Luke 24:36b-48

Luke 24:36b-48
Eastertide B21


36 While they were talking about this, Jesus himself stoodA among them and said to them, “PeaceB be with you.” 37 They wereC startledD and terrified,E

Notes on verses 36-37a

A “stood” = histemi. This is to stand, place, establish, appoint, stand ready, be steadfast.
B “peace” = eirene. Perhaps from eiro (to join, tie together to form a whole). This is one, peace, quietness, rest, peace of mind, harmony. Peace was a common farewell among Jews (i.e. shalom) and this well-wishing included a blessing of health and wholeness for the individual. This word also indicates wholeness and well-being – when everything that is essential is joined together properly. This is peace literally or figuratively. By implication, it is prosperity (but not in the sense of excessive wealth. Prosperity would have meant having enough from day to day.)
C “were” = ginomai. This is to come into being, to happen, become, be born. It can be to emerge from one state or condition to another or is coming into being with the sense of movement or growth.
D “startled” = ptoeo. 2x in NT – both in Luke. Perhaps related to pipto (to fall literally or figuratively) OR petomai (to fly). This is to scare, frighten, fill with panic, flutter. It is to scare someone so that the behave irrationally.
E “terrified” = emphobos. 5x in NT. From en (in, on, at, by, with) + phobos (panic flight, fear, fear being caused, terror, alarm, that which causes fear, reverence, respect); {from phebomai (to flee, withdraw, be put to flight)}. This is to be afraid, fully terrified.

and thoughtF that they were seeingG a ghost.H 

Notes on verse 37b

F “thought” = dokeo. From dokos (opinion). This is to have an opinion, seem, appear, think, suppose. It deals with a personal judgment. This is the root of the word “doxology.”
G “seeing” = theoreo. From theaomai (to behold, look upon, see, contemplate, visit); from thaomai (to gaze at a spectacle; to look at or contemplate as a spectator; to interpret something in efforts to grasp its significance); from theoros (a spectator or envoy). This is gazing, beholding, experiencing, discerning. It is looking at something to analyze it and concentrate on what it means. This is the root of the word “theatre” in that people concentrate on the action of the play to understand its meaning.
H “ghost” = pneuma. From pneo (to blow, breath, breathe hard). This is wind, breath, or ghost. A breeze or a blast or air, a breath. Figuratively used for a spirit, the human soul or part of us that is rational. It is also used supernaturally for angels, demons, God, and the Holy Spirit. This is where pneumonia comes from.

38 He said to them, “Why are you frightened,I and why do doubtsJ ariseK in your hearts?L 

Notes on verse 38

I “frightened” = tarasso. 18x in NT. This is trouble, agitate, stir up. It is motion back and forth, creating inner turmoil or confusion, roiling water.
J “doubts” = dialogismos. 14x in NT. From dialogizomai (to consider, have a back and forth debate with an uncertain conclusion; multiple confused minds reinforcing a faulty conclusion); {from dia (through, because of, across, thoroughly) + logizmai (to compute or reckon up, to count; figuratively, it is coming to a conclusion or decision using logic; taking an inventory in a literal or figurative sense); {from logos (word, statement, speech, analogy; here, word as an account or accounting; can also be a word that carries an idea or expresses a thought, a saying; a person with a message or reasoning laid out in words; by implication, a topic, line of reasoning, or a motive; can be used for a divine utterance or as Word – Christ); from lego (to speak, tell, mention)}. This is reasoning, plotting, argument, discussion that reinforces faulty reasoning, debate.
K “arise” = anabaino. From ana (up, back, among, again, anew) + the same as basis (step, hence foot; a pace); {from baino (to walk, to go)}. This is to come up in a literal or figurative sense – ascent, rise, climb, enter.
L “hearts” = kardia. Literally the heart, but figuratively mind, character, inner self, will, intention, thoughts, feelings. Also, the center of something. The word heart is only used figuratively in the Old and New Testaments. This is where “cardiac” comes from.

39 LookM at my handsN and my feet; seeO that it is I myself.

Notes on verse 39a

M “look” = horao. To see, perceive, attend to, look upon, experience. Properly, to stare at and so implying clear discernment. This, by extension, would indicate attending to what was seen and learned. This is to see, often with a metaphorical sense. Can include inward spiritual seeing.
N “hands” = cheir. This is the hand in a literal sense. Figuratively, the hand is the means a person uses to accomplish things so it can also mean power, means, or instrument.
O “see” = horao. Same as “look” in v39. See note M above.

TouchP me and see;Q for a ghost does not have fleshR and bones as you seeS that I have.” 

Notes on verse 39b

P “touch” = pselaphao. 4x in NT. Probably from psallo (to twang, play, sing psalms, pluck a stringed instrument such as a harp); {from psao (to rub)} + hapha (to handle). This is to touch, feel, or grope about. It is a light touch to explore, discover, or confirm something with physical contact. It can also figuratively mean search for.
Q “see” = horao. Same as “look” in v39. See note M above.
R “flesh” = sarx. May be from saroo (to sweep, cleanse by sweeping); from sairo (to brush off). This is flesh, the body, human nature, materiality, kindred. Flesh is not always evil in scripture (as when it refers to Jesus taking on a human body). However, it is generally used in a negative way for actions made selfishly and not through faith. This can mean animal flesh, i.e. meat, or refer to body in contrast to soul/spirit. Flesh can be a way of talking about how things or people are related or talking about human frailty (physical or moral).
S “see” = theoreo. Same as “seeing” in v37. See note G above.

40 And when he had said this, he showedT them his hands and his feet. 41 While in their joyU they were disbelievingV and still wondering,W he said to them, “Have you anything here to eat?”X 

Notes on verses 40-41

T “showed” = deiknumi. This is to show in a literal or figurative sense so it can be to teach, bring, or point out.
U “joy” = chara. From chairo (to rejoice, be glad or cheerful; a greeting); from char– (to extend favor, lean towards, be inclined to be favorable towards). This is joy, delight, gladness. Can be understood as the feeling you get when you are aware of grace.
V “disbelieving” = apisteo. 8x in NT. From apistos (unbelieving, incredulous, faithless; someone who rejects faith); {from a (not, without) + pistos (faithful, trustworthy, reliable, sure, or true; a fullness of faith); {from peitho (to have confidence, urge, be persuaded, agree, assure, believe, have confidence, trust)}}. This is to intentionally disbelieve, prove false. It can be one who has never believed or a believer who goes astray.
W “wondering” = thaumazo. Related to “seeing” in v37. From thauma (a wonder or marvel; used abstractly for wonderment or amazement; something that evokes emotional astonishment); may be from theaomai (see note G above). This is to marvel, wonder, or admire. To be amazed out of one’s senses or be awestruck. Being astonished and starting to contemplate what was beheld. This root is where the word “theatre” comes from.
X “eat” = brosimos. 1x in NT. From brosis (food or the act of eating; eating in a literal or figurative sense); from bibrosko (to eat). This is edible, meat.

42 They gaveY him a pieceZ of broiledAA fish,BB 43 and he took it and ateCC in their presence.DD

Notes on verses 42-43

Y “gave” = epididomi. 9x in NT. From epi (on, upon, against, what is fitting) + didomi (give, offer, place, bestow, deliver; give in a literal or figurative sense). This is to deliver, give over, give up, surrender.
Z “piece” = meros. This is a part, a share, or a portion.
AA “broiled” = optos. 1x in NT. This is roasted or broiled.
BB “fish” = ichthus. This means fish. It was also an early, secret Christian symbol – the “sign of the fish.” It was short for “Jesus Christ, Son of God, Savior” in Greek. See
CC “ate” = phago. This is to eat or figuratively to consume like rust does.
DD “in…presence” = enopion. From en (in, on, at, by with) + ops (eye, face); {from optanomai (to appear, be seen)}. This is literally “in the eye of” and is used for before or in the presence of.

44 Then he said to them, “These are my wordsEE that I spoke to you while I was still with you—that everything written about me in the lawFF of Moses,GG the prophets,HH

Notes on verse 44a

EE “words” = logos. Related to “doubts” in v38. See note J above.
FF “law” = nomos. From nemo (to parcel out). Literally, this is that which is assigned. It can be usage, custom, or law. This word can be used for human or divine law. It can be used specifically for the law of Moses or as a name for the Torah (the first five books of the Bible). Sometimes it is used for scripture as a whole, used of the Gospel, or of any theology. It is also used for the “tradition of the elders,” which would be the oral Torah – the tradition of the laws plus their interpretations as they were passed down over time. We must carefully consider which meaning of “law” is meant when we interpret passages the word is found in.
GG “Moses” = Mouses. From Hebrew Mosheh (Moses); from mashah (to pull out in a literal or figurative sense, to draw out) OR from Egyptian mes or mesu (child, son i.e. child of…). This is Moses – the one drawn out from the water, which is to say, rescued. If derived from the Egyptian, his name would share a root with Rameses and Thutmose.
HH “prophets” = prophetes. From pro (before, in front of, earlier than) + phemi (to declare, say, use contrasts in speaking to shed light on one point of view); {from phao (to shine) or phaino (to bring light, cause to appear, shine, become visible or clear)}. This is a prophet or poet – one who speaks with inspiration from God.

and the psalmsII mustJJ be fulfilled.”KK 

Notes on verse 44b

II “psalms” = psalmos. Perhaps related to “touch” in v39. 7x in NT. From psallo (see note P above). This is a psalm, a praise song, music accompanied by a stringed instrument like a heart.
JJ “must” = dei. From deo (to tie, bind, compel; declare unlawful). This is what is necessary or proper. It is what is needed or what one should do – a duty or something inevitable. This refers to something absolutely necessary.
KK “be fulfilled” = pleroo. From pleres (to be full, complete, abounding in, occupied with). This is to fill, make full or complete. Properly, this is filling something up to the maximum extent that it can be filled – an appropriate amount for its individual capacity. So, this is used figuratively for furnish, influence, satisfy, finish, preach, perfect, and fulfill.

45 Then he openedLL their mindsMM to understandNN the scriptures,OO 

Notes on verse 45

LL “opened” = dianoigo. 8x in NT. From dia (through, because of, across, thoroughly) + anoigo (to open or open up in a literal or figurative sense; to speak freely); {from ana (up, back, again, among, between, anew) + oigo (to open)}. This is to open fully. It can mean to open the womb as a firstborn does or figuratively to explain or expound.
MM “minds” = nous. From noos (mind) OR from the same as ginosko (to know, recognize, realize, perceive, learn; gaining knowledge through personal experience). This is mind, understanding, reasoning faculty, intellect, capacity to reflect. It can refer to God’s mind or human minds – thoughts, feelings, will, or reflective thinking.
NN “understand” = suniemi. From sun (with, together with) + hiemi (to send, put). This is to put together – used figuratively to mean understand, consider, gain insight. It is bringing together facts or notions and synthesizing them into a whole. It is making a summary to arrive at a final conclusion that includes how to apply the insight to life. It can also imply acting piously or being wise.
OO “scriptures” = graphe. From grapho (to write). This is literally writing, a document. In the New Testament, this is always used for scripture.

46 and he said to them, “Thus it is written, that the MessiahPP is to sufferQQ and to riseRR from the deadSS on the third day, 

Notes on verse 46

PP “Messiah” = Christos. From chrio (consecrate by anointing with oil; often done for prophets, priests, or kings). Literally, the anointed one, Christ. The Greek word for Messiah.
QQ “is to suffer” = pascho. Akin to penthos (mourning, sorrow). This is to be acted on for good or ill. It is often used for negative treatment. Properly, it means feeling strong emotions – especially suffering. It can also be the ability to feel suffering.
RR “rise” = anistemi. Related to “stood” in v36. From ana (upwards, up, again, back, anew) + histemi (see note A above). This is to raise up, rise, appear. It is to stand up literally or figuratively. Can also mean to resurrect.
SS “dead” = nekros. Perhaps from nekus (corpse). This is dead of lifeless, mortal, corpse. It can also be used figuratively for powerless or ineffective. It is where the word “necrotic” comes from.

47 and that repentanceTT and forgivenessUU of sinsVV is to be proclaimedWW

Notes on verse 47a

TT “repentance” = metanoia. Perhaps related to “minds” in v45 & “name” in v47. From meta (with, among, after, beyond) + noieo (to perceive, think, understand); {from nous (see note MM above)}. This is literally to change one’s mind – to choose to think differently and so to act differently because of a moral compunction. It is an intentional change to the inner self. This word shares a root with the English “paranoia.”
UU “forgiveness” = aphesis. Related to “understand” in v45. 17x in NT. From aphiemi (to sent away, release, abandon, lay aside, forgive); {from apo (from, away from) + hiemi (see note NN above)}. This is sending away – a release or letting go. So, it can be releasing someone from debt, slavery, or some other obligation – thus, freedom or liberty. Figuratively it can mean to pardon as releasing from the debt of sin.
VV “sins” = hamartia. Related to “piece” in v42.
WW “proclaimed” = kerusso. This is to proclaim, preach, publish. Properly, it is to act as a herald – announcing something publicly with confidence and/or to persuade.

in his nameXX to all nations,YY beginningZZ from Jerusalem.AAA 48 You are witnessesBBB of these things.

Notes on verses 47b-48

XX “name” = onoma. Perhaps related to “minds” in v45. May be from ginosko (see note MM above). This is a name, authority, cause, character, fame, reputation. The name was thought to include something of the essence of the person so it was not thought to be separate from the person.
YY “nations” = ethnos. Probably from etho (a custom or culture). This is people who are united by having similar customs or culture. Generally, it is used to refer to Gentiles. This is a tribe, race, nation, or Gentiles in general. This is where the term “ethnicity” comes from.
ZZ “beginning” = archomai. From archo (to rule, begin, have first rank or have political power). This is to begin or rule.
AAA “Jerusalem” = Ierousalem. From Hebrew yerushalaim (probably foundation of peace); {from yarah (to throw, shoot, be stunned; to flow as water so figuratively to instruct or teach) + shalem (to make amends, to be complete or sound)}. This is Jerusalem, dwelling of peace.
BBB “witnesses” = martus. This is a witness whether having heard or seen something. It refers to a witness literally, judicially, or figuratively. By analogy, this is a martyr. This is also where the word “martyr” comes from.

Image credit: “Appearance Behind Locked Doors” by Duccio di Buoninsegna, between 1308 and 1311.

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