Luke 3:15-17, 21-22

Luke 3:15-17, 21-22
Baptism of the Lord C7


15 As the peopleA were filled with expectation,B and allC were questioningD

Notes on verse 15a

A “people” = laos. This is the people or crowd – often used for the chosen people. This is where the word “laity” comes from.
B “filled with expectation” = prosdokao. 16x in NT. From pros (at, to, toward, with) + dokeuo (to watch). This is to await, anticipate, expect, look for.
C “all” = pas. This is all or every.
D “questioning” = dialogizomai. 16x in NT. From dia (through, because of, across, thoroughly) + logizmai (to compute or reckon up, to count; figuratively, it is coming to a conclusion or decision using logic; taking an inventory in a literal or figurative sense); {from logos (word, statement, speech, analogy; here, word as an account or accounting; can also be a word that carries an idea or expresses a thought, a saying; a person with a message or reasoning laid out in words; by implication, a topic, line of reasoning, or a motive; can be used for a divine utterance or as Word – Christ); from lego (to speak, tell, mention)}. This is to consider, have a back and forth debate with an uncertain conclusion. It can be multiple confused minds reinforcing a faulty conclusion.

in their heartsE concerning John,F whether he might be the Messiah,G 

Notes on verse 15b

E “hearts” = kardia. Literally the heart, but figuratively mind, character, inner self, will, intention, thoughts, feelings. Also, the center of something. The word heart is only used figuratively in the Old and New Testaments. This is where “cardiac” comes from.
F “John” = Ioannes. From Hebrew yochanan (Johanan); from Yehochanan (“the Lord has been gracious”); {from YHVH (proper name of the God of Israel); {from havah (to become); from hayah (to be, exist, happen)} + chanan (beseech, show favor, be gracious; properly, to bend in kindness to someone with less status). This is John, meaning “the Lord has been gracious.”
G “Messiah” = Christos. From chrio (consecrate by anointing with oil; often done for prophets, priests, or kings). Literally, the anointed one, Christ. The Greek word for Messiah.

16 John answered all of them by saying,H “II baptizeJ you with water;K

Notes on verse 16a

H “saying” = lego. Related to “questioning” in v15. See note D above.
I {untranslated} = men. This is truly, indeed, even, in fact. Often, it is not translated, but used to emphasize affirmation.
J “baptize” = baptizo. From bapto (to dip or dye; to entirely cover with liquid, to stain). This is to submerge, wash, or immerse. Used specially for baptism.
K “water” = hudor. Perhaps from huetos (rain); from huo (to rain). This is water literal or figurative. It is one of the roots that “hydrogen” and “hydroelectric” come from.

but one who is more powerfulL than I is coming;M I am not worthyN to untieO

Notes on verse 16b

L “more powerful” = ischuros. From ischuo (to be strong, healthy and vigorous, able, have power, prevail; strength that engages a resisting force); from ischus (strength, might, power, force, ability; power that engages immediate resistance). This is strong – first of physical strength. Later, also used figuratively for forcible, powerful, mighty, vehement, or sure.
M “coming” = erchomai. This is to come or go.
N “worthy” = hikanos. From hikneomai (to reach, come to, attain). This is sufficient, suitable, adequate, competent, ample.
O “untie” = luo. This is to loose, release, or untie. Figuratively, it can mean to break, destroy, or annul. This is releasing what had been withheld.

the thongP of his sandals.Q He will baptize you with the HolyR SpiritS and fire.T 

Notes on verse 16c

P “thong” = himas. 4x in NT. Perhaps from the same as hama (at one, together with, early). This is a thong like a part of a sandal or a strap that is part of a scourge.
Q “sandals” = hupodema. 10x in NT. From hupodeo (to bind under wear on the feet); {from hupo (by, under, about, subordinate to) + deo (to tie, bind, fasten, impel, compel; to declare something against the law or prohibited)}. This is a sandal – something bound under the sole.
R “Holy” = hagios. From hagnos (holy, sacred, pure ethically, ritually, or ceremonially; prepared for worship, chaste, unadulterated, pure to the core; undefiled by sin; figurative for innocent, modest, perfect). God is totally different from humanity and thus set apart. That which is consecrated to worship God (elements of worship) or to serve God (as the saints) are holy because they are now set apart for God’s purposes. Holy because important to God. This is sacred physically, pure. It can be morally blameless or ceremonially consecrated.
S “Spirit” = Pneuma. From pneo (to blow, breath, breathe hard). This is wind, breath, or ghost. A breeze or a blast or air, a breath. Figuratively used for a spirit, the human soul or part of us that is rational. It is also used supernaturally for angels, demons, God, and the Holy Spirit. This is where pneumonia comes from.
T “fire” = pur. This is fire, lightning, heat from the sun. Figuratively, it can refer to strife or trials.

17 His winnowing fork is in his hand,U to clearV his threshing floorW

Notes on verse 17a

U “hand” = cheir. This is the hand in a literal sense. Figuratively, the hand is the means a person uses to accomplish things so it can also mean power, means, or instrument.
V “clear” = diakatharizo. 2x in NT. From dia (through, because of, across, thoroughly) + katharizo (to cleanse, make clean, purify, purge, or declare to be clean; includes cleansing in a literal, ritual, or spiritual sense); {from katharos (clean, clear, pure, unstained; clean in a literal, ritual, or spiritual sense; so, also guiltless, innocent or upright; something that is pure because it has been separated from the negative substance or aspect; spiritually clean because of God’s act of purifying)}. This is cleanse or purge thoroughly.
W “threshing floor” = halon. 2x in NT. From halos (threshing floor); probably from helisso (to roll up, coil, wrap). This is threshing floor as a place where grain and chaff are rolled.

and to gatherX the wheatY into his granary;Z but the chaffAA he will burnBB with unquenchableCC fire.”

Notes on verse 17b

X “gather” = sunago. From sun (with, together with, closely associated) + ago (to lead, bring, carry, guide, go, drive). This is to lead together and so to assemble, bring together, welcome with hospitality, or entertain. In the sense of assembly, this is the root of the word “synagogue.”
Y “wheat” = sitos. 15x in NT. This is used for any kind of grain that you can eat. It is usually wheat, but it can also be barley and other grains.
Z “granary” = apotheke. 6x in NT. From apotithemi (to put aside, put away, renounce); {from apo (from, away from) + tithemi (to put, place, set, fix, establish in a literal or figurative sense; properly, this is placing something in a passive or horizontal position)} This is somewhere that things are stored like a barn or repository.
AA “chaff” = achuron. 2x in NT. Perhaps from cheo (to shed). This is chaff.
BB “burn” = katakaio. 12x in NT. From kata (down, against, among) + kaio (to burn, light, kindle). This is to burn up – entirely consume.
CC “unquenchable” = asbestos. 4x in NT. From a (not, without) + sbestos (extinguished); {from sbennumi (to quench or extinguish in a literal or figurative sense; to suppress)}. This is not extinguished, unquenchable. It can imply continual. This is where the word “asbestos” comes from.

21 NowDD when allEE the people were baptized, and when JesusFF also

Notes on verse 21a

DD {untranslated} = ginomai. This is to come into being, to happen, become, be born. It can be to emerge from one state or condition to another or is coming into being with the sense of movement or growth.
EE “all” = hapas. Related to “all” in v15 & “thong” in v16. From hama (see note P above) + pas (see note C above) OR from a (with) + pas (see above). This is all; every part working together as a unit.
FF “Jesus” = Iesous. Related to “John” in v15. From Hebrew Yehoshua (Joshua, the Lord is salvation); {from YHVH (see note F above) + yasha (to deliver, defend, help, preserve, rescue; properly, to be open, wide or free, which implies being safe. So, in a causative sense, this is to free someone)}. This is Jesus or Joshua in Greek – the Lord saves or the Lord is salvation.

had been baptized and was praying,GG the heavenHH was opened,II 

Notes on verse 21b

GG “praying” = proseuchomai. From pros (advantageous for, at, toward) + euchomai (to wish, make a request, pray). This is to pray or pray for, to worship or supplicate. It is more literally exchanging one’s own wishes for God’s.
HH “heaven” = ouranos. May be related to oros (mountain, hill) with the notion of height. This is the air, the sky, the atmosphere, and heaven. It is the sky that is visible and the spiritual heaven where God dwells. Heaven implies happiness, power, and eternity.
II “opened” = anoigo. From ana (up, back, again, among, between, anew) + oigo (to open). This is to open in  literal or figurative sense.

22 and the Holy Spirit descendedJJ upon him in bodilyKK formLL like a dove.MM

Notes on verse 22a

JJ “descended” = katabaino. From kata (down, against, throughout, among) + baino (to walk, go). This is to come down whether from the sky to the ground or from higher ground to lower. It can be used in a literal or figurative sense.
KK “bodily” = somatikos. 2x in NT. From soma (body or flesh; body in a literal or figurative sense; the body of Christ); perhaps from sozo (to save, heal, rescue); from sos (safe, well, rescued). This is bodily or physical.
LL “form” = eidos. 5x in NT– including “Spirit descended upon him in bodily form like a dove” in Luke 3:22, at the Transfiguration, “the appearance of his face changed” in Luke 9:29; also “we walk by faith, not by sight” in 2 Corinthians 5:7. From eido (to be aware, see, know, remember, appreciate). This is form, shape, sight, appearance.
MM “dove” = peristera. 10x in NT. This is dove or pigeon.

And a voiceNN cameOO from heaven, “You are my Son,PP the Beloved;QQ with you I am well pleased.”RR 

Notes on verse 22b

NN “voice” = phone. Probably from phemi (to declare, say, use contrasts in speaking to shed light on one point of view); {from phao (to shine) or phaino (to bring light, cause to appear, shine, become visible or clear). This is a voice, sound, tone or noise. It can also be a language or dialect.
OO “came” = ginomai. Same as {untranslated} in v21. See note DD above.
PP “Son” = huios. This is son, descendant – a son whether natural born or adopted. It can be used figuratively for other forms of kinship.
QQ “Beloved” = agapetos. From agape (love, goodwill, benevolence; God’s divine love); from agapao (to love, take pleasure in, esteem; to prefer). This is Beloved or very dear one. It is a title for the Messiah, but also for Christians. Properly, this is one who personally experiences God’s love.
RR “am well pleased” = eudokeo. From eu (good, well, well done) + dokeo (to have an opinion, seem, appear, suppose; a personal judgment; to think); from dokos (opinion). This is to think well of, to be pleased or resolved. Properly, this is what someone finds good or acceptable – approving of some action or generally thinking well of.

Image credit: “Baptism of Christ” by Dave Zelenka, 2005.

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