopleLXVI was prayingLXVII outside. 

Notes on verse 10b

LXV “assembly” = plethos. Related to “fulfilled” in v1. From pletho (see note VI above). This is fullness, multitude, great number.
LXVI “people” = laos. This is the people or crowd – often used for the chosen people. This is where the word “laity” comes from.
LXVII “praying” = proseuchomai. From pros (advantageous for, at, toward) + euchomai (to wish, make a request, pray). This is to pray or pray for, to worship or supplicate. It is more literally exchanging one’s own wishes for God’s.

11 Then there appearedLXVIII to him an angelLXIX of the Lord, standingLXX at the right sideLXXI of the altarLXXII of incense. 

Notes on verse 11

LXVIII “appeared” = horao. Related to “eyewitnesses” in v2. See note X above.
LXIX “angel” = aggelos. Related to “narrative” in v1. Probably from ago (see note IV above) + agele (flock, herd, drove); {also from ago (see above)}. This is angel or messenger. Properly, it is one sent with news or to perform a specific task. This messenger can be human or an angel from heaven. More commonly, it is used for angels in the New Testament.
LXX “standing” = histemi. This is to stand, place, establish, appoint, stand ready, be steadfast.
LXXI “right side” = dexios. Perhaps from dechomai (to warmly receive, be ready for what is offered, take, accept, or welcome; to receive in a literal or figurative sense). This is right, right side, or the right hand.
LXXII “altar” = thusiasterion. Related to “offer incense” in v9 & “incense offering” in v10. From thusia (a sacrifice or offering; the act of sacrifice or the thig being sacrificed; a sacrifice in a literal or figurative sense.); from thuo (see note LXI above). This is altar that is used for sacrifice.

12 When Zechariah sawLXXIII him, he was terrified,LXXIV and fearLXXV overwhelmedLXXVI him. 

Notes on verse 12

LXXIII “saw” = horao. Same as “appeared” in v11. See note LXVIII above.
LXXIV “was terrified” = tarasso. 18x in NT. This is trouble, agitate, stir up. It is motion back and forth, creating inner turmoil or confusion, roiling water.
LXXV “fear” = phobos. From phebomai (to flee, withdraw, be put to flight). This is panic flight, fear, fear being caused, terror, alarm, that which causes fear, reverence, respect.
LXXVI “overwhelmed” = epipipto. 11x in NT. From epi (on, upon, to, against, what is fitting) + pipto (to fall in a literal or figurative sense). This is fall upon. It could be in the sense of pressing in on, being seized with fear, being embraced (as in the parable of the prodigal son in Luke 15:20), bending over, being insulted, or the Spirit falling on people. So, it is coming upon someone with more or less affection or violence.

13 But the angel said to him, “Do not be afraid,LXXVII Zechariah, for your prayerLXXVIII has been heard.LXXIX

Notes on verse 13a

LXXVII “be afraid” = phobeo. Related to “fear” in v12. From phobos (see note LXXV above). This is also to put to flight, terrify, frighten, dread, reverence, to withdraw or avoid. It is sometimes used in a positive sense to mean the fear of the Lord, echoing Old Testament language. More commonly, it is fear of following God’s path. This is where the word phobia comes from.
LXXVIII “prayer” = deesis. 18x in NT. From deomai (having an urgent need because one is missing or needing something so it is an earnest appeal or pressing request); from deo (to tie, bind, fasten, impel, compel; to declare something against the law or prohibited). This is a request coming from a deep personal need or want. So, it is supplication or prayer.
LXXIX “heard” = eisakouo. 5x in NT. From eis (to, into, for, among) + akouo (listen, hear, understand through hearing). This is hearing deeply and intentionally. It can also mean to obey, heed, or comply – understanding prompting action.

Your wife Elizabeth will bearLXXX you a son,LXXXI and you will name himLXXXII John.LXXXIII 

Notes on verse 13b

LXXX “bear” = gennao. Related to “were” in v2 & “wife” in v5. From genna (descent, birth); from genos (family, offspring, kin – in a literal or figurative sense); from ginomai (see note IX above). This is to beget, give birth to, or bring forth. Properly, it refers to procreation by the father, but was used of the mother by extension. Figuratively, this can mean to regenerate.
LXXXI “son” = huios. This is son, descendant – a son whether natural born or adopted. It can be used figuratively for other forms of kinship.
LXXXII “name him” = kaleo + ho + onoma + autos. Literally, “call his name.” Kaleo is related to keleuo (to command, order, direct); from kelomai (to urge on). This is to call by name, invite, to name, bid, summon, call aloud. Onoma is same as “named” in v5. See note XXX above.
LXXXIII “John” = Ioannes. Related to “Zechariah” and “Abijah” in v5. From Hebrew yochanan (Johanan); from Yehochanan (“the Lord has been gracious”); {from YHVH (see note XXXI above) + chanan (beseech, show favor, be gracious; properly, to bend in kindness to someone with less status)}. This is John, meaning “the Lord has been gracious.”

14 You will haveLXXXIV joyLXXXV and gladness,LXXXVI and many will rejoiceLXXXVII at his birth,LXXXVIII 

Notes on verse 14

LXXXIV “have” = eimi. Same as “were” in v6. See note XXXVIII above.
LXXXV “joy” = chara. From chairo (to rejoice, be glad or cheerful; a greeting); from char– (to extend favor, lean towards, be inclined to be favorable towards). This is joy, delight, gladness. Can be understood as the feeling you get when you are aware of grace.
LXXXVI “gladness” = agalliasis. 5x in NT. From agalliao (joy that prompts you to jump up. It is a full body experience of joy: exulting, rejoicing, or even boasting from joy); from agallomai (to exalt, make glorious) {from agan (much, very) + hallomai (to leap or leap up; when referring to water, springing up or bubbling up; to jump or figuratively to gush)}. This is exultation, wild joy, exhilaration, gladness, or welcome.
LXXXVII “rejoice” = chairo. Related to “joy” in v14. See note LXXXV above.
LXXXVIII “birth” = genesis. Related to “were” in v2 & “wife” in v5 & “bear” in v13. 5x in NT. From ginomai (see note IX above). This is origin, lineage, birth, genealogy, or life. It can be figurative for nature. This is where the word “genesis” comes from.

15 for he will be greatLXXXIX in the sight ofXC the Lord. He must never drinkXCI wineXCII or strong drink;XCIII

Notes on verse 15a

LXXXIX “great” = megas. This is big in a literal or figurative sense – great, large, exceeding, abundant, high, mighty, perfect, strong, etc.
XC “in the sight of” = enopios. Related to “eyewitnesses” in v2 & “appeared” in v11. From en (in, on, at, by, with) + ops (eye, face); {from optanomai (see note X above)}. This is literally “in sight of.” It means before in a literal or figurative sense.
XCI “drink” = pino. This is to drink, literally or figuratively.
XCII “wine” = oinos. Perhaps from Hebrew yayin (wine; root means to effervesce). This is wine. It is where the word “oenophile” comes from.
XCIII “strong drink” = sikera. 1x in NT. From Hebrew shekar (some kind of alcoholic drink or someone who is a drunk); from shakar (to intoxicate, to be satisfied with drink; can also figuratively refer to influence). This is a fermented, not distilled, alcohol. It would be made from fruit, grain, or honey. It was a very strong drink.

even before his birthXCIV he will be filledXCV with the HolyXCVI Spirit.XCVII 

Notes on verse 15b

XCIV “before his birth” = ek + koilia + meter + autos. Literally, “from his mother’s womb.” Koilia is from koilos (hollow). This is belly or organs in the abdomen. So, it could be stomach, womb, or heart. Figuratively, this refers to one’s inner self. Meter is mother in a literal or figurative sense.
XCV “filled” = pleitho. This is to fill to the highest level possible – to accomplish, supply, or complete.
XCVI “Holy” = Hagios. From hagnos (holy, sacred, pure ethically, ritually, or ceremonially; prepared for worship, chaste, unadulterated, pure to the core; undefiled by sin; figurative for innocent, modest, perfect). God is totally different from humanity and thus set apart. That which is consecrated to worship God (elements of worship) or to serve God (as the saints) are holy because they are now set apart for God’s purposes. Holy because important to God. This is sacred physically, pure. It can be morally blameless or ceremonially consecrated.
XCVII “Spirit” = Pneuma. From pneo (to blow, breathe, breathe hard). This is wind, breath, or ghost. A breeze or a blast or air, a breath. Figuratively used for a spirit, the human soul or part of us that is rational. It is also used supernaturally for angels, demons, God, and the Holy Spirit. This is where pneumonia comes from.

16 He will turnXCVIII many of the peopleXCIX of IsraelC to the Lord their God. 

Notes on verse 16

XCVIII “turn” = epistrepho. From epi (on, upon, among, what is fitting) + strepho (to turn, change, turn back, be converted; to turn around completely to take the opposite path or a completely different one); {from trope (turning, shifting, a revolution; figuratively, a variation); from trepo (to turn)}. This is to turn, return, or come again. It can also mean to revert. It is turning in a literal or figurative sense – also a moral turning.
XCIX “people” = huios. Same as “son” in v13. See note LXXXI above.
C “Israel” = Israel. Related to “Elizabeth” in v5. From Hebrew Yisrael (God strives or one who strives with God; new name for Jacob and for his offspring); {from sarah (to persist, exert oneself, contend, persevere, wrestle, prevail) + el (see note XXXVII above)}. This is Israel the people and the land.

17 With the spirit and powerCI of ElijahCII he will goCIII beforeCIV him,

Notes on verse 17a

CI “power” = dunamis. From dunamai (to be able, have power or ability). This is might, strength, physical power, efficacy, energy, and miraculous power. It is force literally or figuratively – the power of a miracle or the miracle itself.
CII “Elijah” = Elias. Related to “Zechariah” and “Abijah” in v5 & “John” in v13 & “Elizabeth” in v5 & “Israel” in v16. From Hebrew Eliyyah (Elijah) {from el (see note XXXVII above) + Yah (see note XXXI above)}. This is Elijah, “The Lord is God.”
CIII “go” = proerchomai. Related to “entered” in v9. 9x in NT. From pro (before, earlier than, ahead, prior) + erchomai (see note LIX above). This is to go further, go before, walk along, go on ahead. It can refer to before in location or in time.
CIV “before” = enopios. Same as “in the sight of” in v15. See note XC above.

to turn the heartsCV of parentsCVI to their children and the disobedientCVII to the wisdomCVIII of the righteous,

Notes on verse 17b

CV “hearts” = kardia. Literally the heart, but figuratively mind, character, inner self, will, intention, thoughts, feelings. Also, the center of something. The word heart is only used figuratively in the Old and New Testaments. This is where “cardiac” comes from.
CVI “parents” = pater. This is father in a literal or figurative sense. Could be elder, senior, ancestor, originator, or patriarch.
CVII “disobedient” = apeithes. 6x in NT. From a (not, without) + peitho (to have confidence, urge, be persuaded, agree, assure, believe, have confidence, trust). This is literally not believing or deciding not to be persuaded. So, it implies disobedience or rebellion.
CVIII “wisdom” = phronesis. 2x in NT. From phroneo (to have understanding, think, care for, have a predisposition to a notion); from phren (literally the diaphragm; used figuratively for heart, thought, or understanding; personal outlook we use to decide our actions, general outlook); may be from phrao (to rein in, curb). This is understanding, practical wisdom, insight. This word implies moral insight.

to make readyCIX a peopleCX preparedCXI for the Lord.” 

18 Zechariah said to the angel, “How can I knowCXII that this will happen? For I am an old man,CXIII and my wife is getting on in years.” 

Notes on verses 17c-18

CIX “make ready” = hetoimazo. From hetoimos (make ready, be ready because of being prepared, standing by, adjusted; ready to meet some opportunity or challenge). This is to prepare or provide.
CX “people” = laos. Same as “people” in v10. See note LXVI above.
CXI “prepared” = kataskeuazo. 11x in NT. From kata (down, against, among, throughout) + skeuazo (to prepare using a tool); {from skeuos (tool, container, property, goods)}. This is to prepare, build, or ordain. It denotes preparing with the use of tools and with skill.
CXII “know” = ginosko. Related to “have” in v4 & “named” in v5. See note XXI above.
CXIII “old man” = presbutes. 3x in NT. From the same as presbuteros (an elder as one of the Sanhedrin and also in the Christian assembly in the early church); from presbus (old man). This is an old man or an ambassador.

19 The angel replied, “I am Gabriel.CXIV I standCXV in the presence ofCXVI God, and I have been sentCXVII to speak to you and to bring you this good news.CXVIII 

Notes on verse 19

CXIV “Gabriel” = Gabriel. Related to “Elizabeth” in v5 & “Israel” in v16 & “Elijah” in v17. 2x in NT. From Hebrew Gabriel (Gabriel “man of God”; an archangel); {from geber (man, warrior, a person generally, or a valiant person); {from gabar (to be strong or mighty; to prevail or to be insolent)} + el (see note XXXVII above)}. This is Gabriel, “man of God,” an archangel.
CXV “stand” = paristemi. Related to “standing” in v11. From para (from beside, by) + histemi (see note LXX above). This is literally to place by stand. It can mean to present, exhibit, appear, bring, stand by, or prove. It can also mean to be ready, to assist, to yield, or to commend.
CXVI “in the presence of” = enopios. Same as “in the sight of” in v15. See note XC above.
CXVII “sent” = apostello. Related to “standing” in v11 & “stand” in v19. From apo (from, away from) + stello (to send, set, arrange, prepare, gather up); {probably from histemi (see note LXX above)}. This is to send forth, send away, dismiss, send as a messenger. It implies one that is sent for a particular mission or purpose rather than a quick errand. This is where “apostle” comes from.
CXVIII “bring…good news” = euaggelizo. Related to “narrative” in v1 & “angel” in v11. From eu (well, good, rightly) + aggelos (angel, messenger; a messenger from God bringing news – whether a prophet or an angel) {from aggellos (to bring tidings); probably from ago (see note IV above)}. This is evangelize – literally to preach the good news. It can be those who hear the news, the news, or a way to say gospel.

20 But now,CXIX because you did not believeCXX my words, which will be fulfilledCXXI in their time,CXXII

Notes on verse 20a

CXIX “now” = idou. From eido (to be aware, see, know, remember, appreciate). This is see! Lo! Behold! Look! Used to express surprise and or draw attention to the statement.
CXX “believe” = pisteuo. Related to “disobedient” in v17. From pistis (faith, faithfulness, belief, trust, confidence; to be persuaded or come to trust); from peitho (see note CVII above). This is to believe, entrust, have faith it, affirm, have confidence in. This is less to do with a series of beliefs or doctrines that one believes and more to do with faithfulness, loyalty, and fidelity. It is trusting and then acting based on that trust.
CXXI “fulfilled” = pleroo. Related to “fulfilled” in v1 & “assembly” in v10. From pleres (see note VI above). This is to fill, make full or complete. Properly, this is filling something up to the maximum extent that it can be filled – an appropriate amount for its individual capacity. So, this is used figuratively for furnish, influence, satisfy, finish, preach, perfect, and fulfill.
CXXII “time” = kairos. This is season, opportunity, occasion. The word chronos is used for chronological time. Kairos is used for spiritually significant time – the right time or appointed time.

you will becomeCXXIII mute,CXXIV unableCXXV to speak, until the day these things occur.”CXXVI

Notes on verse 20b

CXXIII “become” = eimi. Same as “were” in v6. See note XXXVIII above.
CXXIV “mute” = siopao. 10x in NT. From siope (silence or muteness). This is to be silent whether by choice or not. Figuratively, this is being calm as water, keeping one’s peace.
CXXV “unable” = me + dunamai. Dunamai is related to “power” in v17. See note CI above.
CXXVI “occur” = ginomai. Same as “were” in v2. See note IX above.

21 Meanwhile the peopleCXXVII were waiting forCXXVIII Zechariah and wonderingCXXIX at his delayCXXX in the sanctuary. 

Notes on verse 21

CXXVII “people” = laos. Same as “people” in v10. See note LXVI above.
CXXVIII “waiting for” = prosdokao. 16x in NT. From pros (at, to, toward, with) + dokeuo (to watch). This is to await, anticipate, expect, look for.
CXXIX “wondering” = thaumazo. From thauma (a wonder or marvel; used abstractly for wonderment or amazement; something that evokes emotional astonishment); may be from theaomai (to behold, look upon, see, contemplate, visit); from thaomai (to gaze at a spectacle; to look at or contemplate as a spectator; to interpret something in efforts to grasp its significance). This is to marvel, wonder, or admire. To be amazed out of one’s senses or be awestruck. Being astonished and starting to contemplate what was beheld. This root is where the word “theatre” comes from.
CXXX “delay” = chronizo. From chronos (time in the chronological sense, quantitative time, a duration of time). This is to take time, delay, linger.

22 When he did come out,CXXXI he was unable to speak to them, and they realizedCXXXII that he had seen a visionCXXXIII in the sanctuary.

Notes on verse 22a

CXXXI “come out” = exerchomai. Related to “enter” in v9 & “go” in v17. From ek (from, from out of) + erchomai (see note LIX above). This is to go out, depart, escape, proceed from, spread news abroad.
CXXXII “realized” = epiginosko. Same as “have” in v4. See note XXI above.
CXXXIII “vision” = optasia. Related to “eyewitnesses” in v2 & “appeared” in v11 & “in the sight of” in v15. 4x in NT. From optazomai (to be seen) OR from optanomai (see note X above). This is a vision or apparition.

He keptCXXXIV motioningCXXXV to them and remainedCXXXVI unable to speak.CXXXVII 

Notes on verse 22b

CXXXIV “kept” = eimi. Same as “were” in v6. See note XXXVIII above.
CXXXV “motioning” = dianeuo. 1x in NT. From dia (through, across to the other side, thoroughly) + neuo (to nod, to signal). This is to motion to, to nod or wink. It is to wordlessly express yourself.
CXXXVI “remained” = diameno. 5x in NT. From dia (through, because of, across, thoroughly) + meno (to stay, abide, wait, endure). This is to remain or continue.
CXXXVII “unable to speak” = kophos. 14x in NT. Perhaps from kopto (to cut, strike, cut off; beating the chest to lament and so to mourn). This is literally blunted or dull. Figuratively, it can be deaf or mute or a person who is deaf or mute.

23 WhenCXXXVIII his timeCXXXIX of serviceCXL

Notes on verse 23a

CXXXVIII {untranslated} = ginomai. Same as “were” in v2. See note IX above.
CXXXIX “time” = hemera. Same as “days” in v5. See note XXIV above.
CXL “service” = leitourgia. Related to “people” in v10. 6x in NT. From leitourgeo (to minister or serve the public in an authorized capacity; to act in a charitable capacity); from leitourgos (minister, servant; used for a public official or for one who works in a temple; broadly, it is one in public service, whether civic or religious); {from laos (see note LXVI above) + ergon (work, task, action, employment); {from erdo (to do)}}. This is service, ministry, offering, worship. It can be used for any kind of public service – an official – or particularly as one who exercises the priestly office.

was ended,CXLI he returnedCXLII to his home.CXLIII

Notes on verse 23b

CXLI “was ended” = pleitho. Same as “filled” in v15. See note XCV above.
CXLII “returned” = aperchomai. Related to “enter” in v9 & “go” in v17 & “come out” in v22. From apo (from, away from) + erchomai (see note LIX above). This is to depart, follow, or go off in a literal or figurative sense.
CXLIII “home” = oikos. This is house – the building, the household, the family, descendants, the temple.

24 After those days his wife Elizabeth conceived,CXLIV and for fiveCXLV months she remained in seclusion.CXLVI She said,CXLVII 

Notes on verse 24

CXLIV “conceived” = sullambano. 16x in NT. From sun (with, together with) + lambano (active acceptance/taking of what is available or what has been offered; emphasizes the choice and action of the individual). This is to take, take part in, conceive, help. It can also be clasp or seize as to arrest or take hold of someone.
CXLV “five” = pente. This is five.
CXLVI “remained in seclusion” = perikrupto. 1x in NT. From peri (about, concerning, all around, encompassing) + krupto (to hide by covering, secret, hidden things). This is to hide by being totally concealed.
CXLVII “said” = lego. Related to “word” in v2. See note XII above.

25 “This is what the Lord has doneCXLVIII for me in this time, when he looked favorablyCXLIX on me and took awayCL the disgraceCLI I have endured among my people.”CLII

Notes on verse 25

CXLVIII “done” = poieo. This is to make, do, act, construct, abide, or cause.
CXLIX “looked favorably” = epeidon. Related to “now” in v20. 2x in NT. From epi (on, upon, what is fitting) + eidos (form, shape, sight, appearance); {from eido (see note CXIX above)}. This is to behold. It can be to look un with favor or not.
CL “took away” = aphaireo. 10x in NT. From apo (from, away from) + haireo (to take, choose, or prefer) {probably related to airo (raise, take up, lift, remove)}. This is remove, take away, cut in a literal or figurative sense.
CLI “disgrace” = oneidos. Related to “have” in v4 & “named” in v5 & “know” in v18. 1x in NT. Perhaps related to onoma (see note XXX above). This is a personal disgrace that leads to harm to one’s reputation. It is a taunt or reproach.
CLII “people” = anthropos. Related to “eyewitnesses” in v2 & “appeared” in v11 & “in the sight of” in v15 & “vision” in v22. Probably from aner (man, male, husband) + ops (see note XC above). This is human, humankind. Used for all genders.

26 In the sixthCLIII month the angel Gabriel was sent by God to a townCLIV in GalileeCLV calledCLVI Nazareth,CLVII 

Notes on verse 26

CLIII “sixth” = hektos. 14x in NT. From hex (six). This is sixth.
CLIV “town” = polis. This is a city or its inhabitants. It is a town of variable size, but one that has walls. This is where “metropolis” and “police” come from.
CLV “Galilee” = Galilaia. From Hebrew galil (cylinder, circuit, district); from galal (to roll in a literal or figurative sense, roll away, roll down, wallow, remove, trust). This is Galilee, meaning perhaps region or cylinder.
CLVI “called” = onoma. Same as “named” in v5. See note XXX above.
CLVII “Nazareth” = Nazareth. 12x in NT. Perhaps from netser (branch) OR from natsar (to watch, guard, protect). This is Nazareth, meaning perhaps branch or protected. It is a city in Galilee. See

27 to a virginCLVIII engagedCLIX to a manCLX whose name was Joseph,CLXI

Notes on verse 27a

CLVIII “virgin” = parthenos. 15x in NT. This is virgin, chaste, unmarried. It can also refer to a woman past puberty who is not yet married, since she was presumed to be a virgin.
CLIX “engaged” = mnesteuo. Related to “remained” in v22. 3x in NT– all in reference to Mary and Joseph. From mnaomai (to remember; by implication give reward or consequence); perhaps from meno (see note CXXXVI above). OR from massaomai (to chew, gnaw); from masso (to knead, squeeze). This is to betroth, be engaged.
CLX “man” = aner. Related to “people” in v25. See note CLII above.
CLXI “Joseph” = Ioseph. From Hebrew Yoseph (he increases; Joseph); from yasaph (to add, increase, continue, exceed). This is Joseph, meaning “he increases.”

of the houseCLXII of David.CLXIII The virgin’s name was Mary.CLXIV 

Notes on verse 27b

CLXII “house” = oikos. Same as “home” in v23. See note CXLIII above.
CLXIII “David” = Dauid. From Hebrew David (David); from the same as dod (beloved, love, uncle); the root may mean to boil, which is used figuratively to describe love. So, this implies someone you love such as a friend, a lover, or a close family member like an uncle. David’s name likely means something like “beloved one.”
CLXIV “Mary” = Mariam. From Hebrew Miryam (Aaron and Moses’s sister); from marah (to be contentious, rebellious, bitter, provoking, disobedient; to be or make bitter or unpleasant; figuratively, to rebel or resist; causatively to provoke). This is Miriam or Mary.

28 And he cameCLXV to her and said, “Greetings,CLXVI favored one!CLXVII The Lord is with you.”CLXVIII 

Notes on verse 28

CLXV “came” = eiserchomai. Same as “enter” in v9. See note LIX above.
CLXVI “greetings” = chairo. Same as “rejoice” in v14. See note LXXXVII above.
CLXVII “favored one” = charitoo. Related to “joy” and “rejoice” in v14. 2x in NT. From charis (grace, kindness, favor, gratitude, thanks; being inclined to or favorable towards – leaning towards someone to share some good or benefit; literal, figurative, or spiritual; grace as abstract concept, manner, or action); {from chairo (see note LXXXV above)}}. This is favored, to make graceful, bestow freely. It is to grace – shown special honor.
CLXVIII Some manuscripts add, “blessed are you among women” = eulogeo + su + en + gune. Eulogeo is related to “word” in v2 & “said” in v26 & “bring…good news” in v19. From eu (see note CXVIII above) + logos (see note XII above). Properly, this is speaking well of – speaking so that the other is benefited. It can mean praise, bless, thank, or call for a blessing. This is where “eulogy” comes from. Gune is the same as “wife” in v5. See note XXXIV above.

29 But she was much perplexedCLXIX by his words and ponderedCLXX what sort of greetingCLXXI this might be. 

Notes on verse 29

CLXIX “was much perplexed” = diatarasso. Related to “was terrified” in v12. 1x in NT. From dia (through, for the sake of, across, thoroughly) + tarasso (trouble, agitate, stir up; motion back and forth, creating inner turmoil or confusion, roiling water). This is to agitate or trouble greatly. It can also refer to thorough distress.
CLXX “pondered” = dialogizomai. Related to “word” in v2 & “said” in v24 & {untranslated} in v28. 16x in NT. From dia (through, because of, across, thoroughly) + logizmai (to compute or reckon up, to count; figuratively, it is coming to a conclusion or decision using logic; taking an inventory in a literal or figurative sense); {from logos (see note XII above). This is to consider, have a back and forth debate with an uncertain conclusion. It can be multiple confused minds reinforcing a faulty conclusion.
CLXXI “greeting” = aspasmos. 10x in NT. From aspazomai (to welcome, salute, or greet. It can also be to embrace or acclaim); {perhaps from a (with, together with) + a form of spao (to draw, draw out, pull)}. This is a greeting whether face to face or in a letter.

30 The angel said to her, “Do not be afraid, Mary, for you have foundCLXXII favorCLXXIII with God. 31 And now, you will conceive in your wombCLXXIV and bearCLXXV a son, and you will name him Jesus.CLXXVI 

Notes on verses 30-31

CLXXII “found” = heurisko. This is to find, learn, or obtain. It is to discover something, which generally implies a period of searching for it. This is to find in a literal or figurative sense. This is where the word “heuristic” comes from.
CLXXIII “favor” = charis. Related to “joy” and “rejoice” in v14 & “favored one” in v28.  See note CLXVII above.
CLXXIV “womb” = gaster. 9x in NT. This is belly or womb. It can be used specifically to mean pregnant. This is one of the roots of the word “gastronomy.”
CLXXV “bear” = tikto. Related to “children” in v7. 18x in NT. See note XLVIII above.
CLXXVI “Jesus” = Iesous. Related to “Zechariah” and “Abijah” in v5 & “John” in v13 & “Elijah” in v17. From Hebrew Yehoshua (Joshua, the Lord is salvation); {from YHVH (see note XXXI above) + yasha (to deliver, defend, help, preserve, rescue; properly, to be open, wide or free, which implies being safe. So, in a causative sense, this is to free someone)}. This is Jesus or Joshua in Greek – the Lord saves or the Lord is salvation.

32 He will be great and will be calledCLXXVII the Son of the Most High,CLXXVIII and the Lord God will giveCLXXIX to him the throneCLXXX of his ancestorCLXXXI David. 

Notes on verse 32

CLXXVII “called” = kaleo. Same as “name” in v13. See note LXXXII above.
CLXXVIII “Most High” = hupistos. 13x in NT. From hupsos (height, high position, heaven, dignity, eminence; elevation, altitude; to be exalted); from hupsi (on high, aloft); from huper (over, above, beyond) This is highest, heights, heaven. It can also refer to God as Most High or the Supreme One.
CLXXIX “give” = didomi. Related to “handed on” in v2. See note VII above.
CLXXX “throne” = thronos. Probably from thanos (bench); from thrao (to sit). This is throne or seat – the place where the king sits. So, it is used figuratively to mean power, dominion, or a potentate. This is where the word “throne” comes from.
CLXXXI “ancestor” = pater. Same as “parents” in v17. See note CVI above.

33 He will reignCLXXXII over the house of JacobCLXXXIII forever,CLXXXIV and of his kingdomCLXXXV there will be no end.”CLXXXVI 

Notes on verse 33

CLXXXII “reign” = baslieuo. Related to “King” in v5 & “getting on” in v7. From basileus (see note XXV above). This is to reign as king, to rule in a literal or figurative sense.
CLXXXIII “Jacob” = Iakob. From Hebrew Yaaqob (Jacob); from the same as aqeb (heel, hind part, hoof, rear guard of an army, one who lies in wait, usurper). This is James, meaning heel grabber or usurper.
CLXXXIV “forever” = eis + ho + aion. Literally, “to the ages.” Aion is from the same as aei (ever, always, unceasingly, perpetually; on every occasion). This is an age, cycle of time, course, continued duration. It is also used to describe the eternal or forever. This is the word used to discuss the present age or the messianic age.
CLXXXV “kingdom” = basileia. Related to “King” in v5 & “getting on” in v7 & “reign” in v33. From basileus (see note XXV above). This is kingdom, rule, authority, sovereignty, royalty, a realm.
CLXXXVI “end” = telos. Related to “commandments” in v6. See note XLIV above.

34 Mary said to the angel, “How can this be, since I am a virgin?”CLXXXVII 

35 The angel said to her, “The Holy Spirit will comeCLXXXVIII upon you, and the power of the Most High will overshadowCLXXXIX you; therefore the child to be bornCXC will be holy; he will be called Son of God. 

Notes on verses 34-35

CLXXXVII “I am a virgin” = aner + ou + ginosko. Literally, “a man I do not know.” Aner is the same as “man” in v27. See note CLX above. Ginosko is the same as “know” in v18. See note CXII above.
CLXXXVIII “come” = eperchomai. Related to “enter” in v9 & “go” in v17 & “come out” in v22 & “returned” in v23. 10x in NT. From epi (on, upon, to, against, what is fitting) + erchomai (see note LIX above). This is to come upon, arrive, occur. It focuses on the impact or influence beyond the initial coming.
CLXXXIX “overshadow” = episkiazo. 5x in NT– 3x in the Transfiguration, 1x of the annunciation, 1x of Peter healing the sick with his shadow. From epi (on, upon, against, what is fitting) + skia (shadow, thick darkness, outline; figurative for a spiritual situation that is good or bad). This is to envelop, cast a shadow on.
CXC “child to be born” = gennao. Same as “bear” in v13. See note LXXX above.

36 And now, your relativeCXCI Elizabeth in her old ageCXCII has also conceived a son, and this is the sixth month for her who was said to beCXCIII barren. 37 For nothingCXCIV will be impossibleCXCV with God.” 

Notes on verses 36-37

CXCI “relative” = suggenes. Related to “were” in v2 & “wife” in v5 & “bear” in v13 & “birth” in v14. 12x in NT. From sun (with, together with) + genos (family, offspring, kin – in a literal or figurative sense); from ginomai (see note IX above)}. This is relative, kinsman, offspring, or otherwise someone from the same stock. It can also be used for a fellow countryman.
CXCII “old age” = geras. 1x in NT. Perhaps related to geron (old, aged). This is old age or senility. It shares a write with gerontology.
CXCIII “said to be” = kaleo. Same as “name” in v13. See note LXXXII above.
CXCIV “nothing” = oupas + rhema. Pas is the same as “everything” in v3. See note XV above. Rhema is from rheo (to speak, command, make, say, speak of); from ereo (to all, say, speak of, tell; denotes ongoing speech). This is word, which implies a matter or thing spoken, a command, report, promise, thing, or business. Often used for narration, commands, or disputes.
CXCV “be impossible” = adunateo. Related to “power” in v17 & “unable” in v20. 2x in NT. From adunatos (powerless, unable, impotent, or impossible; weak in a literal or figurative sense); {from a (not, without) + dunatos (mighty or powerful; ability of persons, possibility of things; what can be given the power or ability that the subject exhibits); {from dunamai (see note CI above)}}. This is to be unable or impossible.

38 Then Mary said, “Here am I,CXCVI the servantCXCVII of the Lord; let it beCXCVIII with me according to your word.”CXCIX Then the angel departedCC from her.

Notes on verse 38

CXCVI “here am I” = idou. Same as “now” in v20. See note CXIX above.
CXCVII “servant” = doule. Related to “prayer” in v13. 3x in NT– 2x of Mary, 1x of Pentecost. From doulos (a servant or for a slave, enslaved; someone who belongs to someone else, but could be voluntary to pay off debt or involuntary – captured in war and enslaved; a metaphor for serving Christ); perhaps from deo (see note LXXVIII above). This is female slave or bondservant.
CXCVIII “be” = ginomai. Same as “were” in v2. See note IX above.
CXCIX “word” = rhema. Same as “nothing” in v37. See note CXCIV above.
CC “departed” = aperchomai. Same as “returned” in v23. See note CXLII above.

39 In those days Mary set outCCI and wentCCII with hasteCCIII to a JudeanCCIV town in the hill country,CCV 

Notes on verse 39

CCI “set out” = anistemi. Related to “standing” in v11 & “stand” and “sent” in v19. From ana (upwards, up, again, back, anew) + histemi (see note LXX above). This is to raise up, rise, appear. It is to stand up literally or figuratively. Can also mean to resurrect.
CCII “went” = poreuomai. Same as “living” in v6. See note XLI above.
CCIII “haste” = spoude. 12x in NT. From speudo (to hurry, urge on, await); probably from pous (foot in a figurative or literal sense). This is haste, diligence, earnestness, effort. It is being swift to demonstrate one’s enthusiasm. It is doing what one is told right away and with full effort.
CCIV “Judean” = Iouda. Related to “Judea” in v5. 8x in NT. From the same as Ioudas (Judah, Judas); from Hebrew Yehudah (see note XXVII above). This is Judah, Judas, or Jude.
CCV “hill country” = oreinos. 2x in NT. From oros (mountain, hill). This is mountainous or hilly. Here, it refers to Judean highlands.

40 where she entered the house of Zechariah and greetedCCVI Elizabeth. 41 WhenCCVII Elizabeth heardCCVIII Mary’s greeting, the childCCIX leapedCCX in her womb.CCXI And Elizabeth was filled with the Holy Spirit 

Notes on verses 40-41

CCVI “greeted” = aspazomai. Related to “greeting” in v29. See note CLXXI above.
CCVII {untranslated} = ginomai. Same as “were” in v2. See note IX above.
CCVIII “heard” = akouo. Related to “heard” in v13. See note LXXIX above.
CCIX “child” = brephos. 8x in NT. This is used of a fetus (as when the child leapt in Elizabeth’s womb on seeing Mary in Luke 1:41) or a newborn (as the child found in the manger in Luke 2:12). It is a young child or an infant in a literal or figurative sense.
CCX “leaped” = skirtao. 3x in NT. From skairo (to skip). This is to leap or jump, to bound. It can refer to a quickening.
CCXI “womb” = koilia. Same as “birth” in v15. See note XCIV above.

42 and exclaimedCCXII with a loudCCXIII cry,CCXIV

Notes on verse 42a

CCXII “exclaimed” = anaphoneo. 1x in NT. From ana (up, again, back, anew) + phoneo (to call out, summon, shout, address; making a sound whether of an animal, a person, or an instrument); {from phone (voice, sound, tone or noise; also a language or dialect); probably from phemi to declare, say, use contrasts in speaking to shed light on one point of view); {from phao (to shine) or phaino (to bring light, cause to appear, shine, become visible or clear)}. This is to exclaim, cry out, shout.
CCXIII “loud” = megas. Same as “great” in v15. See note LXXXIX above.
CCXIV “cry” = krauge. 6x in NT. From krazo (to cry out, scream, shriek; onomatopoeia for the sound of a raven’s call; figuratively, this is means crying out urgently without intelligible words to express something that is deeply felt). This is a very emotional shout or cry generally or clamor against someone else. It can express alarm, trouble, or grief.

“Blessed areCCXV you among women,CCXVI and blessed is the fruitCCXVII of your womb.CCXVIII 

Notes on verse 42b

CCXV “blessed are” = eulogeo. Same as {untranslated} in v28. See note CLXVIII above.
CCXVI “women” = gune. Same as “wife” in v5. See note XXXIV above.
CCXVII “fruit” = karpos. Related to “took away” in v25. Perhaps from harpazo (to seize by force, snatch away); from haireo (see note CL above). This is a fruit or vegetable, through sometimes it refers to an animal. Figuratively, it is deeds, results, profits, or gain.
CCXVIII “womb” = koilia. Same as “birth” in v15. See note XCIV above.

43 And why has this happened to me, that the motherCCXIX of my Lord comesCCXX to me? 44 ForCCXXI as soon as I heardCCXXII the soundCCXXIII of your greeting,CCXXIV

Notes on verses 43-44a

CCXIX “mother” = meter. Same as “birth” in v15. See note XCIV above.
CCXX “comes” = erchomai. Related to “enter” in v9 & “go” in v17 & “come out” in v22 & “returned” in v23 & “come” in v35. See note LIX above.
CCXXI {untranslated} = idou. Same as “now” in v20. See note CXIX above.
CCXXII “heard” = ginomai. Same as “were” in v2. See note IX above.
CCXXIII “sound” = phone. Related to “exclaimed” in v42. Probably from phemi (see note CCXII above). This is a voice, sound, tone or noise. It can also be a language or dialect.
CCXXIV {untranslated} = eis + ho + ous + ego. Sentence reads: “as soon as the sound of your greeting came to my ears.” Ous is the physical ear, or the perception of hearing, whether physical or cognitive.

the childCCXXV in my wombCCXXVI leaped for joy.CCXXVII 45 And blessedCCXXVIII is she who believed that there would be a fulfillmentCCXXIX of what was spoken to her by the Lord.”

Notes on verses 44b-45

CCXXV “child” = brephos. Same as “child” in v41. See note CCIX above.
CCXXVI “womb” = koilia. Same as “birth” in v15. See note XCIV above.
CCXXVII “joy” = agalliasis. Same as “gladness” in v14. See note LXXXVI above.
CCXXVIII “blessed” = makarios. From makar (happy); from mak– (to become long or large). This is blessed, happy, fortunate. It is when God’s grace/abundance is extended.
CCXXIX “fulfillment” = teleiosis. Related to “commandments” in v6 & “end” in v33. 2x in NT. From teleioo (to finish, accomplish, bring to an end, complete, reach a goal, finish a race, to consummate; completing stages or phases to get to an ultimate conclusion; to consecrate or fulfill); from teleios (going through the steps to complete a stage or phase and then moving on to the next one; reaching an end and so being complete or “perfect”; also full grown or mature); from telos (see note XLIV above). This is completion, consummation, fulfillment, perfection, absolution.

46 And Mary said,

“My soulCCXXX magnifiesCCXXXI the Lord,
47     and my spirit rejoicesCCXXXII in God my Savior,CCXXXIII

Notes on verses 46-47

CCXXX “soul” = psuche. From psucho (to breathe, blow). This is breath, the breath of life, the self, individual, soul. This is the word for that which makes a person unique – their identity, will, personality, affections. This isn’t the soul as the immortal part of us, but as our individuality. It is also not life as a general concept, but specific to people. This is where the words psyche and psychology come from.
CCXXXI “magnifies” = megaluno. Related to “great” in v15. 8x in NT. From megas (see note LXXXIX above). This is to make great, increase, extoll, magnify. It is increase in a literal or figurative sense.
CCXXXII “rejoices” = agalliao. Related to “gladness” in v14. 11x in NT. See note LXXXVI above.
CCXXXIII “Savior” = soter. From sozo (to save, heal, preserve, or rescue. Properly, this is taking someone from danger to safety. It can be delivering or protecting literally or figuratively); from sos (safe, rescued, well). This is savior, deliverer, preserver.

48 for he has lookedCCXXXIV with favor on the lowly stateCCXXXV of his servant.
    SurelyCCXXXVI from now on all generationsCCXXXVII will call me blessed,CCXXXVIII

Notes on verse 48

CCXXXIV “looked” = epiblepo. 3x in NT. From epi (on, upon, against, what is fitting) + blepo (to see, used primarily in the physical sense; figuratively, seeing, which includes attention and so to watchfulness, being observant, perceiving, beware, and acting on the visual information). This is to look at, to regard with favor, to pay focused attention or give special regard to something, to gaze at with pity, to be partial to.
CCXXXV “lowly state” = tapeinosis. 4x in NT. From tapeinoo (bringing someone or something low; figuratively to humble or humiliate – to depress or abase); from tapeinos (low in position, depressed, low in circumstance; fig humiliated, low in spirit). This is humiliation, lowliness, low state, depression.
CCXXXVI “surely” = idou. Same as “now” in v20. See note CXIX above.
CCXXXVII “generations” = genea. Related to “were” in v2 & “wife” in v5 & “bear” in v13 & “birth” in v14 & “relative” in v36. From genos (see note LXXX above). This is family, generation, kind, or nation. As generation, it implies an age as a period of time. It can also mean infinity. This is the root of the word “generation.
CCXXXVIII “call…blessed” = makarizo. Related to “blessed” in v45. 2x in NT. From makarios (see note CCXXVIII above). This is to bless, call happy, consider one fortunate.

49 for the Mighty OneCCXXXIX has done great things for me,
    and holy is his name;
50 indeed, his mercyCCXL is for those who fearCCXLI him
    from generation to generation.
51 He has shownCCXLII strengthCCXLIII with his arm;CCXLIV

Notes on verses 49-51a

CCXXXIX “Mighty One” = dunatos. Related to “power” in v17 & “unable” in v20 & “be impossible” in v37. See note CXCV above.
CCXL “mercy” = eleos. This is mercy, pity, tender mercy, or compassion, whether from humans or from God. This is mercy, generally understood in action by word or deed. When we sing or say “kyrie eleison” (Lord, have mercy), it is related to this word.
CCXLI “fear” = phobeo. Same as “be afraid” in v13. See note LXXVII above.
CCXLII “shown” = poieo. Same as “done” in v25. See note CXLVIII above.
CCXLIII “strength” = kratos. Related to “most excellent” in v3. 12x in NT. See note XIX above.
CCXLIV “arm” = brachion. 3x in NT. From brachus (little, few, a short time). This is arm, which can metaphorically refer to strength. It shares a root with the “brachial” artery.

    he has scatteredCCXLV the proudCCXLVI in the imaginationCCXLVII of their hearts.

Notes on verse 51b

CCXLV “scattered” = diaskorpizo. 9x in NT. From dia (through, on account of, across, thoroughly) + skorpizo (to scatter, distribute, dissipate, waste). This is to separate or disperse. Figuratively, it can be squander or waste.
CCXLVI “proud” = huperephanos. Related to “exclaimed” in v42 & “sound” in v44. 5x in NT. From huper (over, beyond, concerning) + phaino (see note CCXII above). This is proud, arrogant, disdainful. Properly, this word is to over-shine. To set oneself over others as being haughty.
CCXLVII “imagination” = dianoia. Related to “have” in v4 & “named” in v5 & “know” in v18 & “disgrace” in v25. 12x in NT. From dia (through, because of, across, thoroughly) + noieo (to perceive, think, understand); {from nous (mind, understanding, reasoning faculty, intellect, capacity to reflect); from ginosko (see note XXI above)}. This is thought, intellect, or insight. It is thorough, critical thinking to reason through issues to reach a conclusion that is both logically sound and personal.

52 He has brought downCCXLVIII the powerfulCCXLIX from their thrones
    and lifted upCCL the lowly;CCLI

Notes on verse 52

CCXLVIII “brought down” = kathaireo. Related to “took away” in v25 & “fruit” in v42. 9x in NT. From kata (down, against, throughout, among) + haireo (see note CL above)}. This is to take down, destroy, depose, forcibly yank. It is to lower violently, whether literally or figuratively.
CCXLIX “powerful” = dunastes. Related to “power” in v17 & “unable” in v20 & “be impossible” in v37 & “mighty one” in v49. 3x in NT. From dunamai (see note CI above). This is ruler, powerful, or court official. It is someone who has power and authority or, by extension, someone in the royal court.
CCL “lifted up” = hupsoo. Related to “Most High” in v32. From hupsos (CLXXVIII above). This is to elevate in a literal or figurative sense. So it could be to raise up or set something in a high place or to exalt or make something great.
CCLI “lowly” = tapeinos. Related to “lowly state” in v48. 8x in NT. See note CCXXXV above.

53 he has filledCCLII the hungryCCLIII with good thingsCCLIV

Notes on verse 53a

CCLII “filled” = empiplemi. Related to “many” in v1. 5x in NT. From en (in, on, at, by, with, among) + same as pleistos (most, very great, much, very numerous); {from polus (see note I above)}. This is to fill up or satisfy literally or figuratively.
CCLIII “hungry” = peinao. From peina (hunger); related to penomai (working for a living; laborer, poor person; to work for daily bread); from peno (to toil to survive day by day). This is to hunger, be needy, or desire earnestly. It can be being famished in a definitive sense or in comparison to someone or something else. Figuratively, this means to crave.
CCLIV “good things” = agathos. This is good, a benefit, or a good thing. It is good by its very nature, intrinsically good. A different word, kalos, refers to external signs of goodness.

    and sent the richCCLV awayCCLVI empty.CCLVII

Notes on verse 53b

CCLV “rich” = plouteo. Related to “many” in v1 & “filled” in v53. 12x in NT. From ploutizo (to enrich, cause abundance, bring fullness); from ploutos (abundance, wealth, or riches; money, possessions, spiritual abundance, or a valuable bestowment); from polus (see note I above) OR pleo (to sail, voyage); {probably from pluno (to plunge – so to wash); from pluo (to flow)} OR pletho (see note VI above). This is to be rich or abound in. It is to be or get wealth in a literal or figurative sense.
CCLVI “sent…away” = exapostello. Related to “standing” in v11 & “stand” and “sent” in v19 & “set out” in v39. 13x in NT. From ek (from, from out of) + apostello (see note CXVII above). This is to send away, dismiss, send someone for a mission.
CCLVII “empty” = kenos. 18x in NT. Properly, this is something that is empty or void. Hence, it is worthless, foolish, ineffective, morally void, pretentious, unreal, or false.

54 He has come to the aidCCLVIII of his childCCLIX Israel,
    in remembranceCCLX of his mercy,
55 according to the promise he made to our ancestors,
    to AbrahamCCLXI and to his descendantsCCLXII forever.”

Notes on verses 54-55

CCLVIII “come to the aid” = antilambano. Related to “conceived” in v24. 3x in NT. From anti (over against, instead of, corresponding to) + lambano (see note CXLIV above). This is to take instead of, take hold of, help, share in, partake of, enjoy. Properly, to take hold in a way that is proportional or fitting – acting in a way that corresponds to what is needed in the situation. In terms of helping, this is giving the help that matches what is really needed.
CCLIX “child” = pais. Perhaps from paio (to strike or sting). This is child, youth, servant, or slave.
CCLX “remembrance” = mimnesko. Related to “remained” in v22 & “engaged” in v27. From mnaomai (see note CLIX above). This is to remind or remember. It is memory through an active, intentional process or being mindful of. It is not incidentally or accidentally remembering.
CCLXI “Abraham” = Abraam. Related to “Abijah” in v5. From Hebrew Abraham (exalted father); from the same as Abiram (exalted father, a high father – lofty) {from ab (see note XXXIII above) + rum (rise, bring up, being high, extol, exalt, haughty; to raise in a literal or figurative sense)}. This is Abraham, father of many nations or father of a multitude.
CCLXII “descendants” = sperma. Related to “greeting” in v29 & “greeted” in v40. From speiro (to sow seed, spread, scatter); perhaps from spao (see note CLXXI above). This is something sown so it could be seed or offspring and descendants. This is where the word “sperm” comes from.

56 And Mary remainedCCLXIII with her about threeCCLXIV months and then returnedCCLXV to her home.

57 Now the timeCCLXVI cameCCLXVII for Elizabeth to give birth,CCLXVIII and she boreCCLXIX a son. 

Notes on verses 56-57

CCLXIII “remained” = meno. Related to “remained” in v22 & “engaged” in v27 & “remembrance” in v54. See note CXXXVI above.
CCLXIV “three” = treis. This is three.
CCLXV “returned” = hupostrepho. Related to “turn” in v16. From hupo (by, under, about) + strepho (see note XCVIII above). This is to turn back or behind in a literal or figurative sense.
CCLXVI “time” = chronos. Related to “delay” in v21. See note CXXX above.
CCLXVII “came” = pleitho. Same as “filled” in v15. See note XCV above.
CCLXVIII “give birth” = tikto. Same as “bear” in v31. See note CLXXV above.
CCLXIX “bore” = gennao. Same as “bear” in v13. See note LXXX above.

58 Her neighborsCCLXX and relatives heardCCLXXI that the Lord had shown his greatCCLXXII mercy to her, and they rejoiced withCCLXXIII her.

59 CCLXXIVOn the eighthCCLXXV day they cameCCLXXVI

Notes on verses 58-59a

CCLXX “neighbors” = perioikos. Related to “home” in v23. 1x in NT. From peri (about, concerning, all around, encompassing) + oikos (see note CXLIII above). This is one who lives around, i.e. a neighbor.
CCLXXI “heard” = akouo. Same as “heard” in v41. See note CCVIII above.
CCLXXII “shown…great” = megaluno. Same as “magnifies” in v46. See note CCXXXI above.
CCLXXIII “rejoiced with” = sugchairo. Related to “joy” and “rejoice” in v14 & “favored one” in v28 & “favored” in v30. 7x in NT. From sun (with, together with) + chairo (see note LXXXV above). This is to share joy or rejoice together.
CCLXXIV {untranslated} = ginomai. Same as “were” in v2. See note IX above.
CCLXXV “eighth” = ogdoos. 5x in NT. From okto (eight). This is eighth.
CCLXXVI “came” = erchomai. Same as “comes” in v43. See note CCXX above.

to circumciseCCLXXVII the child,CCLXXVIII and they were going to nameCCLXXIX him Zechariah afterCCLXXX his father. 60 But his mother said, “No; he is to be called John.” 

Notes on verses 59b-60

CCLXXVII “circumcise” = peritemno. 18x in NT. From peri (about, concerning, all around, encompassing) + same as tomos or tomoteros (sharp or keener); {from temno (to cut as with a single slice)}. This is to circumcise – literally to cut around.
CCLXXVIII “child” = paidion. Related to “child” in v54. From pais (see note CCLIX above). This is a child as one who is still being educated or trained. Perhaps one seven years old or younger. Used figuratively for an immature Christian.
CCLXXIX “going to name” = kaleo. Same as “name” in v13. See note LXXXII above.
CCLXXX {untranslated} = ho + onoma. Literally, “the name of.” Onoma is the same as “named” in v5. See note XXX above.

61 They said to her, “None of your relativesCCLXXXI hasCCLXXXII this name.” 62 Then they began motioningCCLXXXIII to his father to find out what name he wantedCCLXXXIV to giveCCLXXXV him. 

Notes on verses 61-62

CCLXXXI “relatives” = suggeneia. Related to “were” in v2 & “wife” in v5 & “bear” in v13 & “birth” in v14 & “relative” in v36 & “generations” in v48. 3x in NT. From suggenes (relative, kinsman, offspring, or otherwise someone from the same stock; a fellow countryman); {from sun (with, together with) + genos (see note LXXX above)}. This is relatives or kinfolk. It can also refer to a relationship more broadly.
CCLXXXII “has” = kaleo. Same as “name” in v13. See note LXXXII above.
CCLXXXIII “motioning” = enneuo. Related to “motioning” in v21. 1x in NT. From en (in, on, at, by, with) + neuo (see note CXXXV above). This is to motion or make signs – to communicate without words. It could be nodding or another gesture.
CCLXXXIV “wanted” = thelo. This is to wish, desire, will, or intend. It is to choose or prefer in a literal or figurative sense. It can also mean inclined toward or take delight in. It can have a sense of being ready to act on the impulse in question.
CCLXXXV “give” = kaleo. Same as “name” in v13. See note LXXXII above.

63 He askedCCLXXXVI for a writing tabletCCLXXXVII and wrote, “His name is John.” And all of them were amazed.CCLXXXVIII 

Notes on verse 63

CCLXXXVI “asked” = aiteo. This is to ask, demand, beg, desire.
CCLXXXVII “writing tablet” = pinakidion. 1x in NT. From pinax (dish, platter, disc, board, or charger); perhaps from plax something flat and broad, stone tablet); from plasso (to form, mold; to create like a potter shapes clay). This is a writing tablet.
CCLXXXVII “were amazed” = thaumazo. Same as “wondering” in v21. See note CXXIX above.

64 ImmediatelyCCLXXXIX his mouthCCXC was openedCCXCI and his tongueCCXCII freed, and he began to speak, praisingCCXCIIII God. 

Notes on verse 64

CCLXXXIX “immediately” = parachrema. 18x in NT. From para (beside, by, in the presence of) + chrema (something needed or useful– money, possessions, price); {from chraomai (to use, make use of, give what is needed, act in a specific way, request); related to chre (what is proper, fitting, or necessary)}. This is immediately or soon.
CCXC “mouth” = stoma. Related to “circumcise” in v59. Perhaps from tomoteros (see note CCLXXVII above). This is mouth, speech, language, the tip of a sword, an opening in the ground.
CCXCI “was opened” = anoigo. From ana (up, back, again, among, between, anew) + oigo (to open). This is to open in a literal or figurative sense.
CCXCII “tongue” = glossa. Root refers to a point that sticks out. This is tongue in a literal sense, but can also refer to language or a nation that speaks a different language. Figuratively, it can also refer to speaking in tongues or speech inspired by the Spirit.
CCXCIII “praising” = eulogeo. Same as {untranslated} in v28. See note CLXVIII above.

65 Fear cameCCXCIV over all their neighbors,CCXCV and all these thingsCCXCVI were talked about throughout the entireCCXCVII hill country of Judea. 

Notes on verse 65

CCXCIV “came” = ginomai. Same as “were” in v2. See note IX above.
CCXCV “neighbors” = perioikeo. Related to “home” in v23 & “neighbors” in v58. 1x in NT. From peri (about, concerning, all around, encompassing) + oikos (see note CXLIII above). This is one who lives around, i.e. a neighbor.
CCXCVI “things” = rhema. Same as “nothing” in v37. See note CXCIV above.
CCXCVII “entire” = holos. This is whole, complete, or entire. It is a state where every member is present and functioning in concert. This is the root of the word “whole.”

66 All who heardCCXCVIII, CCXCIX them ponderedCCC them and said, “What then will this childCCCI become?”CCCII For indeed the handCCCIII of the Lord was with him.

Notes on verse 66

CCXCVIII “heard” = akouo. Same as “heard” in v41. See note CCVIII above.
CCXCIX {untranslated} = en + ho + kardia. Literally, “in their heart.” Kardia is the same as “hearts” in v17. See note CV above.
CCC “pondered” = tithemi. This is to put, place, set, fix, establish in a literal or figurative sense. Properly, it is placing something in a passive or horizontal position.
CCCI “child” = paidion. Same as “child” in v59. See note CCLXXVIII above.
CCCII “become” = eimi. Same as “were” in v6. See note XXXVIII above.
CCCIII “hand” = cheir. This is the hand in a literal sense. Figuratively, the hand is the means a person uses to accomplish things so it can also mean power, means, or instrument.

67 Then his father Zechariah was filledCCCIV with the Holy Spirit and prophesied:CCCV

68 “BlessedCCCVI be the Lord God of Israel,

Notes on verses 67-68a

CCCIV “filled” = pleitho. Same as “filled” in v15. See note XCV above.
CCCV “prophesied” = propheteuo. Related to “exclaimed” in v42 & “sound” in v44. From prophetes (prophet or poet; one who speaks with inspiration from God); {from pro (before, in front of, earlier than) + phemi (see note CCXII above). This is to prophesy, foretell, or tell forth.
CCCVI “blessed” = eulogetos. Related to “word” in v2 & “said” in v24 & {untranslated} in v28 & “pondered” & “bring…good news” in v19 & {untranslated} in v28. 8x in NT. From eulogeo (see note CLXVIII above). This is blessed, spoken well of, to be praiseworthy, or adorable. This is the root that “eulogy” comes from.

    for he has looked favorablyCCCVII on his peopleCCCVIII and redeemedCCCIX them.

Notes on verse 68b

CCCVII “looked favorably” = episkeptomai. 11x in NT. From epi (on, upon, at, what is fitting) + the base of skopos (a mark or goal like the marker at the end of a race; figuratively, other goals or destinations; also, a watch or sentry); {from skeptomai (to peer out, consider, gaze carefully); perhaps related to skapto (to dig or excavate)}. This is to look at, look out for, see, select, visit.
CCCVIII “people” = laos. Same as “people” in v10. See note LXVI above.
CCCIX “redeemed” = poieo + lutrosis. Poieo is the same as “done” in v25. See note CXLVIII above. Lutrosis is 3x in NT. From lutroo (to redeem, liberate, release because ransom was paid in full; figuratively, returning something or someone to their rightful owner);from lutron (ransom, the money used to free slaves; also a sacrifice of expiation; figurative for atonement); from luo (to loose, release, untie; figuratively, to break, destroy, or annul; releasing what had been withheld). This is ransoming, release, liberation, or redemption It is paying to free someone from imprisonment because of debt or from slavery more generally. Used figuratively for spiritual redemption.

69 He has raised upCCCX a mighty saviorCCCXI for us
    in the house of his childCCCXII David,
70 as he spoke through the mouth of his holy prophetsCCCXIII from of old,CCCXIV

Notes on verses 69-70

CCCX “raised up” = egeiro. This is to awake, raise up or lift up. It can be to get up from sitting or lying down, to get up from sleeping, to rise from a disease or from death. Figuratively, it can be rising from inactivity or from ruins.
CCCXI “mighty savior” = keras + soteria. Literally, “horn of salvation.” Keras is 11x in NT. Perhaps from kar (hair). This is horn or something horn-shaped; horn in a literal or figurative sense – that which prevails or a symbol of power. Soteria is related to “savior” in v47. From soter (see note CCXXXIII above). This is deliverance, salvation, preservation, welfare, prosperity, safety.
CCCXII “child” = pais. Same as “child” in v54. See note CCLIX above.
CCCXIII “prophets” = prophetes. Related to “exclaimed” in v42 & “sound” in v44 & “prophesied” in v67 & “proud” in v51. See note CCCV above.
CCCXIV “old” = aion. Same as “forever” in v33. See note CLXXXIV above.

71     that we would be savedCCCXV from our enemiesCCCXVI and from the hand of all who hateCCCXVII us.

Notes on verse 71

CCCXV “saved” = soteria. Same as “savior” in v69. See note CCCXI above.
CCCXVI “enemies” = echthros. From echthos (hatred). This is an openly hostile person so an enemy, a foe, or a hated person. This speaks of irreconcilable hostility. It can also mean adversary and/or refer to Satan.
CCCXVII “hate” = miseo. From misos (hatred). This word is used in two ways in the New Testament. One has to do with how we prioritize. In order to prioritize something the highest, it means we have to rank other things lower. We cannot have 10 number one priorities. So, the nine that are not number 1, we love less or we value them lower. We make a moral choice the springs from our values about where we put our time, efforts, energy, etc. The other way is detesting or hatred as we normally think of it. This sense has a particular affinity with persecuting the one we hate.

72 Thus he has shown the mercy promised to our ancestors
    and has rememberedCCCXVIII his holy covenant,CCCXIX
73 the oathCCCXX that he sworeCCCXXI to our ancestor Abraham,
to grantCCCXXII us 74     that we, being rescuedCCCXXIII from the hands of our enemies,

Notes on verses 72-74a

CCCXVIII “remembered” = mimnesko. Same as “remembrance” in v54. See note CCLX above.
CCCXIX “covenant” = diatheke. Related to “pondered” in v66. From diatithemi (to place separately – to make a will or covenant; this is arranging ahead of time how things will be accomplished); {from dia (through, because of, across, thoroughly) + tithemi (see note CCC above)}. This is a will, covenant, contract, or agreement.
CCCXX “oath” = horkos. 10x in NT. Related to erkos (fence, enclosure); perhaps related to horion (boundary, territory); from horos (limit, boundary). This is an oath or vow. It is something with limits, done for a sacred purpose.
CCCXXI “swore” = omnuo. This is to swear, to make an oath.
CCCXXII “grant” = didomi. Same as “give” in v32. See note CLXXIX above.
CCCXXIII “rescued” = rhuomai. 18x in NT– including from the Lord’s prayer “deliver us from evil”. Related to eruo (to draw or drag) OR related to rheo (to flow, overflow). This is to rescue or set free. It is to deliver from danger, to snatch up.

might serveCCCXXIV him without fear,CCCXXV 75 in holinessCCCXXVI and righteousnessCCCXXVII
    in his presenceCCCXXVIII all our days.

Notes on verses 74b-75

CCCXXIV “serve” = latreuo. From latris (a hired servant; someone who is qualified to perform a technical task). Properly, this is giving good, technical service because qualified or equipped to do so. It can be serve, minister, worship, or give homage.
CCCXXV “without fear” = aphobos. Related to “fear” in v12 & “be afraid” in v13. 4x in NT. From a (not, without) + phobos (see note LXXV above). This is without fear or cause – also shamelessly, securely, fearlessly.
CCCXXVI “holiness” = hosiotes. 2x in NT. From hosios (righteous, pious, holy, devout, or Holy One; what is worthy of respect or reverence because it corresponds to a higher law). This is holiness or godliness. It is ordained by God and therefore holy and righteous.
CCCXXVII “righteousness” = dikaiosune. Related to “righteous” and “regulations” in v6. From dikaios (see note XXXIX above). This is judicial or divine approval of character or action. This is righteousness, justice, justness, divine righteousness.
CCCXXVIII “in the presence of” = enopios. Same as “in the sight of” in v15. See note XC above.

76 And you, child,CCCXXIX will be called the prophet of the Most High,
    for you will goCCCXXX beforeCCCXXXI the Lord to prepareCCCXXXII his ways,CCCXXXIII

Notes on verse 76

CCCXXIX “child” = paidion. Same as “child” in v59. See note CCLXXVIII above.
CCCXXX “go” = proporeuomai. Related to “living” in v6. 2x in NT. From pro (before, earlier, above) + poreuomai (see note XLI above)}. This is to go before, precede like a guide does or one who is bringing news.
CCCXXXI “before” = enopios. Same as “in the sight of” in v15. See note XC above.
CCCXXXII “prepare” = hetoimazo. Same as “make ready” in v17. See note CIX above.
CCCXXXIII “ways” = hodos. This is way, road, path, or journey. It can imply progress along a route.

77 to giveCCCXXXIV his peopleCCCXXXV knowledgeCCCXXXVI of salvationCCCXXXVII
    by the forgivenessCCCXXXVIII of their sins.CCCXXXIX

Notes on verse 77

CCCXXXIV “give” = didomi. Same as “give” in v32. See note CLXXIX above.
CCCXXXV “people” = laos. Same as “people” in v10. See note LXVI above.
CCCXXXVI “knowledge” = gnosis. Related to “have” in v4 & “named” in v5 & “know” in v18 & “disgrace” in v25 & “thoughts” in v51. From ginosko (see note XXI above). This is knowing, knowledge, understanding, wisdom. It is direct knowledge – working knowledge that links theory and application.
CCCXXXVII “salvation” = soteria. Same as “savior” in v69. See note CCCXI above.
CCCXXXVIII “forgiveness” = aphesis. 17x in NT. From aphiemi (to send away, release, abandon, lay aside, forgive); {from apo (from, away from) + hiemi (to send, to go)}. This is sending away – a release or letting go. So, it can be releasing someone from debt, slavery, or some other obligation – thus, freedom or liberty. Figuratively it can mean to pardon as releasing from the debt of sin.
CCCXXXIX “sins” = hamartia. From hamartano (to miss the mark, do wrong, make a mistake, sin); {from a (not) + meros (a part or share)}. Literally, this means not having one’s share or portion – like not receiving inheritance or what was allotted to you. This word means missing the mark so it is used for guilt, fault, and acts of sin.

78 Because of the tenderCCCXL mercy of our God,
    the dawnCCCXLI from on highCCCXLII will break uponCCCXLIII us,

Notes on verse 78

CCCXL “tender” = splagchnon. 11x in NT. Perhaps from splen (spleen). This is inner organs, entrails, heart, liver. The guts were seen as the root of emotions. So, this could be visceral empathy or sympathy.
CCCXLI “dawn” = anatole. Related to “commandments” in v6 & “end” in v33 & “fulfillment” in v45. 11x in NT. From anatello (rise, shine, or dawn; most often used of the sun; figuratively, achieving a goal or reaching consummation after completing the needed steps); {from ana (up, again, back, anew) + tello (to cause to arise); {from telos (see note XLIV above)}. This is rising, as in the place where the sun rises. So, it refers to the east.
CCCXLII “on high” = hupsos. Related to “Most High” in v32 & “lifted up” in v52. 6x in NT. See note CLXXVIII above.
CCCXLIII “break upon” = episkeptomai. Same as “looked favorably” in v68. See note CCCVII above.

79 to shineCCCXLIV upon those who sitCCCXLV in darknessCCCXLVI and in the shadowCCCXLVII of death,CCCXLVIII

Notes on verse 79a

CCCXLIV “shine” = epiphaino. Related to “exclaimed” in v42 & “sound” in v44 & “proud” in v51 & “prophets” in v70. 4x in NT. From epi (on, upon, among, what is fitting) + phaino (see note CCXII above). This is to shine on, appear, become visible, give light. It can figuratively mean to reveal or be known. It is where “epiphany” comes from.
CCCXLV “sit” = kathemai. Related to “days” and “order” in v5. From kata (down, against, throughout, among) + hemai (see note XXIV above). This is to sit, be enthroned, or reside.
CCCXLVI “darkness” = skotos. Related to “overshadow” in v35. Perhaps from the base of skia (see note CLXXXIX above). This is darkness literal or figurative – as moral or spiritual darkness, sin and what comes from it. This can also mean obscurity.
CCCXLVII “shadow” = skia. Related to “overshadow” in v35 & “darkness” in v79. 7x in NT. See note CLXXXIX above.
CCCXLVIII “death” = thanatos. From thnesko (to die, be dead). This is death, whether literal or spiritual. It can also refer to something that is fatal.

    to guideCCCXLIX our feetCCCL into the way of peace.”CCCLI

Notes on verse 79b

CCCXLIX “guide” = kateuthuno. Related to “bring…good news” in v19 & {untranslated} in v28 & “blessed” in v68 & “pondered” in v66 & “covenant” in v72. 3x in NT. From kata (down, against, throughout, among) + euthuno (to guide, steer, make a straight direction); {from euthus (immediately, upright, straight and not crooked); {perhaps from eu (see note CXVIII above) + tithemi (see note CCC above)}}. This is to make straight i.e. take the most direct route. It can also mean to direct or guide.
CCCL “feet” = pous. Related to “haste” in v39. See note CCIII above.
CCCLI “peace” = eirene. Perhaps from eiro (to join, tie together to form a whole). This is one, peace, quietness, rest, peace of mind, harmony. Peace was a common farewell among Jews (i.e. shalom) and this well-wishing included a blessing of health and wholeness for the individual. This word also indicates wholeness and well-being – when everything that is essential is joined together properly. This is peace literally or figuratively. By implication, it is prosperity (but not in the sense of excessive wealth. Prosperity would have meant having enough from day to day.)

80 The childCCCLII grewCCCLIII and became strongCCCLIV in spirit, and he was in the wildernessCCCLV until the day he appeared publiclyCCCLVI to Israel.

Notes on verse 80

CCCLII “child” = paidion. Same as “child” in v59. See note CCLXXVIII above.
CCCLIII “grew” = auxano. From auksano (to grow or enlarge, whether literal or figurative). This is growing whether in size or mature or greatness or some other metric.
CCCLIV “became strong” = krataioo. Related to “most excellent” in v3 & “strength” in v51. 4x in NT. From kratos (see note XIX above). This is to strengthen, confirm, empower, or prevail.
CCCLV “wilderness” = eremos. Properly, a place that is not settled or farmed, not populated. It could be a deserted area or a desert place. It could be seen as secluded, solitary, or lonesome. Any kind of vegetation is sparse, but so are people generally.
CCCLVI “appeared publicly” = anadeixis. Related to “righteous” and “regulations” in v6 & “righteousness” in v75. 1x in NT. From anadeikunmi (to show, appoint, exhibit, indicate); {from ana (up, again, back, among, anew) + deiknumi (see note XXXIX above)}. This is a public appearance, an exhibition, a declaration that someone is being named to an office or being admitted as a member of an organization.

Image credit: “Visitation” by Liz Valente, 2021.

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