Luke 10:25-37

Luke 10:25-37
Ordinary C33


25 JustI then a lawyerII stood upIII to testIV Jesus. 

Notes on verse 25a

I “just” = idou. From eido (to be aware, see, know, remember, appreciate). This is see! Lo! Behold! Look! Used to express surprise and or draw attention to the statement.
II “lawyer” = nomikos. 9x in NT. From nomos (what is assigned – usage, law, custom, principle; used for the law in general or of God’s law; sometimes used to refer to the first five books of the Bible or the entire Old Testament; also used to refer to theology or the practice and tradition of interpreting and implementing the law of God); {from nemo (to parcel out, assign)}. This is about the law or one who is knowledgeable in the law, a lawyer. It refers to the law of and derived from the Old Testament – Jewish law including the tradition of the elders. This is someone with a level of expertise beyond that of a scribe. Ezra would be a lawyer.
III “stood up” = anistemi. From ana (upwards, up, again, back, anew) + histemi (to make to stand, place, set up, establish, appoint, stand by, stand still, stand ready, stand firm, be steadfast). This is to raise up, rise, appear. It is to stand up literally or figuratively. Can also mean to resurrect.
IV “test” = ekpeirazo. 4x in NT. From ek (from, from out of) + peirazo (to test, try, tempt, or make proof of, scrutinize, or assay something; could also be examine, entice, prove, or discipline); from peira (trial, experiment, attempt, experience, assaying); from the base of peran (over, beyond, across); akin to pera (on the far side); from a derivative or peiro (to pierce). This is to tempt, try, or test.

“Teacher,”V he said, “what must I doVI to inheritVII eternalVIII life?”IX 

Notes on verse 25b

V “Teacher” = didaskalos. From didasko (to teach, direct, instruct, or impart knowledge; in the New Testament, almost always used for teaching scripture); from dao (to learn). This is teacher or master.
VI “do” = poieo. This is to make, do, act, construct, abide, or cause.
VII “inherit” = kleronomeo. Related to “lawyer” in v25. 18x in NT. From kleronomos (heir); {from kleros (lot, portion, heritage; that share assigned to you; also a lot used to determine something by fate, chance, or divine will); {perhaps from klero (casting a lot) or from klao (to break in pieces as one breaks bread)} + the same as nomos (see note II above)}. This is to acquire or get by inheriting.
VIII “eternal” = aionios. From aion (an age, length of time). This is age-long, forever, everlasting. Properly, that which lasts for an age. This is where eon comes from.
IX “life” = zoe. From zao (to live, be alive). This is life including the vitality of humans, plants, and animals – it is life physical and spiritual and life everlasting.

26 He said to him, “What is written in the law?X What do you readXI there?”

27 He answered, “You shall loveXII the LordXIII your GodXIV with allXV your heart,XVI

Notes on verses 26-27a

X “law” = nomos. Related to “lawyer” and “inherit” in v25. See note II above.
XI “read” = anaginosko. From ana (upwards, up, again, back, anew) + ginosko (know, recognize, learn from firsthand experience). This is literally to know again – to recognize, read, or discern.
XII “love” = agapao. Perhaps from agan (much). This is love, longing for, taking pleasure in. It is divine love or human love that echoes divine love.
XIII “Lord” = kurios. From kuros (authority, supremacy). This is a respectful address meaning master or sir. It refers to one who has control or power greater than one’s own. So, it was also applied to God and Jesus as Master or Lord.
XIV “God” = theos. From Proto-Indo-European origins, meaning do, put, place. This is God or a god in general.
XV “all” = holos. This is whole, complete, or entire. It is a state where every member is present and functioning in concert. This is the root of the word “whole.”
XVI “heart” = kardia. Literally the heart, but figuratively mind, character, inner self, will, intention, thoughts, feelings. Also, the center of something. The word heart is only used figuratively in the Old and New Testaments. This is where “cardiac” comes from.

and with all your soul,XVII and with all your strength,XVIII and with all your mind;XIX and your neighborXX as yourself.” 

Notes on verse 27b

XVII “soul” = psuche. From psucho (to breathe, blow). This is breath, the breath of life, the self, individual, soul. This is the word for that which makes a person unique – their identity, will, personality, affections. This isn’t the soul as the immortal part of us, but as our individuality. It is also not life as a general concept, but specific to people. This is where the words psyche and psychology come from.
XVIII “strength” = ischus. 10x in NT. Perhaps from is (force) + echo (to have, hold, possess). This is strength, might, power, force, or ability. It is power that engages immediate resistance.
XIX “mind” = dianoia. 12x in NT. From dia (through, because of, across, thoroughly) + noieo (to perceive, think, understand); {from nous (mind, understanding, reasoning faculty, intellect, capacity to reflect)}. This is thought, intellect, or insight. It is thorough, critical thinking to reason through issues to reach a conclusion that is both logically sound and personal.
XX “neighbor” = plesion. 17x in NT. From pelas (near). This is near, nearby, or neighboring. As one nearby, it can also refer to a neighbor, a member of one’s country, a Christian, or a friend.

28 And he said to him, “You have given the rightXXI answer; doXXII this, and you will live.”XXIII

Notes on verse 28

XXI “right” = orthos. 4x in NT. From orthos (straight, direct, morally upright). This is properly, correct, plainly, rightly.
XXII “do” = poieo. Same as “do” in v25. See note VI above.
XXIII “live” = zao. Related to “life” in v25. See note IX above.

29 But wantingXXIV to justifyXXV himself, he asked Jesus,XXVI “And who is my neighbor?” 

Notes on verse 29

XXIV “wanting” = thelo. This is to wish, desire, will, or intend. It is to choose or prefer in a literal or figurative sense. It can also mean inclined toward or take delight in. It can have a sense of being ready to act on the impulse in question.
XXV “justify” = dikaioo. From dikaios (correct, righteous – implies innocent; this is that which conforms to God’s notion of justice, uprightness); From dike (the principle of justice; that which is right in a way that is very clear; a decision or the execution of that decision; originally, this word was for custom or usage; evolved to include the process of law, judicial hearing, execution of sentence, penalty, and even vengeance; more commonly, it refers to what is right); may be from deiknumi (to show, point out, exhibit; figurative for teach, demonstrate, make known). This is to be righteous, plead the cause of, justify, acquit. Properly, it is being approved, particularly carrying the weight of a legal judgment. It is upright, render just, or innocent.
XXVI “Jesus” = Iesous. From Hebrew Yehoshua (Joshua, the Lord is salvation); {from YHVH (proper name of the God of Israel; the self-existent and eternal one); {from havah (to become) or from hayah (to come to pass, become, be)} + yasha (to deliver, defend, help, preserve, rescue; properly, to be open, wide or free, which implies being safe. So, in a causative sense, this is to free someone)}. This is Jesus or Joshua in Greek – the Lord saves or the Lord is salvation.

30 Jesus replied,XXVII “A manXXVIII was going downXXIX from JerusalemXXX to Jericho,XXXI

Notes on verse 30a

XXVII “replied” = hupolambano. 5x in NT. From hupo (by, under, about, subordinate to) + lambano (active acceptance/taking of what is available or what has been offered; emphasizes the choice and action of the individual). This is to take up or bear up, to receive. It can also mean to welcome or entertain. Further, it can mean to take up discussion of a topic, to suppose, or imagine.
XXVIII “man” = anthropos. Probably from aner (man, male, husband) + ops (eye, face). This is human, humankind. Used for all genders.
XXIX “going down” = katabaino. From kata (down, against, throughout, among) + baino (to walk, go). This is to come down whether from the sky to the ground or from higher ground to lower. It can be used in a literal or figurative sense. Here, going down from means leaving Jerusalem (as it is a higher elevation than its surroundings).
XXX “Jerusalem” = Ierousalem. From Hebrew yerushalaim (probably foundation of peace); {from yarah (to throw, shoot, be stunned; to flow as water so figuratively to instruct or teach) + shalem (to make amends, to be complete or sound)}. This is Jerusalem, dwelling of peace.
XXXI “Jericho” = Hiericho. 7x in NT. From Hebrew Yriychow (Jericho); {perhaps from yareach (moon); {from the same as yerach (month)} OR from ruach (small, breathe, perceive, anticipate, accept, enjoy)}. This is Jericho, meaning either “fragrant” or “moon.”

and fell into the hands ofXXXII robbers,XXXIII who strippedXXXIV him,

Notes on verse 30b

XXXII “fell into the hands of” = peripipto. 3x in NT. From peri (about, concerning, all around, encompassing) + pipto (to fall in a literal or figurative sense). This is to fall around, happen upon, be surrounded by.
XXXIII “robbers” = lestes. 15x in NT– 3x “you are making [my house] a den of robbers” when Jesus cleanses the temple, 3x of Jesus’ arrest “did you come for me…as though I were a bandit?”; 3x of bandits crucified on Jesus’ left and right; 2x of the man falling into the hands of robbers in the Good Samaritan parable; 2x of the Good Shepherd speech (anyone who doesn’t come in by the gate is a bandit) in John 10:1, 8; 1x of Barrabas as a bandit; and 1x Paul writes he is in danger from bandits. From leis (booty); from leizomai (to plunder). This is a bandit or thief – one who steals by violence/force out in the open as opposed to by stealth. These were part of armed gangs.
XXXIV “stripped” = ekduo. 6x in NT– 3x Jesus being stripped before crucifixion, 2x in 2 Corinthians 5:3-4 as a metaphor for death – being stripped of this earthly tent, & 1x in Parable of the Good Samaritan when the man is attacked. From ek (from, from out of) + duo (to sink). This is to strip off or take off.

beatXXXV him, and went away, leavingXXXVI him half dead.XXXVII 

Notes on verse 30c

XXXV “beat” = plege + epitithemi. Literally “inflicted wounds.” Plege is from plesso (to pound, strike, flatten; figuratively, cause a calamity). This is a blow, wound, affliction, or calamity. Epitithemi is from epi (on, upon, what is fitting) + tithemi (to put, place, set, fix, establish in a literal or figurative sense; properly, this is placing something in a passive or horizontal position). This is to lay on or place on, whether in a friendly or aggressive way.
XXXVI “leaving” = aphiemi. From apo (from, away from) + hiemi (to send). This is send away, release, permit, forgive, allow to depart, discharge, or send forth.
XXXVII “half dead” = hemithanes. 1x in NT. From hemisus (half) + thnesko (to die, be dead). This is literally half dead. It can also refer to a state of complete exhaustion.

31 Now by chanceXXXVIII a priestXXXIX was going down that road;XL and when he sawXLI him, he passed by on the other side.XLII 

Notes on verse 31

XXXVIII “chance” = sugkuria. Related to “Lord” In v27. 1x in NT. From sun (with, together with) + kureo (to happen by chance); {from kurios (see note XIII above)}. This is a coincidence or accident.
XXXIX “priest” = hiereus. From hieros (sacred, something sacred, temple, holy, set apart; something consecrated to God or a god). This is a priest, used for Jewish and Gentile priests.
XL “road” = hodos. This is way, road, path, or journey. It can imply progress along a route.
XLI “saw” = horao. To see, perceive, attend to, look upon, experience. Properly, to stare at and so implying clear discernment. This, by extension, would indicate attending to what was seen and learned. This is to see, often with a metaphorical sense. Can include inward spiritual seeing.
XLII “passed by on the other side” = antiparerchomai. 2x in NT. From anti (opposite, instead of, against) + parerchomai (pass by, neglect, disregard; figuratively, to perish or become void); {from para (from beside, by) + erchomai (to come, go)}. This is to pass across from.

32 So likewiseXLIII a Levite,XLIV when he cameXLV to the placeXLVI and saw him, passed by on the other side. 

Notes on verse 32

XLIII “likewise” = homoios. From the same as homou (together); from homos (the same). This is similar to, resembling, like.
XLIV “Levite” = Leuites. 3x in NT. From Leui (Levi, the tribe or a name); from Hebrew Levi (Levi, or the tribe of Levi). This is someone descended from Levi who assists priests.
XLV “came” = ginomai. This is to come into being, to happen, become, be born. It can be to emerge from one state or condition to another or is coming into being with the sense of movement or growth.
XLVI “place” = topos. This is a place or region. It is a smaller space that can only hold a limited number of people whereas chora is a larger place. Figuratively it could be an opportunity.

33 But a SamaritanXLVII while travelingXLVIII came near him; and when he saw him, he was moved with pity.XLIX 

Notes on verse 33

XLVII “Samaritan” = Samarites. 9x in NT. From samareia (Samaria, the city and its region); from Hebrew Shomron (capital of the northern kingdom of Israel); from shamar (to keep, watch, or preserve; to guard something or to protect it as a thorny hedge protects something). This is Samaritan.
XLVIII “travelling” = hodeuo. Related to “road” in v31. 1x in NT. From hodos (see note XL above). This is to journey or travel.
XLIX “moved with pity” = splagchnizomai. 12x in NT– 8x of Jesus having compassion on people or crowds. From splanxnon (inner organs, entrails; seen as the root of emotions). This is moved to compassion from deep within oneself – visceral empathy or sympathy, being deeply moved.

34 He wentL to him and bandagedLI his wounds,LII having pouredLIII oil and wineLIV on them.

Notes on verse 34a

L “went” = proserchomai. Related to “passed by on the other side” in v31. From pros (for, at, towards) + erchomai (see note XLII above). This is to approach, draw near, come up to. It is also used figuratively to mean worship.
LI “bandaged” = katadeo. 1x in NT. From kata (down, against, throughout, among) + deo (to tie, bind, fasten, impel, compel; to declare something against the law or prohibited). This is to bind up.
LII “wounds” = trauma. 1x in NT. Perhaps from titrosko (to wound). This is a wound. It is where the word “trauma” comes from.
LIII “poured” = epicheo. 1x in NT. From epi (on, upon, against, what is fitting) + cheo (to pour). This is to pour on.
LIV “wine” = oinos. Perhaps from Hebrew yayin (wine; root means to effervesce). This is wine. It is where the word “oenophile” comes from.

Then he putLV him on his ownLVI animal,LVII broughtLVIII him to an inn,LIX and took care ofLX him. 

Notes on verse 34b

LV “put” = epibibazo. Related to “going down” in v30. 3x in NT. From epibaino (to board, a horse or vessel, step on, arrive, go abroad); {from epi (on, upon, against, what is fitting) + baino (see note XXIX above)}. This is to place on.
LVI “his own” = idios. This is something that belongs to you or that is personal, private, apart. It indicates a stronger sense of possession than a simple possessive pronoun. This is where “idiot” comes from (denoting someone who hasn’t had formal training or education and so they rely on their own understanding).
LVII “animal” = ktenos. 4x in NT. From ktaomai (to get, purchase, possess). This is an animal used for labor like a horse or a mule – for carrying loads or yoking to a vehicle. Specifically, it can refer to any domestic animal.
LVIII “brought” = ago. This is lead, bring, carry, guide, drive, go.
LIX “inn” = pandocheion. 1x in NT. From pandocheus (innkeeper or host); {from pas (all, every, every kind of) + dechomai (to warmly receive, be ready for what is offered, take, accept, or welcome; to receive in a literal or figurative sense)}. This is literally somewhere that welcomes all. So, it is a hotel or a public inn.
LX “took care of” = epimeleomai. 3x in NT. From epi (on, upon, to, against, what is fitting) + melo (to think about something, take an interest; to care or worry about something). This is to attend to.

35 The next day he took outLXI two denarii,LXII gaveLXIII them to the innkeeper,LXIV and said, ‘Take care of him; and when I come back, I will repayLXV you whatever more you spend.’ 

Notes on verse 35

LXI “took out” = ekballo. From ek (from, from out of) + ballo (to throw, cast, place, put, drop). This is to throw, put out, produce, expel, banish. It is eject in a literal or figurative sense.
LXII “denarii” = denarion. 16x in NT. From Latin deni (ten each) + arius (belonging to). This is a silver Roman coin.
LXIII “gave” = didomi. To give, offer, place, bestow, deliver. This is give in a literal or figurative sense.
LXIV “innkeeper” = pandocheus. Related to “inn” in v34. See note LIX above.
LXV “repay” = apodidomi. Related to “gave” in v35. From apo (from, away from) + didomi (see note LXIII above). This is to give back, return, give away. It is to restore as when one makes payment – to rend what is due, to sell.

36 Which of these three, do you think,LXVI wasLXVII a neighbor to the man who fellLXVIII into the hands of the robbers?” 

Notes on verse 36

LXVI “think” = dokeo. From dokos (opinion). This is to have an opinion, seem, appear, think, suppose. It deals with a personal judgment. This is the root of the word “doxology.”
LXVII “was” = ginomai. Same as “came” in v32. See note XLV above.
LXVIII “fell” = empipto. Related to “fell into the hands of” in v30. 7x in NT. From en (in, on, at, by, with) + pipto (see note XXXII above). This is to fall in, be trapped, involved with, or overwhelmed by.

37 He said, “The one who showedLXIX him mercy.”LXX

Jesus said to him, “GoLXXI and do likewise.”

Notes on verse 37

LXIX “showed” = poieo. Same as “do” in v25. See note VI above.
LXX “mercy” = eleos. This is mercy, pity, tender mercy, or compassion, whether from humans or from God. This is mercy, generally understood in action by word or deed. When we sing or say “kyrie eleison” (Lord, have mercy), it is related to this word.
LXXI “go” = poreuomai. From poros (ford, passageway). This is to go, travel, journey, or die. It refers to transporting things from one place to another and focuses on the personal significance of the destination.

Image credit: “Good Samaritan” by Han Wezelaar.

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