Luke 11:1-13

Luke 11:1-13
Ordinary C35


AHe was prayingB in a certain place,C and after he had finished,D

Notes on verse 1a

A {untranslated} = ginomai. This is to come into being, to happen, become, be born. It can be to emerge from one state or condition to another or is coming into being with the sense of movement or growth.
B “praying” = proseuchomai. From pros (advantageous for, at, toward) + euchomai (to wish, make a request, pray). This is to pray or pray for, to worship or supplicate. It is more literally exchanging one’s own wishes for God’s.
C “place” = topos. This is a place or region. It is a smaller space that can only hold a limited number of people whereas chora is a larger place. Figuratively it could be an opportunity.
D “finished” = pauo. 15x. To stop, refrain, pause, restrain, quit, or come to an end.

one of his disciplesE said to him, “Lord,F teachG us to pray, as JohnH taught his disciples.” 

Notes on verse 1b

E “disciples” = mathetes. From matheteuo (to make a disciple of); from manthano (to learn key facts, gain knowledge from experience; generally implies reflection as part of the learning process); from math– (thinking things through). This is a disciple, learner, or student. It is where we get “mathematics” from.
F “Lord” = Kurios. From kuros (authority, supremacy). This is a respectful address meaning master or sir. It refers to one who has control or power greater than one’s own. So, it was also applied to God and Jesus as Master or Lord.
G “teach” = didasko. From dao (learn). This is to teach, direct, instruct, or impart knowledge. In the New Testament, this is almost always used for teaching scripture.
H “John” = Ioannes. From Hebrew yochanan (Johanan); from Yehochanan (“the Lord has been gracious”); {from YHVH (proper name of the God of Israel); {from havah (to become); from hayah (to be, exist, happen)} + chanan (beseech, show favor, be gracious; properly, to bend in kindness to someone with less status). This is John, meaning “the Lord has been gracious.”

So he said to them, “When you pray, say:

Father,I, J may your nameK be revered as holy.L

Notes on verse 2a

I “Father” = Pater. This is father in a literal or figurative sense. Could be elder, senior, ancestor, originator, or patriarch.
J Some manuscripts include, “our, who is in heaven.” “Heaven” = ouranos may be related to oros (mountain, hill) with the notion of height. This is the air, the sky, the atmosphere, and heaven. It is the sky that is visible and the spiritual heaven where God dwells. Heaven implies happiness, power, and eternity.
K “name” = onoma. May be from ginosko (know, recognize, learn from firsthand experience). This is a name, authority, cause, character, fame, reputation. The name was thought to include something of the essence of the person so it was not thought to be separate from the person.
L “be revered as holy” = hagiazo. From hagios (sacred, holy, set apart, different other; physically pure, morally blameless, or ceremonially set apart); from hagnos (holy, sacred, pure ethically, ritually, or ceremonially; prepared for worship, chaste, unadulterated, pure to the core; undefiled by sin; figurative for innocent, modest, perfect). This is to make holy, consecrate, sanctify, set apart as holy, purify, venerate.

    May your kingdomM come.N, O

Notes on verse 2b

M “kingdom” = basileia. From basileus (king, emperor, sovereign); probably from basis (step, hence foot; a pace); from baino (to walk, to go). This is kingdom, rule, authority, sovereignty, royalty, a realm.
N “come” = erchomai. This is to go or come.
O Some manuscripts include, “your will be done as in heaven also upon the earth.” “Will” = thelema. From thelo (to desire, wise, will, intend). This is the act of will, choice, purpose, or decree. “Earth” = ge. This is earth, land, soil, region, country, the inhabitants of an area.

    GiveP us each dayQ our dailyR bread.S

Notes on verse 3

P “give” = didomi. To give, offer, place, bestow, deliver. This is give in a literal or figurative sense.
Q “day” = hemera. Perhaps from hemai (to sit). This is day, time, or daybreak.
R “daily” = epiousios. 2x in NT. From epeimi or epiousa (next, following, next day or night); {from epi (on, upon, against, what is fitting) + heimi (to go)}. This is necessary, sufficient – what is needed for subsistence or suitable for what is happening.
S “bread” = artos. Perhaps from airo (raise, take up, lift, remove). This is bread or a loaf. It is a loaf as raised.

    And forgiveT us our sins,U
        for we ourselves forgive everyoneV indebtedW to us.

Notes on verse 4a

T “forgive” = aphiemi. From apo (from, away from) + hiemi (to send). This is send away, release, permit, forgive, allow to depart, discharge, or send forth.
U “sins” = hamartia. From hamartano (to miss the mark, do wrong, make a mistake, sin); {from a (not) + meros (a part or share)}. Literally, this means not having one’s share or portion – like not receiving inheritance or what was allotted to you. This word means missing the mark so it is used for guilt, fault, and acts of sin.
V “everyone” = pas. This is all or every.
W “indebted” = opheilo. Perhaps from the base of ophelos (advantage, gain, profit); from ophello (heaped together, accumulate, increase). This is to be indebted morally or legally – having an obligation one must meet. This term came from the legal world, but was then adopted in reference to morality. In the New Testament it is used for humanity’s ethical responsibility.

    And do not bringX us to the time of trial.”Y, Z

Notes on verse 4b

X “bring” = eisphero. 8x in NT. From eis (to, into, for, among) + phero (to bear, bring, lead, make known publicly; to carry in a literal or figurative sense)}. This is to carry in, lead into, or announce. It can be literal or figurative.
Y “time of trial” = peirasmos. From peirazo (to test, try, tempt, or make proof of, scrutinize, or assay something; could also be examine, entice, prove, or discipline); from peira (trial, experiment, attempt, experience, assaying); from the base of peran (over, beyond, across); akin to pera (on the far side); from a derivative or peiro (to pierce). This is a test as in an experiment or assaying. It is also trial, temptation, and discipline. Further, it could be used to mean calamity, affliction, or adversity more generally.
Z Some manuscripts include, “but deliver us from the evil one.” “Deliver” = rhuomai. 18x in NT. Related to eruo (to draw or drag) OR related to rheo (to flow, overflow). This is to rescue or set free. It is to deliver from danger, to snatch up. “Evil one” = poneros. From poneo (to toil); related to ponos (pain, trouble, labor, distress, suffering; toil, which implies anguish); from the base of penes (a laborer, poor person, starving or indigent person; someone who works for their living); from pernomai (working for a living; laborer, poor person; to work for daily bread); from peno (to toil to survive day by day). This is bad, evil, wicked, malicious, grievous, or toilsome. Properly, it is something that bears pain – it emphasizes the miseries and pains that come with evil. By contrast, the Greek kakos refers to evil as part of someone’s core character. Also contrasting the Greek sapros, which deals with falling away from a previously embodied virtue. This word can mean ill, diseased, morally culpable, derelict, vicious, malicious, or guilt. It can also refer to the devil or sinners.

And he said to them, “Suppose one of you hasAA a friend,BB and you goCC to him at midnight

Notes on verse 5a

AA “has” = echo. This is to have, hold, possess.
BB “friend” = philos. This is dear, beloved, a friend, an associate; friendship with personal affection, a trusted confidante; love from personal experience with another person.
CC “go” = poreuomai. From poros (ford, passageway). This is to go, travel, journey, or die. It refers to transporting things from one place to another and focuses on the personal significance of the destination.

and say to him, ‘Friend, lendDD me threeEE loaves of bread, for a friend of mine has arrived,FF and I have nothing to set beforeGG him.’ 

Notes on verses 5b-6

DD “lend” = chrao. 1x in NT. Probably related to chraomai (to use, make use of, give what is needed, act in a specific way, request); related to chre (what is proper, fitting, or necessary). This is to lend or loan.
EE “three” = treis. This is three or three times.
FF “arrived” = paraginomai + ek + hodos. Paraginomai is related to {untranslated} in v1. From para (from beside, by) + ginomai (see note A above). This is to arrive, appear, reach. It implies appearing publicly. Hodos is way, road, path, or journey. It can imply progress along a route.
GG “set before” = paratithemi. 19x in NT. From para (by, beside, in the presence of) + tithemi (to put, place, set, fix, establish in a literal or figurative sense; properly, this is placing something in a passive or horizontal position). This is properly, to set beside or place before. So, it can mean to set or serve a meal, to deposit something with someone, to set forth an argument. It can also mean to entrust, commend, or tell a parable (as setting forth information).

And he answers from within, ‘Do not botherHH me; the doorII has already been locked,JJ

Notes on verse 7a

HH “bother” = kopos + parecho. Kopos is 18x in NT. From kopto (to cut, strike, cut off; beating the chest to lament and so to mourn). This is trouble, toil, or labor. This is working to the point of exhaustion or weariness. At base, this refers to a blow that lands so swiftly that one is seriously weakened. Figuratively, this is being greatly tired or working to the point of being without strength. Parecho is related to “has” in v5. 16x in NT– including Luke 6:29: “if anyone strikes you on the cheek, offer the other also.” From para (beside, by, in the presence of) + echo (see note AA above). This is present, to show, bring, give, offer to hold near.
II “door” = thura. This is opening or closure so it’s a door, gate, or entrance. Figuratively, this can refer to an opportunity.
JJ “locked” = kleio. 16x in NT. This is to close, shut, or lock in a literal of figurative sense. Figuratively used for shutting out of the kingdom of heaven or the wedding banquet, the heavens shutting as in there is no rain, and also for heartlessness.

and my childrenKK are with me in bed;LL I cannotMM get upNN and give you anything.’ 

Notes on verse 7b

KK “children” = paidion. From pais (child, youth, servant, slave); perhaps from paio (to strike or sting). This is a child as one who is still being educated or trained. Perhaps one seven years old or younger. Used figuratively for an immature Christian.
LL “bed” = koite. 4x in NT. From keimai (to lie, recline, be set, appointed, destined; to lie down literally or figuratively). This is a bad, which can imply living together with someone. By extension, it can refer to promiscuity or sperm.
MM “cannot” = ou + dunamai. Dunamai is to be able, or something that is possible. It can also be empowered or being powerful. The Greek word for “miracle” (dunamis) comes from this root.
NN “get up” = anistemi. From ana (upwards, up, again, back, anew) + histemi (to make to stand, place, set up, establish, appoint, stand by, stand still, stand ready, stand firm, be steadfast). This is to raise up, rise, appear. It is to stand up literally or figuratively. Can also mean to resurrect.

I tell you, even though he will not get up and give him anything out of friendship,OO at least because of his persistencePP he will get upQQ and give him whatever he needs.RR

Notes on verse 8

OO “friendship” = philos. Same as “friend” in v5. See note BB above.
PP “persistence” = anaideia. 1x in NT. From a (not, without) + aidios (shemae, modesty, reverence, awe); {from aideomai (to be ashamed)} OR from a (not, without) + eido (to know, remember, perceive – to see and so understand)}. This is shamelessness, persistence, impudence.
QQ “get up” = egeiro. This is to awake, raise up or lift up. It can be to get up from sitting or lying down, to get up from sleeping, to rise from a disease or from death. Figuratively, it can be rising from inactivity or from ruins.
RR “needs” = chrezo. Related to “lend” in v5. 5x in NT. From chre (see note DD above). This is to need, desire, require.

“So I say to you, Ask,SS and it will be given to you; search,TT and you will find;UU knock,VV and the door will be openedWW for you. 

Notes on verse 9

SS “ask” = aiteo. This is to ask, demand, beg, desire.
TT “search” = zeteo. This is to seek, search for, desire. It is searching for something by inquiring or investigation. It can be seek in a literal or figurative sense. There is a Hebrew figure of speech “to seek God’s face” so it can also mean to worship God. Alternately, you could seek someone’s life i.e. plot to kill them.
UU “find” = heurisko. This is to find, learn, or obtain. It is to discover something, which generally implies a period of searching for it. This is to find in a literal or figurative sense. This is where the word “heuristic” comes from.
VV “knock” = krouo. 9x in NT. To knock, hit a door with a stick in order to enter.
WW “opened” = anoigo. From ana (up, back, again, among, between, anew) + oigo (to open). This is to open in  literal or figurative sense.

10 For everyone who asks receives,XX and everyone who searches finds, and for everyone who knocks, the door will be opened. 11 Is there anyone among you who,YY if your childZZ asked for a fish,AAA would giveBBB a snakeCCC instead of a fish? 

Notes on verses 10-11

XX “receives” = lambano. It does not refer to passive receiving of something, but active acceptance or taking of something whether it is offered or simply nearby. It focuses on individual decision and action.
YY {untranslated} = pater. Same as “Father” in v2. See note I above.
ZZ “child” = huios. This is son, descendant – a son whether natural born or adopted. It can be used figuratively for other forms of kinship.
AAA “fish” = ichthus. This means fish. It was also an early, secret Christian symbol – the “sign of the fish.” It was short for “Jesus Christ, Son of God, Savior” in Greek. See
BBB “give” = epididomi. Related to “give” in v3. 9x in NT. From epi (on, upon, against, what is fitting) + didomi (see note P above). This is to deliver, give over, give up, surrender.
CCC “snake” = ophis. 14x in NT. Perhaps from optanomai (to be seen, to gaze at something with eyes wide open, to see something remarkable). This is snake or serpent, often used of the devil. It is the snake as a type that is sly or cunning – someone malicious.

12 Or if the child asked for an egg, would giveDDD a scorpion?EEE 13 If you, then, who areFFF evil,GGG

Notes on verses 12-13a

DDD “give” = epididomi. Same as “give” in v11. See note BBB above.
EEE “scorpion” = skorpios. 5x in NT. Perhaps from skerpo (to pierce); from skopos (a mark or goal like the marker at the end of a race; figuratively, other goals or destinations; also, a watch or sentry); from skeptomai (to peer out, consider, gaze carefully). This is scorpion – from the root as regards its sting.
FFF “are” = huparcho. From hupo (by, under, about, subordinate to) + archo (to rule, begin, have first rank or have political power). This is to begin or be ready, to exist or possess. It is what one already has or possesses.
GGG “evil” = poneros. Same as {untranslated} in v4. See note Z above.

knowHHH how to giveIII goodJJJ giftsKKK to your children,LLL

Notes on verse 13b

HHH “know” = eido. Related to “persistence” in v8. See note PP above.
III “give” = didomi. Same as “give” in v3. See note P above.
JJJ “good” = agathos. This is good, a benefit, or a good thing. It is good by its very nature, intrinsically good. A different word, kalos, refers to external signs of goodness.
KKK “gifts” = doma. Related to “give” in v3 & “give” in v11. 4x in NT. From didomi (see note P above). This is gift or present.
LLL “children” = teknon. From tikto (to beget, bring forth, produce). This is a child, descendant, or inhabitant.

how much moreMMM will the heavenly Father giveNNN the HolyOOO SpiritPPP to those who ask him!”

Notes on verse 13c

MMM “more” = mallon. This is rather, more than, or better.
NNN “give” = didomi. Same as “give” in v3. See note P above.
OOO “Holy” = hagios. Related to “be revered as holy” in v2. See note above.
PPP “Spirit” = Pneuma. From pneo (to blow, breathe, breathe hard). This is wind, breath, or ghost. A breeze or a blast or air, a breath. Figuratively used for a spirit, the human soul or part of us that is rational. It is also used supernaturally for angels, demons, God, and the Holy Spirit. This is where pneumonia comes from.

Image credit: “Power of the Lord’s Prayer” by Roman Sabatini, 2007.

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