Luke 3

Luke 3


In the fifteenthI yearII of the reignIII of TiberiusIV Caesar,V

Notes on verse 1a

I “fifteenth” = pentekaidekatos. 1x in NT. From pente (five) + kai (and, even, also, indeed) + dekatos (tenth); {from deka (ten, -teen)}. This is fifteenth.
II “year” = etos. This is year or age.
III “reign” = hegemonia. 1x in NT. From hegemon (a leader in general, but also specifically a governor or commander); from hegeaomai (to think, suppose, have an opinion; to lead the way, what comes in front or first, initial thought, high esteem or authority; one who commands in an official capacity); from ago (lead, bring, carry, drive, go). This is rule, sovereignty, authority, or government. It is where the word “hegemony” comes from.
IV “Tiberius” = Tiberios. 1x in NT. From Latin Tiberius (related to the Tiber); from Tiberis (the Tiber River); perhaps from Celtic dubros (water) OR from Proto-Indo-European the- (to flow or melt). This is Tiberius. See
V “Caesar” = Kaisar. From Latin (Caesar); perhaps from Punic caesai (elephant) OR from Latin a cesiis oculis (because of the blue eyes) OR from Latin a caesarie (because of the hair) OR from Latin a caeso matris utero (born by Caesarean section) OR from Latin caedo (to cut). This is Caesar, at first a last name, then taken as a title by Roman emperors. See

when PontiusVI PilateVII was governorVIII of Judea,IX

Notes on verse 1b

VI “Pontius” = Pontios. 3x in NT. From Latin Pontius (Pontius, a name); from Oscan pontus or pmptus (given names Pontus or Pomptus); {from Proto-Italic kenke (give)} OR from Latin pons (bridge); {from Proto-Indo-European pontehs (path, road); from pent (path)}. This is Pontius, perhaps meaning “bridged.” See
VII “Pilate” = Pilatos. From Latin Pilatus (may mean one who has skill with a javelin); perhaps from pilum (javelin) OR perhaps from pileus (a soft cap made of felt that was brimless and was associated with people who were freedmen). This is Pilate. See
VIII “was governor” = hegemoneuo. Related to “reign” in v1. From hegemon (see note III above). This is to govern or be ruler.
IX “Judea” = Ioudaia. From Hebrew Yehudah (Judah, son of Jacob, his tribal descendants, a name for the southern kingdom. Literally, it means praised); probably from yadah (to throw one’s hands into the air in a gesture of praise); from yad (hand). This is Judea, which was a Roman province.

and HerodX was rulerXI of Galilee,XII

Notes on verse 1c

X “Herod” = Herodes. Perhaps from heros (hero, warrior) + oide (song, ode, legend, tale); {from aoide (song, ode, legend, tale); {from aeido (to sing) + e (this is added to verbs to make them nouns)}} OR from hera (Hera) + oide (same as above). This is Herod, perhaps “hero’s song,” “Hera’s song,” or “heroic.” See
XI “was ruler” = tetrarcheo. 3x in NT– all in this verse. From tetraarcheo (to be tetrarch); from tetraarches (tetrarch; governor with power over a fourth of an area); {from tessares (four; figuratively, total coverage) + archo (to rule, begin, have first rank or have political power)}. This is to rule a territory as its tetrarch.
XII “Galilee” = Galilaia. From Hebrew galil (cylinder, circuit, district); from galal (to roll in a literal or figurative sense, roll away, roll down, wallow, remove, trust). This is Galilee, meaning perhaps region or cylinder.

and his brotherXIII PhilipXIV ruler of the regionXV of IturaeaXVI

Notes on verse 1d

XIII “brother” = adelphos. From a (with, community, fellowship) + delphus (womb). This is a brother in a literal or figurative sense. It is also used of another member of the Church.
XIV “Philip” = Philippos. From philos (dear, beloved, a friend, an associate; friendship with personal affection, a trusted confidante; love from personal experience with another person) + hippos (horse). This is Philip, meaning one who loves horses or is fond of horses.
XV “region” = chora. From chasma (gap, gulf, chasm, open space); from chasko (to gape, yawn). This is space, land, region, fields, open area – the countryside in contrast to the town.
XVI “Iturea” = Itouraios. 1x in NT. From Hebrew Yetur (Jetur, Yetur; one of Ishmael’s sons, his lineage, or their lands; “encircled” or “enclosed”); from the same as tur (something arranged in a row, i.e. a wall). This is Iturea, east of the Sea of Galilee. It may mean border, or “land of the encampments.” See

and Trachonitis,XVII and LysaniasXVIII ruler of Abilene,XIX 

Notes on verse 1e

XVII “Trachonitis” = Tachonitis. 1x in NT. From trachus (rough, uneven, rocky); perhaps from rhegnumi (to break, burst, wreak, crack, break apart). This is Trachonitis, south of Damascus. It means “rough district.”
XVIII “Lysanias” = Lusanias. 1x in NT. From luo (to loose, release, untie; figuratively, to break, destroy, or annul; releasing what had been withheld) + ania (trouble). This is Lysanias, a tetrarch of Abilene. His name means “ending sorrow” or “grief-dispelling.”
XIX “Abilene” = Abilene. 1x in NT. Perhaps from abel (stream); from abel (to flow like a river) OR from balal (to mix as flour with oil) OR from yabal (to flow on a course like a conduit or in a river). This is Abilene, northwest of Damascus in the mountains in Syria. It may mean “land of streams,” “any wind can blow them,” or “grassy place.” See

during the high priesthoodXX of AnnasXXI and Caiaphas,XXII

Notes on verse 2a

XX “high priesthood” = archiereus. Related to “was ruler” in v1. From archo (see note XI above) + hiereus (a priest literal or figurative – of any faith); {from hieros (sacred, something sacred, temple, holy, set apart; something consecrated to God or a god)} This is a high or chief priest.
XXI “Annas” = Hannas. 4x in NT. From Hebrew chananyah (Hannaniah; “the Lord has been gracious” or “the Lord has favored); {from chanan (beseech, show favor, be gracious; properly, to bend in kindness to someone with less status) Yah (the shortened form of the name of the God of Israel; God, Lord); {from YHVH (proper name of the God of Israel; God, Lord; the self-existent or eternal one); from havah (to become) or hayah (to be, become, happen)}}. This is Annas, meaning “the Lord has been gracious.”
XXII “Caiaphas” = Kaiaphas. 9x in NT. From Aramaic (as beautiful) OR from kefa (rock, stone) OR from Akkadian kaypha (dell, depression). This is Caiaphas. See

the wordXXIII of GodXXIV cameXXV

Notes on verse 2b

XXIII “word” = rhema. From rheo (to speak, command, make, say, speak of); from ereo (to all, say, speak of, tell; denotes ongoing speech). This is word, which implies a matter or thing spoken, a command, report, promise, thing, or business. Often used for narration, commands, or disputes.
XXIV “God” = Theos. From Proto-Indo-European origins, meaning do, put, place. This is God or a god in general.
XXV “came” = ginomai. This is to come into being, to happen, become, be born. It can be to emerge from one state or condition to another or is coming into being with the sense of movement or growth.

to JohnXXVI sonXXVII of ZechariahXXVIII in the wilderness.XXIX 

Notes on verse 2c

XXVI “John” = Ioannes. Related to “Annas” in v2. From Hebrew yochanan (Johanan); from Yehochanan (“the Lord has been gracious”); {from YHVH (see note XXI above) + chanan (see note XXI above). This is John, meaning “the Lord has been gracious.”
XXVII “son” = huios. This is son, descendant – a son whether natural born or adopted. It can be used figuratively for other forms of kinship.
XXVIII “Zechariah” = Zacharias. Related to “Annas” and “John” in v2. 11x in NT. From Hebrew Zekaryah (Zechariah, “the Lord has remembered”); {from zakar (to remember, to mark something so that it can be recalled, to be mindful of, to mention) + Yah (see note XXI above). This is Zechariah, Zacharias, meaning “the Lord has remembered.”
XXIX “wilderness” = eremos. Properly, a place that is not settled or farmed, not populated. It could be a deserted area or a desert place. It could be seen as secluded, solitary, or lonesome. Any kind of vegetation is sparse, but so are people generally.

He wentXXX into allXXXI the region aroundXXXII the Jordan,XXXIII proclaimingXXXIV

Notes on verse 3a

XXX “went” = erchomai. This is to come or go.
XXXI “all” = pas. This is all or every.
XXXII “region around” = perichoros. Related to “region” in v1. 9x in NT. From peri (all-around, encompassing, excess) + chora (see note XV above). This is neighboring, surrounding region, circum-adjacent.
XXXIII “Jordan” = Iordanes. 15x in NT. From Hebrew yarden (Jordan river, meaning “descending”); from yarad (to go down, descend; going down in a literal or figurative sense; going to the shore or a boundary, bringing down an enemy). This is the Jordan River, meaning “descending.”
XXXIV “proclaiming” = kerusso. This is to proclaim, preach, publish. Properly, it is to act as a herald – announcing something publicly with confidence and/or to persuade.

a baptismXXXV of repentanceXXXVI for the forgivenessXXXVII of sins,XXXVIII 

Notes on verse 3b

XXXV “baptism” = baptisma. From baptizo (to submerge, wash, or immerse; used specially for baptism); from bapto (to dip or dye; to entirely cover with liquid, to stain). This is dipping or sinking. Also, the rite of baptism.
XXXVI “repentance” = metanoia. From meta (with, among, after, beyond) + noieo (to perceive, think, understand); {from nous (mind, understanding, reasoning faculty, intellect, capacity to reflect)}. This is literally to change one’s mind – to choose to think differently and so to act differently because of a moral compunction. It is an intentional change to the inner self. This word shares a root with the English “paranoia.”
XXXVII “forgiveness” = aphesis. 17x in NT. From aphiemi (to send away, release, abandon, lay aside, forgive); {from apo (from, away from) + hiemi (to send, to go)}. This is sending away – a release or letting go. So, it can be releasing someone from debt, slavery, or some other obligation – thus, freedom or liberty. Figuratively it can mean to pardon as releasing from the debt of sin.
XXXVIII “sins” = hamartia. From hamartano (to miss the mark, do wrong, make a mistake, sin); {from a (not) + meros (a part or share)}. Literally, this means not having one’s share or portion – like not receiving inheritance or what was allotted to you. This word means missing the mark so it is used for guilt, fault, and acts of sin.

as it is writtenXXXIX in the bookXL of the wordsXLI of the prophetXLII Isaiah,XLIII

Notes on verse 4a

XXXIX “written” = grapho. This is to write or describe. It is where the word “graphic” comes from.
XL “book” = biblos. 10x in NT– 5x in reference to books of the Bible, 3x of the book of life, 1x of genealogical account of Jesus, 1x of books of magic. Perhaps from bublos (papyrus); from Phoenician Byblos (a Phoenician city that exported papyrus for writing); {from gb (well, origin) + I (God)}; from Proto-Canaanite g-b-l (Gubla – maybe meaning to border). This is the inside bark of papyrus so it could refer to anything that was written on – a scroll, book, record, roll. It could also have an association with the sacred. See
XLI “words” = logos. From lego (to speak, tell, mention). This is word, statement, speech, analogy. It is a word that carries an idea or expresses a thought, a saying. It could refer to a person with a message or reasoning laid out in words. By implication, this could be a topic, line of reasoning, or a motive. It can be used for a divine utterance or as Word – Christ.
XLII “prophet” = prophetes. From pro (before, in front of, earlier than) + phemi (to declare, say, use contrasts in speaking to shed light on one point of view); {from phao (to shine) or phaino (to bring light, cause to appear, shine, become visible or clear)}. This is a prophet or poet – one who speaks with inspiration from God.
XLIII “Isaiah” = Esaias. Related to “Annas” and “John” and “Zechariah” in v2. From Hebrew Yeshayahu (Isaiah, “salvation of the Lord”); {from yasha (to deliver, defend, help, preserve, rescue; properly, to be open, wide or free, which implies being safe; to free someone) + Yah (see note XXI above)}. This is Isaiah, meaning “salvation of the Lord.”

“The voiceXLIV of one crying outXLV in the wilderness:
‘PrepareXLVI the wayXLVII of the Lord;XLVIII

Notes on verse 4b

XLIV “voice” = phone. Related to “prophet” in v4. Probably from phemi (see note XLII above). This is a voice, sound, tone or noise. It can also be a language or dialect.
XLV “crying out” = boao. 12x in NT. From boe (a cry or shout). This is cry out, make a distress call, ask for desperately need assistance.
XLVI “prepare” = hetoimazo. From hetoimos (make ready, be ready because of being prepared, standing by, adjusted; ready to meet some opportunity or challenge). This is to prepare or provide.
XLVII “way” = hodos. This is way, road, path, or journey. It can imply progress along a route.
XLVIII “Lord” = Kurios. From kuros (authority, supremacy). This is a respectful address meaning master or sir. It refers to one who has control or power greater than one’s own. So, it was also applied to God and Jesus as Master or Lord.

    makeXLIX his pathsL straight.LI

Notes on verse 4c

XLIX “make” = poieo. This is to make, do, act, construct, abide, or cause.
L “paths” = tribos. 3x in NT– all in the proclamation of John the Baptist in Matthew, Mark, and Luke. From tribo (to rub or thresh). This is a rut or path that is made from regular use – a road or highway.
LI “straight” = euthus. 8x in NT. Perhaps from eu (good, well, well done, rightly) + tithemi (to place, lay, set, establish). This is immediately, upright, straight and not crooked.

EveryLII valleyLIII shall be filled,LIV

Notes on verse 5a

LII “every” = pas. Same as “all” in v3. See note XXXI above.
LIII “valley” = pharagx. Related to “Trachonitis” in v1. 1x in NT. Perhaps from peran (over, beyond, across); {akin to pera (on the far side); perhaps from periro (to pierce)} OR rhegnumi (see note XVII above). This is valley, ravine, gap, or winter-torrent.
LIV “be filled” = pleroo. From pleres (to be full, complete, abounding in, occupied with). This is to fill, make full or complete. Properly, this is filling something up to the maximum extent that it can be filled – an appropriate amount for its individual capacity. So, this is used figuratively for furnish, influence, satisfy, finish, preach, perfect, and fulfill.

    and every mountainLV and hillLVI shall be made low,LVII

Notes on verse 5b

LV “mountain” = oros. Perhaps from oro (to rise); perhaps akin to airo (raise, take up, lift, remove). This is mountain or hill.
LVI “hill” = bounos. 2x in NT. This is hill or little hill.
LVII “made low” = tapeinoo. 14x in NT. From tapeinos (low in position, depressed, low in circumstance; fig humiliated, low in spirit). This is bringing someone or something low. Figuratively to humble or humiliate – to depress or abase.

and the crookedLVIII shall be madeLIX straight,
    and the roughLX ways made smooth,LXI

Notes on verse 5c

LVIII “crooked” = skolios. 4x in NT. Perhaps from skelos (the leg); perhaps from skello (to parch). This is crooked, curved, bent, or winding It is bent because it is parched like wood. Used figuratively for morally twisted or perverse. It is something that does not meet God’s standards. Related to the root for “skeleton” and “scoliosis.”
LIX “be made” = eimi. This is to be, exist.
LX “rough” = trachus. Related to “Trachonitis” in v1 & “valley” in v5. 2x in NT. See note XVII above.
LXI “smooth” = leios. 1x in NT. This is smooth or level.

and all fleshLXII shall seeLXIII the salvationLXIV of God.’”

Notes on verse 6

LXII “flesh” = sarx. May be from saroo (to sweep, cleanse by sweeping); from sairo (to brush off). This is flesh, the body, human nature, materiality, kindred. Flesh is not always evil in scripture (as when it refers to Jesus taking on a human body). However, it is generally used in a negative way for actions made selfishly and not through faith. This can mean animal flesh, i.e. meat, or refer to body in contrast to soul/spirit. Flesh can be a way of talking about how things or people are related or talking about human frailty (physical or moral).
LXIII “see” = horao. To see, perceive, attend to, look upon, experience. Properly, to stare at and so implying clear discernment. This, by extension, would indicate attending to what was seen and learned. This is to see, often with a metaphorical sense. Can include inward spiritual seeing.
LXIV “salvation” = soterios. 5x in NT. From soter (a savior, deliverer); from sozo (to save, heal, preserve, or rescue; taking someone from danger to safety; delivering or protecting literally or figuratively); from sos (safe, rescued, well). This is salvation, defender, something or someone saving.

John said to the crowdsLXV coming outLXVI to be baptizedLXVII by him, “You broodLXVIII of vipers!LXIX

Notes on verse 7a

LXV “crowds” = ochlos. Perhaps from echo (to have, hold, possess). This is a crowd, the common people, a rabble. Figuratively, it can refer to a riot.
LXVI “coming out” = ekporeuomai. From ek (from, from out of) + poreuomai (to go, travel, journey, die; refers to transporting things from one place to another; focuses on the personal significance of the destination); {from poros (passageway)}. This is to go forth, depart from, be spoken, flow out, project. This word emphasizes the result a process or passage – how it impacts the person or thing.
LXVII “baptized” = baptizo. Related to “baptism” in v3. See note XXXV above.
LXVIII “brood” = gennema. Related to “came” in v2. 8x in NT. From gennao (to beget, give birth to, or bring forth; properly, procreation by the father, but used of the mother by extension; figuratively, to regenerate); from genna (descent, birth); from genos (family, offspring, kin – in a literal or figurative sense); from ginomai (see note XXV above). This is offspring, child, fruit, brood, or produce in a literal or figurative sense.
LXIX “vipers” = echidna. 5x in NT. From echis (viper, adder). This is some kind of poisonous snake or figuratively poisonous words.

Who warnedLXX you to fleeLXXI from the comingLXXII wrath?LXXIII 

Notes on verse 7b

LXX “warned” = hupodeiknumi. 6x in NT. From hupo (by, under, about, under someone’s authority) + deiknumi (to show, demonstrate, teach, make known). This is to teach, indicate, suggest, prove, exhibit, to show secretly, admonish.
LXXI “flee” = pheugo. This is to run away in a literal or figurative sense. It can also be to flee, escape, shun, or vanish.
LXXII “coming” = mello. Perhaps from melo (something that one is worried or concerned about, something one pays attention to or thinks about). Properly, this is ready, about to happen, to intend, delay, or linger. This is just on the point of acting.
LXXIII “wrath” = orge. From orgao (something that teems or stews; anger rising from prolonged personal contact that is fixed rather than an angry outburst; anger that stems from an individual’s sense of right and wrong, justice, etc.) or from orego (to stretch out towards, yearn for, aspire to, desire). This is impulse, wrath, anger, passion, punishment. Properly, this is fixed anger from ongoing personal irritation caused by something the one getting angry sees as unjust or evil. Wrath implies punishment. Can refer to human or divine wrath.

Therefore, bearLXXIV fruitsLXXV worthyLXXVI of repentance,

Notes on verse 8a

LXXIV “bear” = poieo. Same as “make” in v4. See note XLIX above.
LXXV “fruits” = karpos. Perhaps from harpazo (to seize by force, snatch away); from haireo (to choose, take). This is a fruit or vegetable, through sometimes it refers to an animal. Figuratively, it is deeds, results, profits, or gain.
LXXVI “worthy” = axios. Related to “reign” in v1 & “was governor” in v1. From ago (see note III above). This is related to weight or worth – deserving, suitable, corresponding, due reward.

and do not beginLXXVII to sayLXXVIII to yourselves, ‘We haveLXXIX AbrahamLXXX as our ancestor,’LXXXI

Notes on verse 8b

LXXVII “begin” = archomai. Related to “was ruler” in v1 & “high priesthood” in v2. See note XI above.
LXXVIII “say” = lego. Related to “words” in v4. See note XLI above.
LXXIX “have” = echo. Related to “crowds” in v7. See note LXV above.
LXXX “Abraham” = Abraam. From Hebrew Abraham (exalted father); from the same as Abiram (exalted father, a high father – lofty) {from ab (father literal or figurative) + rum (rise, bring up, being high, extol, exalt, haughty; to raise in a literal or figurative sense)}. This is Abraham, father of many nations or father of a multitude.
LXXXI “ancestor” = pater. This is father in a literal or figurative sense. Could be elder, senior, ancestor, originator, or patriarch.

for I tellLXXXII you, God is ableLXXXIII from these stonesLXXXIV to raise upLXXXV childrenLXXXVI to Abraham. 

Notes on verse 8c

LXXXII “tell” = lego. Same as “say” in v8. See note LXXVIII above.
LXXXIII “is able” = dunamai. This is to be able, or something that is possible. It can also be empowered or being powerful. The Greek word for “miracle” (dunamis) comes from this root.
LXXXIV “stones” = lithos. This is stone in a literal or figurative sense.
LXXXV “raise up” = egeiro. This is to awake, raise up or lift up. It can be to get up from sitting or lying down, to get up from sleeping, to rise from a disease or from death. Figuratively, it can be rising from inactivity or from ruins.
LXXXVI “children” = teknon. From tikto (to beget, bring forth, produce). This is a child, descendant, or inhabitant.

Even now the axLXXXVII is lyingLXXXVIII at the rootLXXXIX of the trees;XC

Notes on verse 9a

LXXXVII “ax” = axine. 2x in NT – both in sermons by John the Baptist in Matthew and Luke. Perhaps from agnumi (to break). This is axe.
LXXXVIII “lying” = keimai. This is to lie, recline, be set, appointed, destined. It is to lie down literally or figuratively.
LXXXIX “root” = rhiza. 17x in NT. This is a root literally or figuratively so it would be the root of what comes from it – shoot, source, descendant. This is where the word “rhizome” comes from.
XC “trees” = dendron. Perhaps from drus (oak). This is tree. It is the same root that “dendrite” comes from.

therefore every tree that does not bear goodXCI fruit will be cut downXCII and thrownXCIII into the fire.”XCIV

10 And the crowds askedXCV him, “What, then, should we do?”XCVI 

Notes on verses 9b-10

XCI “good” = kalos. This is good, noble, beautiful, correct, or worthy. This is external signs of goodness like beauty, demonstrations of honorable character, showing moral virtues. A different word, agathos, speaks of intrinsic good.
XCII “cut down” = ekkopto. 10x in NT. From ek (from, from out of) + kopto (to cut, strike, cut off; beating the chest to lament and so to mourn). This is to cut off, down, out, or away. It can also mean to remove, prevent, hinder, or frustrate.
XCIII “thrown” = ballo. This is to throw, cast, rush, place, or drop. It is throwing, but it could be with more or less velocity and with more or less force/violence.
XCIV “fire” = pur. This is fire, lightning, heat from the sun. Figuratively, it can refer to strife or trials.
XCV “asked” = eperotao. From epi (on, upon, against, what is fitting) + erotao (asking a question or making an earnest request; used when one anticipates special consideration for their request); {from eromai (to ask) OR from ereo (to say, tell, call, speak of)}. This is to question, interrogate, seek, or demand. The questioner is at an advantage – in a preferred position when they make their question.
XCVI “do” = poieo. Same as “make” in v4. See note XLIX above.

11 In reply he said to them, “Whoever has twoXCVII coatsXCVIII must shareXCIX with anyone who has none, and whoever has foodC must do likewise.”CI 

Notes on verse 11

XCVII “two” = duo. This is two or both.
XCVIII “coats” = chiton. 11x in NT. From a Semitic language – see Hebrew kethoneth (tunic). Root means to cover. This is the garment worn beneath the cloak or robe – the one that is closest to the skin.
XCIX “share” = metadidomi. 5x in NT. From meta (with, among, after, beyond) + didomi (give, offer, place, bestow, deliver; give in a literal or figurative sense). This is to share, bestow, offer something to make a change.
C “food” = broma. 17x in NT. From bibrosko (to eat); related to bora (food); perhaps from bosko (to feed or pasture a flock; figuratively, to nourish spiritually). This is any kind of food in a literal or figurative sense.
CI “likewise” = homoios. From the same as homou (together); from homos (the same). This is similar to, resembling, like.

12 Even tax collectorsCII cameCIII to be baptized, and they asked him, “Teacher,CIV what should we do?” 

Notes on verse 12

CII “tax collectors” = telones. From telos (an end, aim, purpose, completion, end goal, consummation, tax; going through the steps to complete a stage or phase and then moving on to the next one) + oneomai (to buy); {from onos (a price or sum)}. This is tax collector, one who worked for the Romans taking taxes from Jews. It also meant the toll house. Literally, this is “paying at the end.”
CIII “came” = erchomai. Same as “went” in v3. See note XXX above.
CIV “Teacher” = Didaskalos. From didasko (to teach, direct, instruct, or impart knowledge; in the New Testament, almost always used for teaching scripture); from dao (to learn). This is teacher or master.

13 He said to them, “CollectCV no moreCVI than the amount prescribedCVII for you.” 

14 SoldiersCVIII also asked him, “And we, what should we do?”

Notes on verses 13-14a

CV “collect” = prasso. This is to do or practice – something done on an on-going basis or by habit. It can also mean to accomplish, attend, or commit.
CVI “more” = pleion. From polus (much, many, abundant). This is many, more, great, having a greater value, more excellent.
CVII “amount prescribed” = diatasso. 16x in NT. From dia (through, across to the other side, thoroughly) + tasso (to arrange, appoint, determine). This is to arrange thoroughly, charge, appoint, give orders to. It is a command that is a proper order, given with the chain of command and so binding. This is from ancient military language.
CVIII “soldiers” = strateuo. 7x in NT. From stratos (encamped army) OR from stratia (army; used figuratively for large, organized groups like the angels and the hosts of heaven, which is to say the stars); from the same as strateuo (to wage war, fight, serve as a soldier; used figuratively for spiritual warfare); or from the base of stronnuo (to spread, to spread out like a bed). This is to fight a war, be a soldier, doing military service. It can also mean doing spiritual warfare figuratively.

He said to them, “Do not extort money from anyone by threatsCIX or false accusation,CX and be satisfiedCXI with your wages.”CXII

Notes on verse 14b

CIX “extort money…by threats” = diaseio. 1x in NT. From dia (through, because of, across, thoroughly) + seio (to shake, vibrate; figuratively to agitate or show fear). This is literally to shake violently. Figuratively, it is to intimidate, extort, of manhandle (a shakedown).
CX “false accusation” = sukophanteo. Related to “prophet” and “voice” in v4. 2x in NT– also in Luke 19:8 when Zacchaeus promises, “if I have defrauded anyone of anything, I will pay back four times as much.” From sukon (ripe fig) + phaino (see note XLII above). This is to defraud or make a false accusation. Literally, it refers to a law that made exporting figs illegal. Someone who used this law to defraud someone else was a “fig informer.” It is where the word “sycophant” comes from.
CXI “be satisfied” = arkeo. 8x in NT. This is to be content or satisfied. It can also mean to ward off.
CXII “wages” = opsonion. Related to “tax collectors” in v12. 4x in NT. From the same as opsarion (fish or little fish. It can also refer to a cooked sauce or salted fish served as a condiment); from opson (cooked food) OR from optos (roasted, cooked); {related to hepso (to steep)} + oneomai (see note CII above). This is wages, salary, expenses, or provisions. It is purchasing food – used later of stipend for soldiers to get rations. It came to mean wages or other pay and figuratively eternal reward.

15 As the peopleCXIII were filled with expectationCXIV and all were questioningCXV in their heartsCXVI concerning John, whether he might be the Messiah,CXVII 

Notes on verse 15

CXIII “people” = laos. This is the people or crowd – often used for the chosen people. This is where the word “laity” comes from.
CXIV “filled with expectation” = prosdokao. 16x in NT. From pros (at, to, toward, with) + dokeuo (to watch). This is to await, anticipate, expect, look for.
CXV “questioning” = dialogizomai. Related to “words” in v4 & “say” in v8. 16x in NT. From dia (through, because of, across, thoroughly) + logizmai (to compute or reckon up, to count; figuratively, it is coming to a conclusion or decision using logic; taking an inventory in a literal or figurative sense); {from logos (see note XLI above)}. This is to consider, have a back and forth debate with an uncertain conclusion. It can be multiple confused minds reinforcing a faulty conclusion.
CXVI “hearts” = kardia. Literally the heart, but figuratively mind, character, inner self, will, intention, thoughts, feelings. Also, the center of something. The word heart is only used figuratively in the Old and New Testaments. This is where “cardiac” comes from.
CXVII “Messiah” = Christos. From chrio (consecrate by anointing with oil; often done for prophets, priests, or kings). Literally, the anointed one, Christ. The Greek word for Messiah.

16 John answered all of them by saying, “CXVIIII baptize you with water,CXIX but one who is more powerfulCXX than I is coming;CXXI I am not worthyCXXII to untieCXXIII

Notes on verse 16a

CXVIII {untranslated} = men. This is truly, indeed, even, in fact. Often, it is not translated, but used to emphasize affirmation.
CXIX “water” = hudor. Perhaps from huetos (rain); from huo (to rain). This is water literal or figurative. It is one of the roots that “hydrogen” and “hydroelectric” come from.
CXX “more powerful” = ischuros. Related to “crowds” in v7 & “have” in v8. From ischuo (to be strong, healthy and vigorous, able, have power, prevail; strength that engages a resisting force); from ischus (strength, might, power, force, ability; power that engages immediate resistance); {{perhaps from is (force) + echo (see note LXV above)}. This is strong – first of physical strength. Later, also used figuratively for forcible, powerful, mighty, vehement, or sure.
CXXI “coming” = erchomai. Same as “went” in v3. See note XXXI above.
CXXII “worthy” = hikanos. From hikneomai (to reach, come to, attain). This is sufficient, suitable, adequate, competent, ample.
CXXIII “untie” = luo. Related to “Lysanias” in v1. See note XVIII above.

the strapCXXIV of his sandals.CXXV He will baptize you with the HolyCXXVI SpiritCXXVII and fire. 

Notes on verse 16b

CXXIV “strap” = himas. 4x in NT. Perhaps from the same as hama (at one, together with, early). This is a thong like a part of a sandal or a strap that is part of a scourge.
CXXV “sandals” = hupodema. 10x in NT. From hupodeo (to bind under wear on the feet); {from hupo (by, under, about, subordinate to) + deo (to tie, bind, fasten, impel, compel; to declare something against the law or prohibited)}. This is a sandal – something bound under the sole.
CXXVI “Holy” = Hagios. From hagnos (holy, sacred, pure ethically, ritually, or ceremonially; prepared for worship, chaste, unadulterated, pure to the core; undefiled by sin; figurative for innocent, modest, perfect). God is totally different from humanity and thus set apart. That which is consecrated to worship God (elements of worship) or to serve God (as the saints) are holy because they are now set apart for God’s purposes. Holy because important to God. This is sacred physically, pure. It can be morally blameless or ceremonially consecrated.
CXXVII “Spirit” = Pneuma. From pneo (to blow, breathe, breathe hard). This is wind, breath, or ghost. A breeze or a blast or air, a breath. Figuratively used for a spirit, the human soul or part of us that is rational. It is also used supernaturally for angels, demons, God, and the Holy Spirit. This is where pneumonia comes from.

17 His winnowing forkCXXVIII is in his handCXXIX to clearCXXX his threshing floorCXXXI

Notes on verse 17a

CXXVIII “winnowing fork” = ptuon. 2x in NT. Perhaps from ptuo (to spit). This is a pitchfork or winnowing shovel.
CXXIX “hand” = cheir. This is the hand in a literal sense. Figuratively, the hand is the means a person uses to accomplish things so it can also mean power, means, or instrument.
CXXX “clear” = diakatharizo. 2x in NT. From dia (through, because of, across, thoroughly) + katharizo (to cleanse, make clean, purify, purge, or declare to be clean; includes cleansing in a literal, ritual, or spiritual sense); {from katharos (clean, clear, pure, unstained; clean in a literal, ritual, or spiritual sense; so, also guiltless, innocent or upright; something that is pure because it has been separated from the negative substance or aspect; spiritually clean because of God’s act of purifying)}. This is cleanse or purge thoroughly.
CXXXI “threshing floor” = halon. 2x in NT. From halos (threshing floor); probably from helisso (to roll up, coil, wrap). This is threshing floor as a place where grain and chaff are rolled.

and to gatherCXXXII the wheatCXXXIII into his granary,CXXXIV but the chaffCXXXV he will burnCXXXVI with unquenchableCXXXVII fire.”

Notes on verse 17b

CXXXII “gather” = sunago. Related to “reign” and “was governor” in v1 & “worthy” in v8. From sun (with, together with, closely associated) + ago (see note III above). This is to lead together and so to assemble, bring together, welcome with hospitality, or entertain. In the sense of assembly, this is the root of the word “synagogue.”
CXXXIII “wheat” = sitos. 15x in NT. This is used for any kind of grain that you can eat. It is usually wheat, but it can also be barley and other grains.
CXXXIV “granary” = apotheke. Related to “straight” in v4. 6x in NT. From apotithemi (to put aside, put away, renounce); {from apo (from, away from) + tithemi (see note LI above)} This is somewhere that things are stored like a barn or repository.
CXXXV “chaff” = achuron. 2x in NT. Perhaps from cheo (to shed). This is chaff.
CXXXVI “burn” = katakaio. 12x in NT. From kata (down, against, among) + kaio (to burn, light, kindle). This is to burn up – entirely consume.
CXXXVII “unquenchable” = asbestos. 4x in NT. From a (not, without) + sbestos (extinguished); {from sbennumi (to quench or extinguish in a literal or figurative sense; to suppress)}. This is not extinguished, unquenchable. It can imply continual. This is where the word “asbestos” comes from.

18 So with manyCXXXVIII otherCXXXIX exhortationsCXL he proclaimed the good newsCXLI to the people. 

Notes on verse 18

CXXXVIII “many” = polus. Related to “more” in v13. See note CVI above.
CXXXIX “other” = heteros. This is other, another, different, strange. It is another of a different kind in contrast to the Greek word allos, which is another of the same kind. This could be a different quality, type, or group.
CXL “exhortations” = parakaleo. From para (beside, by, in the presence of) + kaleo (to call by name, invite, to name, bid, summon, call aloud) {related to keleuo (to command, order, direct); from kelomai (to urge on)}. This is to call to, summon, invite, request, or beg. It can also be exhort or admonish. Also, this can be encourage, comfort, or console. This word has legal overtones and is used of one’s advocate in a courtroom. It is the root of the name of the Holy Spirit “paraclete” is our advocate and comforter.
CXLI “proclaimed the good news” = euaggelizo. Related to “reign” in v1 & “was governor” in v1 & “worthy” in v8 & & “gather” in v17 & “straight” in v4. From eu (see note LI above) + aggelos (angel, messenger; a messenger from God bringing news – whether a prophet or an angel) {from aggellos (to bring tidings); probably from ago (see note III above)}. This is evangelize – literally to preach the good news. It can be those who hear the news, the news, or a way to say gospel.“proclaimed the good news” = euaggelizo. Related to “reign” in v1 & “was governor” in v1 & “worthy” in v8 & & “gather” in v17 & “straight” in v4. From eu (see note LI above) + aggelos (angel, messenger; a messenger from God bringing news – whether a prophet or an angel) {from aggellos (to bring tidings); probably from ago (see note III above)}. This is evangelize – literally to preach the good news. It can be those who hear the news, the news, or a way to say gospel.

19 But Herod the ruler,CXLII who had been rebukedCXLIII by him because of Herodias,CXLIV his brother’s wife,CXLV and because of all the evil thingsCXLVI that Herod had done, 

Notes on verse 19

CXLII “ruler” = tetrarches. Related to “was ruler” in v1 & “high priesthood” in v2 & “begin” in v8. 4x in NT– all referring to Herod. From tetraarches (see note XI above). This is tetrarch, who governs a fourth of a region.
CXLIII “rebuked” = elegcho. 17x in NT. This is to expose, reprove, discipline, convict, or rebuke. It is using convincing evidence to expose a wrong.
CXLIV “Herodias” = Herodias. Related to “Herod” in v1. 6x in NT. From Herodes (see note X above). This is Herodias, perhaps meaning “hero’s song” or “heroic.” She was Herod the Great’s granddaughter.
CXLV “wife” = gune. Related to “came” in v2 & “brood” in v7. Perhaps from ginomai (see note XXV above). This is woman, wife, or bride. This is where the word “gynecologist” comes from.
CXLVI “evil things” = poneros. From poneo (to toil); related to ponos (pain, trouble, labor, distress, suffering; toil, which implies anguish); from the base of penes (a laborer, poor person, starving or indigent person; someone who works for their living); from pernomai (working for a living; laborer, poor person; to work for daily bread); from peno (to toil to survive day by day). This is bad, evil, wicked, malicious, grievous, or toilsome. Properly, it is something that bears pain – it emphasizes the miseries and pains that come with evil. By contrast, the Greek kakos refers to evil as part of someone’s core character. Also contrasting the Greek sapros, which deals with falling away from a previously embodied virtue. This word can mean ill, diseased, morally culpable, derelict, vicious, malicious, or guilt. It can also refer to the devil or sinners.

20 addedCXLVII to them all by shutting upCXLVIII John in prison.CXLIX

Notes on verse 20

CXLVII “added” = prostithemi. Related to “straight” in v4 & “granary” in v17. 18x in NT. From pros (at, to, toward, with) + tithemi (see note LI above). This is to add, place to, bring together for a reason, or add up.
CXLVIII “shutting up” = katakleio. 2x in NT. From kata (down, against, throughout, among) + kleio (to close, lock, shut). This is to confine, lock, incarcerate.
CXLIX “prison” = phulake. From phulasso (to guard something so that it doesn’t escape – to watch over it vigilantly; being on guard in a literal or figurative sense); related to phulaks (military guard, sentry, watcher). This is the act of guarding, the person who guards, the place where guarding occurs (i.e. a prison), or the times of guarding (the various watches).

21 NowCL when allCLI the people were baptized and when JesusCLII also had been baptized

Notes on verse 21a

CL {untranslated} = ginomai. Same as “came” in v2. See note XXV above.
CLI “all” = hapas. Related to “all” in v3 & “thong” in v16. From hama (see note CXXIV above) + pas (see note XXXI above) OR from a (with) + pas (see above). This is all; every part working together as a unit.
CLII “Jesus” = Iesous. Related to “Annas” and “John” and “Zechariah” in v2 & “Isaiah” in v4. From Hebrew Yehoshua (Joshua, the Lord is salvation); {from YHVH (see note XXXI above)} + yasha (see note XLIII above)}. This is Jesus or Joshua in Greek – the Lord saves or the Lord is salvation.

and was praying,CLIII the heavenCLIV was opened,CLV 

Notes on verse 21b

CLIII “praying” = proseuchomai. From pros (advantageous for, at, toward) + euchomai (to wish, make a request, pray). This is to pray or pray for, to worship or supplicate. It is more literally exchanging one’s own wishes for God’s.
CLIV “heaven” = ouranos. Related to “mountain” in v5. May be related to oros (see note LV above) with the notion of height. This is the air, the sky, the atmosphere, and heaven. It is the sky that is visible and the spiritual heaven where God dwells. Heaven implies happiness, power, and eternity.
CLV “opened” = anoigo. From ana (up, back, again, among, between, anew) + oigo (to open). This is to open in literal or figurative sense.

22 and the Holy Spirit descendedCLVI upon him in bodilyCLVII formCLVIII like a dove.CLIX

Notes on verse 22a

CLVI “descended” = katabaino. From kata (down, against, throughout, among) + baino (to walk, go). This is to come down whether from the sky to the ground or from higher ground to lower. It can be used in a literal or figurative sense.
CLVII “bodily” = somatikos. Related to “salvation” in v6. 2x in NT. From soma (body or flesh; body in a literal or figurative sense; the body of Christ); perhaps from sozo (see note LXIV above). This is bodily or physical.
CLVIII “form” = eidos. 5x in NT– including “Spirit descended upon him in bodily form like a dove” in Luke 3:22, at the Transfiguration, “the appearance of his face changed” in Luke 9:29; also “we walk by faith, not by sight” in 2 Corinthians 5:7. From eido (to be aware, see, know, remember, appreciate). This is form, shape, sight, appearance.
CLIX “dove” = peristera. 10x in NT. This is dove or pigeon.

And a voice cameCLX from heaven, “You are my Son, the Beloved;CLXI with you I am well pleased.”CLXII 

Notes on verse 22b

CLX “came” = ginomai. Same as “came” in v2. See note XXV above.
CLXII “Beloved” = Agapetos. From agape (love, goodwill, benevolence; God’s divine love); from agapao (to love, take pleasure in, esteem; to prefer). This is Beloved or very dear one. It is a title for the Messiah, but also for Christians. Properly, this is one who personally experiences God’s love.
CLXII “am well pleased” = eudokeo. Related to “straight” in v4 & “proclaimed the good news” in v18. From eu (see note LI above) + dokeo (to have an opinion, seem, appear, suppose; a personal judgment; to think); from dokos (opinion). This is to think well of, to be pleased or resolved. Properly, this is what someone finds good or acceptable – approving of some action or generally thinking well of.

23 Jesus was about thirtyCLXIII years old when he began his work. He was the son (as was thought)CLXIV of JosephCLXV son ofCLXVI Heli,CLXVII 

Notes on verse 23

CLXIII “thirty” = triakonta. 11x in NT. From treis (three). This is thirty.
CLXIV “thought” = nomizo. 15x in NT. From nomos (what is assigned – usage, law, custom, principle; used for the law in general or of God’s law; sometimes used to refer to the first five books of the Bible or the entire Old Testament; also used to refer to theology or the practice and tradition of interpreting and implementing the law of God); from nemo (to parcel out, assign). This is to practice, think, consider, suppose, hold by custom. This is thinking that something applies given precedent and practice – to do by law.
CLXV “Joseph” = Ioseph. From Hebrew Yoseph (he increases; Joseph); from yasaph (to add, increase, continue, exceed). This is Joseph, meaning “he increases.”
CLXVI “son of” = ho. From here to the end of the chapter, the Greek literally says “of” and not “son of.”
CLXVII “Heli” = Eli. 1x in NT. From Hebrew Eli (Eli, “lofty”); from alah (to go up, ascend, be high, be a priority; to arise in a literal or figurative sense). This is Heli or Eli – name meaning “lofty” or “God is High.” See

24 son of Matthat,CLXVIII son of Levi,CLXIX son of Melchi,CLXX son of Jannai,CLXXI son of Joseph, 

Notes on verse 24

CLXVIII “Matthat” = Matthat. Related to “Annas” and “John” and “Zechariah” in v2 & “Isaiah” in v4 & “Jesus” in v21. 2x in NT. From Mattathias (Mattathias, likely from Matthijah; “gift of the Lord”); from Hebrew Mattithyah (Mattithiah, Matithyah, Mattithyahu; “gift of the Lord”); {from mattath (gift, reward); {from mattan (gift, reward, to give); from natan (to give, put, set, offer; to give literally or figuratively))} + Yah (see note XXI above)}. This is Mathat, likely from Mattithjah. It means “gift.” See
CLXIX “Levi” = Leui. 5x in NT. From Hebrew Levi (Levi; perhaps meaning “attached”; Jacob’s son, his tribe, and descendants); perhaps from lavah (to join, twine, unite, remain, borrow, lend). This is Levi, perhaps meaning “attached” or “joined” or “joiner” or “coiler” or “adhesion.” See
CLXX “Melchi” = Melchi. 2x in NT. From Hebrew melek (king, royal); from malak (to be or become king or queen, to rise to the throne, to be crowned; by implication, to take counsel). This is Melchi or Malki, meaning “my king” or “royal.” See
CLXXI “Jannai” = Iannai. 1x in NT. Probably from Hebrew – maybe related to yanah (to do wrong, oppress, destroy, mistreat, or suppress; can imply violence or anger). This is Jannai.

25 son of Mattathias,CLXXII son of Amos,CLXXIII son of Nahum,CLXXIV son of Esli,CLXXV son of Naggai,CLXXVI 

Notes on verse 25

CLXXII “Mattathias” = Mattathias. Related to “Annas” and “John” and “Zechariah” in v2 & “Isaiah” in v4 & “Jesus” in v21 & “Matthat” in v24. From Hebrew Mattithyah (see note CLXVIII above). This is Mattathias, likely from Mattithjah. It means “gift of the Lord.” See
CLXXIII “Amos” = Amos. 3x in NT. From Hebrew Amots (Amos, meaning “strong”); {from amets (to be strong, stout, alert, or bold; to harden, make firm, be courageous or mighty, fortify, or establish; physical alertness or mental courage or steadfastness) or amas (to carry)}. This is Amos, meaning “strong” or “burden” or “burden bearer.” See
CLXXIV “Nahum” = Naoum. 1x in NT. From Hebrew Nachum (Nahum, “comfortable”); {from nacham (a strong breath or sigh; to be sorry, to pity, console, comfort, or repent; also to comfort oneself with thoughts of vengeance)}. This is Nahum, Naum – likely from Nachum. It means “compassion” or “consolation” or “full of comfort.” See
CLXXV “Esli” = Hesli. Related to “Annas” and “John” and “Zechariah” in v2 & “Isaiah” in v4 & “Jesus” in v21 & “Matthat” in v24 & “Mattathias” in v25. 1x in NT. From Hebrew – likely from Elyhow’eynay (Elihoenai, Elionai, “toward the Lord (are) my eyes”); {from El (God, a god) + YHVH (see note XXI above)} OR from Hebrew asal (to approximate) + Yah (see note XXI above). This is Hesli, meaning “toward the Lord (are my eyes” or “reserved” or “approximation of the Lord” or “reserved by the Lord.” See
CLXXVI “Naggai” = Naggai. 1x in NT. Probably Hebrew akin to Nogah (Nogah); from nagah (to shine – root may mean to glitter). This is Naagai, Nangae, or maybe Nogach. It means “shining” or “my brightness” or “illuminated by the Lord.” See

26 son of Maath,CLXXVII son of Mattathias, son of Semein,CLXXVIII son of Josech,CLXXIX son of Joda,CLXXX 

Notes on verse 26

CLXXVII “Maath” = Maath. 1x in NT. Probably from Hebrew – perhaps from maat (to be small). This is Maath, perhaps meaning “small.” See
CLXXVIII “Semein” = Semein. 1x in NT. From Hebrew Shimi (Shimi, Shimei, Shimeah, meaning “famous”); from shema (something that is heart like a report, speech, fame, rumor, or fame); from shama (hear, call, consent, or consider; implies listening intelligently, giving attention; obedience and action are often implied). This is Semein, Semei, perhaps Shimi. It means “renown” or “famous.” See
CLXXIX “Josech” = Iosech. 1x in NT. Of uncertain derivation. This is Iosech or Josech.
CLXXX “Joda” = Iouda. Related to “Judea” in v5. 8x in NT. From the same as Ioudas (Judah, Judas); from Hebrew Yehudah (see note IX above). This is Judah, Judas, or Jude. It means “praised.”

27 son of Joanan,CLXXXI son of Rhesa,CLXXXII son of Zerubbabel,CLXXXIII son of Shealtiel,CLXXXIV son of Neri,CLXXXV 

Notes on verse 27

CLXXXI “Joanan” = Ioannas. Related to “Annas” and “John” in v2. 1x in NT. From Ioanan (Joanan); from Hebrew Yochanan/Yehochanan (see note XXVI above). This is Joannas or Joanan, meaning “the Lord has been gracious.”
CLXXXII “Rhesa” = Rhesa. Related to “Annas” and “John” and “Zechariah” in v2 & “Isaiah” in v4 & “Jesus” in v21 & “Matthat” in v24 & “Mattathias” and “Esli” in v25. Perhaps from Hebrew Rephayah (Rephaiah, “the Lord has cured”); {from rapha (properly, to repair by stitching – figuratively to heal or cure; to make whole) + Yah (see note XXI above)} OR from rosh (head, chief, leader). This is Rhesa, perhaps from Rephaajah. It means “the Lord has cured” or “pinnacle” or “disenfranchised” or “head” or “relieved of social burdens.” See
CLXXXIII “Zerubbabel” = Zorobabel. Related to “Abilene” in v1. 3x in NT. From Hebrew Zerubbabel (Zerubbabel, meaning “begotten in Babylon” or “descended of Babylon”); {perhaps from zarab (to burn, flow away) + babel (Babylon or Babel); {perhaps from balal (to anoint, mix, overflow)} OR from Akkadian Bbilim; perhaps from earlier Sumerian name Ca-dimirra (gate of god)}}. This is Zerubbabel, meaning “begotten in Babylon” or “descended of Babylon. This is Zerubabbel or Zorobabel, meaning “begotten in Babylon” or “descended of Babylon.” See
CLXXXIV “Sheathiel” = Salathiel. Related to “Esli” in v25. 3x in NT. From Hebrew shealtiel (Shealtiel, meaning “I have asked of God); {from shaal (to ask, inquire, beg, borrow, desire, request; can also mean demand) + el (see note CLXXV above)}. This is Shealthiel or Salathiel, meaning “I have asked of God.”
CLXXXV “Neri” = Neri. Related to “Annas” and “John” and “Zechariah” in v2 & “Isaiah” in v4 & “Jesus” in v21 & “Matthat” in v24 & “Mattathias” in v25 & and “Esli” in v25 & “Rhesa” in v27. 1x in NT. From Hebrew Neriyyah or Neriyyahu (Neriah, Neriyyah, or Nariyyahu); {from ner (properly, to glisten; a lamp, light, burner, candle; light literal or figurative) + Yah (see note XXI above)}. This is Neri, likely from Nerijah. It means “lamp of the Lord” or “light of the Lord” or “the Lord is a lamp” or “my lamp” or “bright.” See &

28 son of Melchi, son of Addi,CLXXXVI son of Cosam,CLXXXVII son of Elmadam,CLXXXVIII son of Er,CLXXXIX 

Notes on verse 28

CLXXXVI “Addi” = Addi. 1x in NT. Probably from Hebrew adi (decoration, beauty, jewels, ornaments, an outfit, something excellent); from adah (adorning oneself with ornaments, decorate). This is Addi.
CLXXXVII “Cosam” = Kosam. 1x in NT. From Hebrew related to qasam (to conjure, divine, be a soothsayer; to determine something using lots or magical scrolls); perhaps from qesem (a lot, oracle, divination, witchcraft, or a divine decision). This is Coasm or Kosam.
CLXXXVIII “Elmadam” = Elmadam. Related to “Esli” in v25 & “Sheathiel” in v27. 1x in NT. From Hebrew – maybe Almodad (Almodad); {perhaps from el (see note CLXXV above) + meh (what?) + madad (to measure) or dod (beloved, uncle}) OR from el (see above) + dam (blood). This is Elmadam, meaning “God of blood” or “immeasurable” or “God is loved” or “who does God love?” See
CLXXXIX “Er” = Er. 1x in NT. From Hebrew Er (Er, meaning “watchful,” “city,” “watcher,” “aroused,” or “wild ass”); from ur (to raise up, wake up, lift oneself up; to awake in a literal or figurative sense) OR from arar (to strip and amass). This is Er, meaning “watchful,” “city,” “watcher,” “aroused,” or “wild ass.” See

29 son of Joshua,CXC son of Eliezer,CXCI son of Jorim,CXCII son of Matthat, son of Levi, 

Notes on verse 29

CXC “Joshua” = Iesous. Same as “Jesus” in v21. See note CLII above.
CXCI “Eliezer” = Eliezer. Related to “Esli” in v25 & “Shealthiel” in v27 & “Elmadam” in v28. 1x in NT. From Hebrew Eliezer (Eliezer; “God is help” or “God of help”); {from El (see note CLXXV above) + ezer (help, aid, helper); {from azar (to help, protect, support, ally; properly, to surround so as to provide aid)}}. This is Eliezer, meaning “God is help” or “God of help.” See
CXCII “Jorim” = Iorim. Related to “Annas” and “John” and “Zechariah” in v2 & “Isaiah” in v4 & “Jesus” in v21 & “Matthat” in v24 & “Mattathias” iand “Esli” in v25 & “Rhesa” in v27 and “Neri” in v27 & “Abraham” in v8. 1x in NT Perhaps from Ioram (Joram, Jehoram); from Hebrew Yoram (Joram); from the same as Yehoram (Jehoram; “the Lord is exalted”); {from YHVH (see note XXI above) + rum (see note LXXX above)}. This is Jorim, meaning. “the Lord is exalted.” See

30 son of Simeon,CXCIII son of Judah,CXCIV son of Joseph, son of Jonam,CXCV son of Eliakim,CXCVI 

Notes on verse 30

CXCIII “Simeon” = Sumeon. Related to “Semein” in v26. 7x in NT. From Hebrew Shimon (Simon – Jacob’s son and his tribe); from shama (CLXXVIII). This is Simeon, Symeon, or Simon. It is a personal name as well as the tribe Simeon. It means “he who hears.”
CXCIV “Judah” = Iouda. Same as “Joda” in v26. See note CLXXX above.
CXCV “Jonam” = Ionam. Related to “Annas” and “John” in v2 & “Joanan” in v27 & “Zechariah” in v2 & “Isaiah” in v4 & “Jesus” in v21 & “Matthat” in v24 & “Mattathias” in v25 & and “Esli” in v25 & “Rhesa” in v27 and “Neri” in v27& “Jorim” in v29. 1x in NT. Perhaps from Ioannes (see note XXVI above) OR from Ioanas (Jonah, Jonas); {from Hebrew Yonah (Jonah, Yonah, meaning “dove”): from yonah (dove or pigeon; used to refer to the exiles coming home, to describe sails of ships; also figuratively for mourning or as a description of beauty); perhaps from yayin (wine; root means to effervesce)}. This is Jonan or Jonam, meaning “he will be gracious” or “the Lord is gracious” or “dove.” See
CXCVI “Eliakim” = Eliakim. Related to “Esli” in v25 & “Sheathiel” in v27 & “Elmadam” in v28 & “Eliezer” in v29. 3x in NT. From Hebrew Elyaqim (Eliakim, “God sets up”); {from El (see note CLXXV above) + qum (to arise, stand, accomplish, establish, abide; rising against, getting up after being sick or asleep, arising from one state to another, becoming powerful, or rising for action; standing in a figurative sense)}. This is Eliakim, “God sets up” or “God will establish” or “whom God sets up.” See

31 son of Melea,CXCVII son of Menna,CXCVIII son of Mattatha,CXCIX son of Nathan,CC son of David,CCI 

Notes on verse 31

CXCVII “Melea” = Melea. 1x in NT. Perhaps from Hebrew male (to be full). This is Melea or Meleas, which may mean “fullness” or “fulfillment.” See
CXCVIII “Menna” = Mainan. 1x in NT. From Hebrew Menna (Menna). This is Maian or Menna.
CXCIX “Mattatha” = Mattatha. Related to “Annas” and “John” and “Zechariah” in v2 & “Isaiah” in v4 & “Jesus” in v21 & “Matthat” in v24 & “Mattathias” and “Esli” in v25 & “Rhesa” and “Neri” in v27& “Jorim” in v29 & “Jonam” in v30. 1x in NT. From Hebrew Mattattah (Mattattah, perhaps “gift of the Lord); [from mattath (see note CLXVIII)} + Yah (see note XXI above) OTR from Mattithyah (see note CLXVIII above) + Yah (see above) OR from Mattathias (see note CLXVIII above). This is Mattatha, meaning “gift of the Lord.” See
CC “Nathan” = Natham. Related to “Matthat” in v24 & “Mattathias” in v25 & “Mattatha” in v31. 1x in NT. From Hebrew Nathan (Nathan; “given” or “[God] gives”); from natan (see note CLXVIII above). This is Nathan or Natham.
CCI “David” = Dauid. Perhaps related to “Elmadam” in v28. From Hebrew David (David); from the same as dod (see note CLXXXVIII above); the root may mean to boil, which is used figuratively to describe love. So, this implies someone you love such as a friend, a lover, or a close family member like an uncle. David’s name likely means something like “beloved one.”

32 son of Jesse,CCII son of Obed,CCIII son of Boaz,CCIV son of Sala,CCV son of Nahshon,CCVI 

Notes on verse 32

CCII “Jesse” = Iessai. 5x in NT. From Hebrew yishay (Jesse); perhaps from the same as yesh (being, existence, substance). This is Jesse, perhaps meaning “God exists.” See
CCIII “Obed” = Obed. 3x in NT. From Hebrew Obed (Obed, “worshiper,” “serving,” “servant,” “slave); from abad (to work, serve, compel; any kind of work; used causatively, can mean to enslave or keep in bondage) + Edom (Edom or Idumaea); {from adom (to be red or flushed)}. This is Obed, a name meaning “worshiper” or “serving” or “servant” or “slave.” See
CCIV “Boaz” = Boos. 3x in NT. From Hebrew Boaz (Boaz, “quickness”; also a pillar of the temple). This is Boaz, a name meaning “quickness.”
CCV “Sala” = Sala. 2x in NT. From Hebrew Shelach (Shelah, Shalch, or Salah; “sent out” or “branch” or “javelin” or “request”); from shalach (to send, send for, forsake, give a slave freedom) OR from the same as shelach (a weapon, spear, defense, plant, shoot, branch, missile); from shalach (see above). This is Sala or Shelah, a name meaning “sent out” or “branch” or “javelin” or “request.” See
CCVI “Nahshon” = Naasson. 3x in NT. From Hebrew Nachshon (Nachshon, meaning “enchanter”); from the same as nachash (to practice divination, learn by experience; to hiss as in whispering a spell). This is Nahshon or Naasson, meaning “enchanter.”

33 son of Amminadab,CCVII son of Admin,CCVIII son of Arni,CCIX son of Hezron,CCX son of Perez,CCXI son of Judah, 

Notes on verse 33

CCVII “Amminadab” = Aminadab. 3x in NT. From Hebrew amminadab (Ammniadab, meaning “my kin is noble”); {from im (with, alike, near); {from amam (to darken, associate, hide)} + nadib (noble, generous, willing, voluntary); {from nadab (to offer willingly, volunteer)}}. This is Amminadab, meaning “my kin is noble.”
CCVIII “Admin” = Aram. Related to “Abraham” in v8 & “Jorim” in v29. 4x in NT. From Hebrew ram (Ram, meaning “high”); from rum (see note LXXX above). Ram or Aram, a name meaning “high.”
CCIX “Arni” = Aram. Sam as “Admin” in v33. See note CCVIII above.
CCX “Hezron” = Hesrom. 3x in NT. From Hebrew chetsron (Hezron; person and a place); from the same as chatser (village, settlement). This is Hezron or Esrom, meaning “village.”
CCXI “Perez” = Phares. 3x in NT. From Hebrew perets (a breach or a gap; a break, literal or figurative); from parats (to make a breach, burst out, compel, disperse; to break out literally or figuratively). This is Perez, meaning “breach.”

34 son of Jacob,CCXII son of Isaac,CCXIII son of Abraham, son of Terah,CCXIV son of Nahor,CCXV 

Notes on verse 34

CCXII “Jacob” = Iakob. From Hebrew Yaaqob (Jacob); from the same as aqeb (heel, hind part, hoof, rear guard of an army, one who lies in wait, usurper). This is James, meaning heel grabber or usurper.
CCXIII “Isaac” = Isaak. From Hebrew yitschaq (Isaac, “he laughs”); from tsachaq (to laugh, mock, play, make sport; this is laughing out loud whether in joy or in a scornful way). Isaac, meaning “he laughs.”
CCXIV “Terah” = Thara. 1x in NT. From Hebrew Terach (Terah, Terach; perhaps “delay” or “wanderer” or “global spirit”); perhaps from tarah (to turn, wander) OR from tor (dove) + ruach (breath, wind, air, cool, spirit; wind, which resembles the breath; figuratively, life itself or being frail/mortal/impermanent; air of the sky or the spirit). This is Terah or Thara, perhaps meaning “delay” or “wanderer” or global spirit.” See
CCXV “Nahor” = Nachor. 1x in NT. From Hebrew Nachor (Nachor or Nahor, “snorer”). This is Nahor, meaning “snorer.”

35 son of Serug,CCXVI son of Reu,CCXVII son of Peleg,CCXVIII son of Eber,CCXIX son of Shelah,CCXX 

Notes on verse 35

CCXVI “Serug” = Sarouch. 1x in NT. From Hebrew Serug (Serug; “tendril”); from sarag (to twine together, wrap). This is Serug or Saruch, meaning “tendril.”
CCXVII “Reu” = Rhagau. 1x in NT. From Hebrew R’uw (Reu; “friend”); from rei (pasture, pasture fed); from raah (to graze, tend a flock, keep company with; to pasture in a literal or figurative sense). This is Reu or Ragau, meaning “friend.”
CCXVIII “Peleg” = Phalek. 1x in NT. From Hebrew Peleg (Peleg, “earthquake” or “division”); from palag (to split or divide in a literal or figurative sense; to confound). This is Peleg or Pahlek, meaning “earthquake” or “division.”
CCXIX “Eber” = Eber. 1x in NT. From Hebrew Eber (Eber, “region beyond”); from the same as eber (the region beyond, passage, quarter, opposite side; generally the east); from abar (to pass over, pass through, or pass by; cross over or to alienate; used for transitions). This is Eber or Heber, meaning “region beyond.”
CCXX “Shelah” = Sala. Same as “Sala” in v32. See note CCV above.

36 son of Cainan,CCXXI son of Arphaxad,CCXXII son of Shem,CCXXIII son of Noah,CCXXIV son of Lamech,CCXXV 

Notes on verse 36

CCXXI “Cainan” = Kainam. 2x in NT. From Hebrew Qenan (Qenan, Kenan, or Cainan, “fixed”); from the same as qayin (spear); {from qun (to chant a lament, to play a musical note)} OR from the same as qen (a nest, room, dwelling, nestlings); {from qaanan (to nest, nestle – to make or be in a nest)}. This is Cainan or Kenan, meaning “fixed.”
CCXXII “Arphaxad” = Arphaxad. 1x in NT. From Hebrew Arpakshad (Arpachshad – a name of foreign origin, meaning unclear). This is Arphaxad, a name of foreign origin whose meaning is not clear.
CCXXIII “Shem” = Sem. 1x in NT. From Hebrew Shem (Shem, meaning “name”); from the same as shem (name, fame, renown; indicates something essential about a person –about their individuality; can also mean honor, authority, or character); perhaps from sum (to put, place, set). This is Shem, meaning “name.”
CCXXIV “Noah” = Noe. 8x in NT. From Hebrew nuach (to rest, calm, camp, free, place, remain, satisfy, settle, station, or wait; implies settling down in a literal or figurative sense). This is Noah, meaning “rest.”
CCXXV “Lamech” = Lamech. 1x in NT. From Hebrew Lemek (Lamech, meaning “for lowering” or “for humiliation” or “strong man”); perhaps from l- (to, for, of) + muk or makak (be low, humiliate, go down) OR from an unknown root meaning to be robust. This is Lamech, meaning “for lowering” or “for humiliation” or “strong man.” See

37 son of Methuselah,CCXXVI son of Enoch,CCXXVII son of Jared,CCXXVIII son of Mahalaleel,CCXXIX son of Cainan, 

Notes on verse 37

CCXXVI “Methuselah” = Mathousala. Related to “Sala” in v32. 1x in NT. From Hebrew Methushelach (Methuselah, perhaps meaning “man of the dart); {perhaps from math (a man, associate, friend, number; an adult or mortal); {from mathay (when, how, length of time)} + shelach (see note CCV above}}. This is Methuselah, perhaps meaning “man of the dart.”
CCXXVII “Enoch” = Enoch. 3x in NT. From Hebrew Chanok (Enoch, Hanoch, likely means “initiated); from the same as chek (chamber or room that is private; can mean the innermost chamber of a house); probably from chanak (to narrow; to dedicate, initiate, train, or discipline). This is Enoch, perhaps meaning “initiated.”
CCXXVIII “Jared” = Iaret. Related to “Jordan” in v3. 1x in NT. From Hebrew Yered (Jared, Jered, Yered, a name meaning “descent”); from yarad (see note XXXIII above). This is Jared, meaning “descent.”
CCXXIX “Mahalaleel” = Maleleel. Related to “Esli” in v25 & “Shealthiel” in v27 & “Elmadam” in v28 & “Eliezer” in v29 & “Eliakim” in v30. 1x in NT. From Hebrew Mahalalel (Mahalalel; “praise of God”); from mahalal (praise, fame); {from halal (to praise, be boastful)} + el (see note CLXXV above). This is Mahalaleel or Maleleel, meaning “praise of God.”

38 son of Enos,CCXXX son of Seth,CCXXXI son of Adam,CCXXXII son of God.

Notes on verse 38

CCXXX “Enos” = Enos. 1x in NT. From Hebrew Enosh (Enosh, meaning “man”); perhaps from enosh (human, humankind, mortal); from anash (to be weak, sick, or frail).  This is Enos or Enosh, meaning “man.”
CCXXXI “Seth” = Seth. 1x in NT. From Hebrew Sheth (Seth, Sheth, meaning “put” or “substituted); from shith (to place, set, bring, appoint, consider, bring, array or look). This is Seth or Sheth, meaning “put” or “substituted.”
CCXXXII “Adam” = Adam. 9x in NT. From Hebrew Adam (Adam); from the same as adam (human, humankind, ruddy); from adam (to be red, red in the face). This is Adam.

Image credit: “Saint John the Baptist” by Master of the Harburger Altar, circa 1515. Photo by Thad Zajdowicz, 2018.

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