Luke 21:5-19

Luke 21:5-19
Ordinary C51


When some were speakingA about the temple,B how it was adornedC

Notes on verse 5a

A “speaking” = lego. This is to speak, say, name, call, command. It is generally to convey verbally.
B “temple” = hieron. From hieros (sacred, something sacred, temple, holy, set apart; something consecrated to a god). This is the word for temple.
C “adorned” = kosmeo. 10x in NT. From kosmos (order, the world, the universe, including its inhabitants; literally, something that is ordered; can refer to all creation or decoration in the sense that something is better ordered and so more beautiful); perhaps from the base of komizo (to carry, convey, recover); from komeo (to take care of). This is to order, arrange, beautify. It is more beautiful because it is properly arranged in a literal or figurative sense. It can also be used to mean trim a wick.

with beautifulD stonesE and gifts dedicatedF to God, he said, 

Notes on verse 5b

D “beautiful” = kalos. This is good, noble, beautiful, correct, or worthy. This is external signs of goodness like beauty, demonstrations of honorable character, showing moral virtues. A different word, agathos, speaks of intrinsic good.
E “stones” = lithos. This is stone in a literal or figurative sense.
F “gifts dedicated” = anathema. 1x in NT. From anatithemi (to set up or fort, communicate, submit, declare); {from ana (up, again, back, among, anew) + tithemi (to put, place, set, fix, establish in a literal or figurative sense; properly, this is placing something in a passive or horizontal position)}. This is a votive offering in the Temple.

“As for these things that you see,G the daysH will comeI

Notes on verse 6a

G “see” = theoreo. From theaomai (to behold, look upon, see, contemplate, visit); from thaomai (to gaze at a spectacle; to look at or contemplate as a spectator; to interpret something in efforts to grasp its significance); from theoros (a spectator or envoy). This is gazing, beholding, experiencing, discerning. It is looking at something to analyze it and concentrate on what it means. This is the root of the word “theatre” in that people concentrate on the action of the play to understand its meaning.
H “days” = hemera. Perhaps from hemai (to sit). This is day, time, or daybreak.
I “come” = erchomai. This is to come or go.

when not one stone will be leftJ upon another;K all will be thrown down.”L

Notes on verse 6b

J “be left” = aphiemi. From apo (from, away from) + hiemi (to send). This is send away, release, permit, forgive, allow to depart, discharge, or send forth.
K “another” = lithos. Same as “stones” in v5. See note E above.
L “thrown down” = kataluo. 17x in NT. From kata (down, against, throughout, among) + luo (to loose, release, untie; figuratively, to break, destroy, or annul; releasing what had been withheld). Literally, this means thoroughly loosening. It can mean unharnessing or unyoking animals and so to lodge somewhere for a night. It can also mean to disintegrate or demolish in a literal or figurative sense. So, it can be destroy, overthrow, abolish, or tear down.

They askedM him, “Teacher,N when will this be, and what will be the signO that this is about toP take place?”Q 

Notes on verse 7

M “asked” = eperoato. From epi (on, upon, against, what is fitting) + erotao (asking a question or making an earnest request; used when one anticipates special consideration for their request); {from eromai (to ask) OR from ereo (to say, tell, call, speak of)}. This is to question, interrogate, seek, or demand. The questioner is at an advantage – in a preferred position when they make their question.
N “Teacher” = Didaskalos. From didasko (to teach, direct, instruct, or impart knowledge; in the New Testament, almost always used for teaching scripture); from dao (to learn). This is teacher or master.
O “sign” = semeion. From the same as semaino (to give a sign, signify, indicate, make known); from sema (a sign or mark). It is literally a sign of any kind. It also refers to a sign given by God to confirm or authenticate a message or prophecy. It is not necessarily miraculous, but it can be. The Gospel of John generally uses this word instead of miracle.
P “is about to” = mello. Perhaps from melo (something that one is worried or concerned about, something one pays attention to or thinks about). Properly, this is ready, about to happen, to intend, delay, or linger. This is just on the point of acting.
Q “take place” = ginomai. This is to come into being, to happen, become, be born. It can be to emerge from one state or condition to another or is coming into being with the sense of movement or growth.

And he said, “BewareR that you are not led astray,S for manyT will come in my nameU and say, ‘I am he!’ 

Notes on verse 8a

R “beware” = blepo. This is literally to see – it is primarily used in the physical sense. However, figuratively it can be seeing, which includes attention and so to watchfulness, being observant, perceiving, and acting on the visual information. It can also mean beware.
S “led astray” = planao. From plane (wandering – used figuratively for deceit, error, sin, fraudulence, or wandering from orthodoxy); from planos (wandering, misleading, a deceiver or imposter). This is to wander, lead astray, mislead, mistake, seduce, or deceive. Generally used to refer to sin – going off the right path or roaming from truth/virtue. This word shares a root with “planet” (as a heavenly body that wanders).
T “many” = polus. This is much, often, plenteous – a large number or a great extent.
U “name” = onoma. May be from ginosko (know, recognize, learn from firsthand experience). This is a name, authority, cause, character, fame, reputation. The name was thought to include something of the essence of the person so it was not thought to be separate from the person.

and, ‘The timeV is near!’W Do not goX after them.

Notes on verse 8b

V “time” = kairos. This is season, opportunity, occasion. The word chronos is used for chronological time. Kairos is used for spiritually significant time – the right time or appointed time.
W “is near” = eggizo. From eggus (nearby or near in time). This is extremely close by – approaching, at hand, immediately imminent.
X “go” = poreuomai. From poros (ford, passageway). This is to go, travel, journey, or die. It refers to transporting things from one place to another and focuses on the personal significance of the destination.

“When you hearY of warsZ and insurrections,AA do not be terrified,BB

Notes on verse 9a

Y “hear” = akouo. This is hear or listen, but it also means to understand by hearing. This is where the word “acoustics” comes from.
Z “wars” = polemos. 18x in NT. From pelomai (to bustle) or from polus (much, many, abundant). This is war, quarrel, strife; battle, whether one time or on-going. It is war in a literal or figurative sense.
AA “insurrections” = akatastasia. 5x in NT. From akatastatos (unstable, unsettled); {from a (not, without) + kathistemi (to appoint, set in order or set in place, constitute, give standing or authority, put in charge); {from kata (down, against, throughout, among) + histemi (to make to stand, place, set up, establish, appoint, stand by, stand still, stand ready, stand firm, be steadfast)}}. This is instability, upheaval, or disorder. It can be political unrest on the road to anarchy (riot, insurrection). It can also refer to moral tumult.
BB “be terrified” = ptoeo. 2x in NT– both in Luke. Perhaps related to pipto (to fall literally or figuratively) OR petomai (to fly). This is to scare, frighten, fill with panic, flutter. It is to scare someone so that the behave irrationally.

for these things mustCC take place first,DD but the endEE will not follow immediately.”FF 

Notes on verse 9b

CC “must” = dei. From deo (to tie, bind, compel; declare unlawful). This is what is necessary or proper. It is what is needed or what one should do – a duty or something inevitable. This refers to something absolutely necessary.
DD “first” = proton. From protos (what is first, which could be the most important, the first in order, the main one, the chief); from pro (before, first, in front of, earlier). This is firstly, before, in the beginning, formerly.
EE “end” = telos. From tel– (to reach a goal or aim); This is an end, aim, purpose, completion, goal, consummation, or tax. It is completing a stage of something and everything that results from that completion. It can be literal or figurative.
FF “immediately” = eutheos. Related to “gifts dedicated” in v5. From euthus (immediately, upright, straight and not crooked); {perhaps from eu (good, well, well done, rightly) + tithemi (see note F above)}. This is directly, soon, at once.

10 Then he said to them, “NationGG will riseHH against nation and kingdomII against kingdom; 

Notes on verse 10

GG “nation” = ethnos. Probably from etho (a custom or culture). This is people who are united by having similar customs or culture. Generally, it is used to refer to Gentiles. This is a tribe, race, nation, or Gentiles in general. This is where the term “ethnicity” comes from.
HH “rise” = egeiro. This is to awake, raise up or lift up. It can be to get up from sitting or lying down, to get up from sleeping, to rise from a disease or from death. Figuratively, it can be rising from inactivity or from ruins.
II “kingdom” = basileia. From basileus (king, emperor, sovereign); probably from basis (step, hence foot; a pace); from baino (to walk, to go). This is kingdom, rule, authority, sovereignty, royalty, a realm.

11 there will be greatJJ earthquakesKK and in various placesLL faminesMM

Notes on verse 11a

JJ “great” = megas. This is big in a literal or figurative sense – great, large, exceeding, abundant, high, mighty, perfect, strong, etc.
KK “earthquakes” = seismos. 14x in NT. From seio (to shake, move, or quake to and fro; figuratively, to create agitation, fear, or worry). This is a commotion or shaking generally. It can also be a storm or earthquake. This is where “seismic” comes from.
LL “places” = topos. This is a place or region. It is a smaller space that can only hold a limited number of people whereas chora is a larger place. Figuratively it could be an opportunity.
MM “famines” = limos. 12x in NT. Probably from leipo (to leave behind, be lacking). This is hunger, famine, or lacking.

and plagues,NN and there will be dreadful portentsOO and great signs from heaven.PP

Notes on verse 11b

NN “plagues” = loimos. 2x in NT – in Luke & Acts. This is a plague or a person who is a pest.
OO “dreadful portents” = phobetron. 1x in NT. From phobetros (a thing that is feared); from phobeo (to put to flight, terrify, frighten, dread, reverence, to withdraw or avoid; sometimes used in a positive sense to mean the fear of the Lord); from phobos (panic flight, fear, fear being caused, terror, alarm, that which causes fear, reverence, respect); from phebomai (to flee, withdraw, be put to flight). This is a terror, something that brings fear and makes people want to run away.
PP “heaven” = ouranos. May be related to oros (mountain, hill) with the notion of height. This is the air, the sky, the atmosphere, and heaven. It is the sky that is visible and the spiritual heaven where God dwells. Heaven implies happiness, power, and eternity.

12 “But before allQQ this occurs, they will arrestRR you and persecuteSS you;

Notes on verse 12a

QQ “all” = pas. This is all or every.
RR “arrest” = epiballo + epi + su + ho + cheir + autos. Literally, “they will lay their hands on you.” Epiballo is 18x in NT. From epi (on, upon, among, what is fitting) + ballo (to throw, cast, place, put, drop). This is to place on, fall, lay, throw over, think about, waves crashing, emotions emerging. Cheir is the hand in a literal sense. Figuratively, the hand is the means a person uses to accomplish things so it can also mean power, means, or instrument.
SS “persecute” = dioko. From dio (put to flight). This is chase or pursue in an aggressive fashion. By implication, it is persecute. It can also be used positively for eagerly pursuing something.

they will hand you overTT to synagoguesUU and prisons,VV

Notes on verse 12b

TT “hand…over” = paradidomi. From para (from beside, by) + didomi (give, offer, place, bestow, deliver; give in a literal or figurative sense). This is literally to hand over – hence to deliver, abandon, or betray. It implies a personal involvement.
UU “synagogues” = sunagoge. From sun (with, together with, closely associated) + ago (to lead, bring, carry, guide, go, drive). Literally, this is a bringing together, a place of assembly. The term can be used for the people or for the place where they assemble. It is also sometimes used of Christian churches in the New Testament. So, this is synagogue, assembly, congregation, or church. This is where the word “synagogue” comes from.
VV “prisons” = phulake. From phulasso (to guard something so that it doesn’t escape – to watch over it vigilantly; being on guard in a literal or figurative sense); related to phulaks (military guard, sentry, watcher). This is the act of guarding, the person who guards, the place where guarding occurs (i.e. a prison), or the times of guarding (the various watches).

and you will be broughtWW before kingsXX and governorsYY because of my name. 

Notes on verse 12c

WW “brought” = apago. Related to “synagogues” in v12. 16x in NT. From apo (from, away from) + ago (see note UU above). This is to lead away, take away, or bring. Figuratively, it can refer to being led astray or put to death.
XX “kings” = basileus. Related to “kingdom” in v10. See note II above.
YY “governors” = hegemon. Related to “synagogues” and “brought” in v12. From hegeaomai (to think, suppose, have an opinion; to lead the way, what comes in front or first, initial thought, high esteem or authority; one who commands in an official capacity); from ago (see note UU above). This is a leader in general, but also specifically a governor or commander. This is where “hegemony” comes from.

13 This will give you an opportunityZZ to testify.AAA 14 So makeBBB up

Notes on verses 13-14a

ZZ “give…an opportunity” = apobaino. Related to “kingdom” in v10 & “kings” in v12. 4x in NT. From apo (from, away from) + baino (see note II above). This is to go out, become, happen, disembark.
AAA “testify” = marturion. 19x in NT. From martus (a witness whether having heard or seen something; witness literally, judicially, or figuratively; by analogy, a martyr). This is something that counts as evidence whether a witness, testimony, or other proof.
BBB “make” = tithemi. Related to “gifts dedicated” in v5 & “immediately” in v9. See note F above.

your mindsCCC not to prepare your defenseDDD in advance,EEE 

Notes on verse 14b

CCC “minds” = kardia. Literally the heart, but figuratively mind, character, inner self, will, intention, thoughts, feelings. Also, the center of something. The word heart is only used figuratively in the Old and New Testaments. This is where “cardiac” comes from.
DDD “defense” = apologeomai. Related to “speaking” in v5. 10x in NT – 2x in Luke & 6x in Acts & 1x in Romans & 1x in 2 Corinthians. From apo (from, away from) + logos (word, statement, speech, analogy; a word that carries an idea or expresses a thought, a saying; a person with a message or reasoning laid out in words; by implication, a topic, line of reasoning, or a motive; can be used for a divine utterance or as Word – Christ); from lego (see note above)}. This is to make an accounting or defend oneself – particularly in court. It is to present proof or evidence using sound logic.
EEE “prepare…in advance” = promeletao. Related to “is about to” in v7. 1x in NT. From pro (before, first, in front of, earlier) + meletao (to care for, ponder, be diligent, imagine, devise); {from melete (care) or from melo (see note P above)}. This is to prepare ahead of time, premediate.

15 for I will giveFFF you wordsGGG and a wisdomHHH

Notes on verse 15a

FFF “give” = didomi. Related to “hand…over” in v12. See note TT above.
GGG “words” = stoma. Perhaps from tomoteros (sharp, keener); from temno (to cut). This is mouth, speech, language, the tip of a sword, an opening in the ground.
HHH “wisdom” = sophia. From sophos (wise, clever, skilled, learned, cultivated); related to saphes (clear). This is skill, wisdom, insight, intelligence, clarity. It is wisdom as applied through a practical skill or shrewdness. It is not thoughtfulness or the mere gaining of intelligence for its own sake. Sophia is wisdom in action for everyday living.

that noneIII of your opponentsJJJ will be able toKKK withstandLLL or contradict.MMM 

Notes on verse 15b

III “none” = hapas. Related to “all” in v12. From hama (at once, together with) + pas (see note QQ above) OR from a (with) + pas (see above). This is all; every part working together as a unit.
JJJ “opponents” = antikeimai. 8x in NT. From anti (opposite, instead of, against) + keimai (to lie, recline, set, be appointed, be destined). This is to resist, oppose, or withstand. It can also be opposition, adversary, or enemy. This is to lie opposite or place against – being in irreconcilable opposition. Figuratively, it can be repugnant.
KKK “be able to” = dunamai. This is to be able, or something that is possible. It can also be empowered or being powerful. The Greek word for “miracle” (dunamis) comes from this root.
LLL “withstand” = anthistemi. Related to “insurrections” in v9. 14x in NT. From anti (opposite, instead of, against) + histemi (see note AA above). This is to stand against, to take an entirely opposite stance, resist, oppose, or withstand. Figuratively, it is publicly holding your ground. It has its roots as a military term for resisting one’s enemy.
MMM “contradict” = antilego. Related to “speaking” in v5 & “defense” in v14. 11x in NT. From anti (opposite, instead of, against) + lego (see note A above). This is literally to speak against – so, to contradict, oppose, resist. It is being argumentative, especially with a hostile bent through opposition. It can indicate attempts to thwart.

16 You will be betrayedNNN even by parentsOOO and siblings,PPP

Notes on verse 16a

NNN “betrayed” = paradidomi. Same as “hand…over” in v12. See note TT above.
OOO “parents” = goneus. Related to “take place” in v7. From ginomai (see note Q above). This is a parent or a father.
PPP “siblings” = adelphos. From a (with, community, fellowship) + delphus (womb). This is a brother in a literal or figurative sense. It is also used of another member of the Church.

by relativesQQQ and friends,RRR and they will put some of you to death.SSS 

Notes on verse 16b

QQQ “relatives” = suggenes. Related to “take place” in v7 & “parents” in v16. 12x in NT. From sun (with, together with) + genos (family, offspring, kin – in a literal or figurative sense); from ginomai (see note Q above)}. This is relative, kinsman, offspring, or otherwise someone from the same stock. It can also be used for a fellow countryman.
RRR “friends” = philos. This is dear, beloved, a friend, an associate; friendship with personal affection, a trusted confidante; love from personal experience with another person.
SSS “put…to death” = thanatoo. 11x in NT. From thanatos (death, whether literal or spiritual; also something fatal); from thnesko (to die, be dead). This is to kill in a literal or figurative sense – subdue, mortify, be apart from.

17 You will be hatedTTT by all because of my name. 18 But not a hairUUU of your headVVV will perish.WWW 

Notes on verses 17-18

TTT “hated” = miseo. From misos (hatred). This word is used in two ways in the New Testament. One has to do with how we prioritize. In order to prioritize something the highest, it means we have to rank other things lower. We cannot have 10 number one priorities. So, the nine that are not number 1, we love less or we value them lower. We make a moral choice the springs from our values about where we put our time, efforts, energy, etc. The other way is detesting or hatred as we normally think of it. This sense has a particular affinity with persecuting the one we hate.
UUU “hair” = thrix. 15x in NT. This is hair, whether human or animal.
VVV “head” = kephale. This is head or chief. It can be a literal head or, figuratively, a ruler or lord. It can also refer to a corner stone. This is where the word “cephalic” comes from.
WWW “perish” = apollumi. From apo (from, away from) + ollumi (to destroy or ruin; the loss that comes from a major ruination). This is to destroy, cut off, to perish – perhaps violently. It can also mean to cancel or remove.

19 By your enduranceXXX you will gainYYY your souls.ZZZ

Notes on verse 19

XXX “endurance” = hupomone. From hupo (by, under, about) + meno (to stay, remain, wait, await, continue, abide). This is properly to remain behind or remain under. It implies endurance, patience, steadfastness, and waiting in hope.
YYY “gain” = ktaomai. 7x in NT. This is to get, purchase, acquire, gain.
ZZZ “souls” = psuche. From psucho (to breathe, blow). This is breath, the breath of life, the self, individual, soul. This is the word for that which makes a person unique – their identity, will, personality, affections. This isn’t the soul as the immortal part of us, but as our individuality. It is also not life as a general concept, but specific to people. This is where the words psyche and psychology come from.

Image credit: “Religion in Jerusalem” by Saimi Gluck, between 1977 and 1980.

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