Luke 4:1-13

Luke 4:1-13
Lent C15

Jesus,A fullB of the HolyC Spirit,D

Notes on verse 1a

A “Jesus” = Iesous. From Hebrew Yehoshua (Joshua, the Lord is salvation); {from YHVH (proper name of the God of Israel; the self-existent and eternal one); {from havah (to become) or from hayah (to come to pass, become, be)} + yasha (to deliver, defend, help, preserve, rescue; properly, to be open, wide or free, which implies being safe. So, in a causative sense, this is to free someone)}. This is Jesus or Joshua in Greek – the Lord saves or the Lord is salvation.
B “full” = pleres. 16x in NT. From pletho (to fill, accomplish, supply; to fill to maximum capacity). This is to be full, complete, abounding in, or occupied with.
C “Holy” = Hagios. From hagnos (holy, sacred, pure ethically, ritually, or ceremonially; prepared for worship, chaste, unadulterated, pure to the core; undefiled by sin; figurative for innocent, modest, perfect). God is totally different from humanity and thus set apart. That which is consecrated to worship God (elements of worship) or to serve God (as the saints) are holy because they are now set apart for God’s purposes. Holy because important to God. This is sacred physically, pure. It can be morally blameless or ceremonially consecrated.
D “Spirit” = Pneuma. From pneo (to blow, breath, breathe hard). This is wind, breath, or ghost. A breeze or a blast or air, a breath. Figuratively used for a spirit, the human soul or part of us that is rational. It is also used supernaturally for angels, demons, God, and the Holy Spirit. This is where pneumonia comes from.

returnedE from the JordanF and was ledG by the Spirit in the wilderness,H 

Notes on verse 1b

E “returned” = hupstrepho. From hupo (by, under, about) + strepho (to turn, change, turn back, be converted; to turn around completely to take the opposite path or a completely different one); {from trope (turning, shifting, a revolution; figuratively, a variation); from trepo (to turn)}. This is to turn back or behind in a literal or figurative sense.
F “Jordan” = Iordanes. 15x in NT. From Hebrew yarden (Jordan river, meaning “descending”); from yarad (to go down, descend; going down in a literal or figurative sense; going to the shore or a boundary, bringing down an enemy). This is the Jordan River, meaning “descending.”
G “led” = ago. This is lead, bring, carry, guide, drive, go.
H “wilderness” = eremos. Properly, a place that is not settled or farmed, not populated. It could be a deserted area or a desert place. It could be seen as secluded, solitary, or lonesome. Any kind of vegetation is sparse, but so are people generally.

where for fortyI daysJ he was temptedK by the devil.L

Notes on verse 2a

I “forty” = tessarakonta. From tessares (four). This is forty. It can symbolize a full period.
J “days” = hemera. Perhaps from hemai (to sit). This is day, time, or daybreak.
K “tempted” = peirazo. From peira (trial, experiment, attempt, experience, assaying); from the base of peran (over, beyond, across); akin to pera (on the far side); from a derivative of peiro (to pierce). This is to test, try, tempt, or make proof of. It is to test, scrutinize, or assay something. It could also be examine, entice, prove, or discipline.
L “devil” = diabolos. From diaballo (laying a charge against someone, generally with hostility; literally, to thrust through or cast back and forth– used for slandering, accusing, or gossiping; whether or not the sentiment is true, it is spread with negative intention); {from dia (through, across, because of, thoroughly) + ballo (to throw, cast, place, put, drop)}. This is a properly a slanderer or someone who accuses falsely – criticizing unfairly with the intent to cause harm or damage character. This can also mean backbiter or malicious gossip. Also, the Slanderer, the Devil.

He ateM nothing at all during those days, and when they were over,N he was famished.O 

Notes on verse 2b

M “ate” = phago. This is to eat or figuratively to consume like rust does.
N “were over” = sunteleo. 6x in NT. From sun (with, together with) + teleo (to complete, fulfill, accomplish, end); {from telos (an end, aim, purpose, completion, end goal, consummation, tax; going through the steps to complete a stage or phase and then moving on to the next one)}. This is to fulfill, accomplish, complete, bring to the desired result, to complete a goal literally or figuratively.
O “was famished” = peinao. From peina (hunger); related to penomai (working for a living; laborer, poor person; to work for daily bread); from peno (to toil to survive day by day). This is to hunger, be needy, or desire earnestly. It can be being famished in a definitive sense or in comparison to someone or something else. Figuratively, this means to crave.

The devil saidP to him, “If you areQ the SonR of God,S commandT this stoneU to becomeV a loaf of bread.”W 

Notes on verse 3

P “said” = eiron. This is to say, answer, command.
Q “are” = eimi. This is to be or exist.
R “Son” = Huios. This is son, descendant – a son whether natural born or adopted. It can be used figuratively for other forms of kinship.
S “God” = Theos. From Proto-Indo-European origins, meaning do, put, place. This is God or a god in general.
T “command” = eiron. Same as “said” in v3. See note P above.
U “stone” = lithos. This is stone in a literal or figurative sense.
V “become” = ginomai. This is to come into being, to happen, become, be born. It can be to emerge from one state or condition to another or is coming into being with the sense of movement or growth.
W “loaf of bread” = artos. Perhaps from airo (raise, take up, lift, remove). This is bread or a loaf. It is a loaf as raised.

4 Jesus answered him, “It is written,X ‘OneY does not liveZ by bread alone.’”AA, BB

Notes on verse 4

X “written” = grapho. This is to write or describe. It is where the word “graphic” comes from.
Y “one” = anthropos. Probably from aner (man, male, husband) + ops (eye, face); {from optanomai (to appear, be seen); perhaps from horao (become, seem, appear)}. This is human, humankind. Used for all genders.
Z “live” = zao. This is to live literally or figuratively. It is used for life including the vitality of humans, plants, and animals – it is life physical and spiritual and life everlasting.
AA “alone” = monos. Perhaps from meno (to stay, abide, wait, endure). This is alone, single, remaining, mere, desolate.
BB Some manuscripts add “but by every word of God” = alla + epi + pas + rhema + Theos. Pas is all or every.  Rhema is from rheo (to speak, command, make, say, speak of); from ereo (to all, say, speak of, tell; denotes ongoing speech). This is word, which implies a matter or thing spoken, a command, report, promise, thing, or business. Often used for narration, commands, or disputes. Theos is the same as “God” in v3. See note S above.

5 Then the devil led him upCC, DD and showedEE him in an instantFF

Notes on verse 5a

CC “led…up” = anago. Related to “led” in v1. From ana (up, again, back, among, anew) + ago (see note G above). This is to lead up, offer, set sail, bring out, depart, loose.
DD Some manuscripts add “to a high mountain” = eis + oros + hupselos. Oros is related to “loaf of bread” in v3. Perhaps from oro (to rise); perhaps akin to airo (see note W above). This is mountain or hill. Hupselos is 12x in NT – in Matthew’s and Luke’s Temptation story as well as Matthew and Mark’s Transfiguration accounts. From hupsos (height, high position, heaven, dignity, eminence; elevation, altitude; to be exalted); from hupsi (on high, aloft); from huper (over, above, beyond). This is high, lofty, or exalted. It can be lofty in elevation or in character.
EE “showed” = deiknumi. This is to show in a literal or figurative sense so it can be to teach, bring, or point out.
FF “instant” = stigme + chronos. Stigme is 1x in NT. From the same as stigma (a mark from a tattoo, a brand); from stizo (to prick). This is a point, a moment. Chronos is time in the chronological sense, quantitative time or a duration of time.

allGG the kingdomsHH of the world.II 

Notes on verse 5b

GG “all” = pas. Same as {untranslated} in v4. See note BB above.
HH “kingdoms” = basileia. From basileus (king, emperor, sovereign); probably from basis (step, hence foot; a pace); from baino (to walk, to go). This is kingdom, rule, authority, sovereignty, royalty, a realm.
II “world” = oikoumene. 15x in NT. From oikeo (to settle or be established somewhere in a permanent way, to make a home or live at home); from oikos (house – the building, the household, the family, descendants; the temple). This is the world – the part where people live. It was used specifically for the Roman world. It is the root of the word “ecumenic.”

6 And the devil said to him, “To you I will giveJJ their gloryKK and allLL this authority;MM

Notes on verse 6a

JJ “give” = didomi. To give, offer, place, bestow, deliver. This is give in a literal or figurative sense.
KK “glory” = doxa. From dokeo (to have an opinion, seem, appear, suppose; a personal judgment; to think); from dokos (opinion). This is literally something that evokes a good opinion – something that connects to our understanding of intrinsic worth. The ultimate expression of this is, of course, God and God’s manifestation. So, this is opinion, honor, and dignity, but also praise, glory, renown, and worship.
LL “all” = hapas. Related to {untranslated} in v4. From hama (at once, together with) + pas (see note BB above) OR from a (with) + pas (see note BB above). This is all; every part working together as a unit.
MM “authority” = exousia. Related to “are” in v3. From exesti (to be permitted or lawful); {from ek (out, out of) + eimi (see note Q above)}. This is power to act or weight. It especially denotes moral authority or influence. It can mean domain, liberty, freedom, capacity, mastery, right, force, or strength.

for it has been givenNN over to me, and I giveOO it to anyone I please.PP If you, then, will worshipQQ, RR me, it will all be yours.” 

Jesus answered him, “It is written,

‘Worship the LordSS your God,
    and serveTT onlyUU him.’”

Notes on verses 6b-8

NN “given” = paradidomi. Related to “give” in v6. From para (from beside, by) + didomi (see note JJ above). This is literally to hand over – hence to deliver, abandon, or betray. It implies a personal involvement.
OO “give” = didomi. Same as “give” in v6. See note JJ above.
PP “please” = thelo. This is to wish, desire, will, or intend. It is to choose or prefer in a literal or figurative sense. It can also mean inclined toward or take delight in. It can have a sense of being ready to act on the impulse in question.
QQ “worship” = proskuneo. From pros (advantageous for, at, to, toward, with) + kuneo (to kiss); {may be related to kuno (dog)}. This is to do reverence, kneel, to prostrate oneself in homage, to worship.
RR {untranslated} = enopios. Related to “one” in v4. From en (in, on, at, by, with) + ops (see note Y above). This is literally “in sight of.” It means before in a literal or figurative sense.
SS “Lord” = Kurios. From kuros (authority, supremacy). This is a respectful address meaning master or sir. It refers to one who has control or power greater than one’s own. So, it was also applied to God and Jesus as Master or Lord.
TT “serve” = latreuo. From latris (a hired servant; someone who is qualified to perform a technical task). Properly, this is giving good, technical service because qualified or equipped to do so. It can be serve, minister, worship, or give homage.
UU “only” = monos. Same as “alone” in v4. See note AA above.

Then the devil tookVV him to Jerusalem,WW and placedXX him on the pinnacleYY of the temple,ZZ saying to him, “If you are the Son of God, throwAAA yourself down from here, 

Notes on verse 9

VV “took” = ago. Same as “led” in v1. See note G above.
WW “Jerusalem” = Ierousalem. From Hebrew yerushalaim (probably foundation of peace); {from yarah (to throw, shoot, be stunned; to flow as water so figuratively to instruct or teach) + shalam (to make amends, to be complete or sound)}. This is Jerusalem, dwelling of peace.
XX “placed” = histemi. This is to stand, place, establish, appoint, stand ready, be steadfast.
YY “pinnacle” = pterugion– in Matthew’s and Luke’s temptation stories. Perhaps from pterux (wing, pinion); from pteron (feather, bird’s wing); from petomai (to fly). This is a little wing, so it includes things that are wing-like: battlement, extremity, apex, parapet, top corner, etc.
ZZ “temple” = hieron. From hieros (sacred, something sacred, temple, holy, set apart; something consecrated to a god). This is the word for temple.
AAA “throw” = ballo. Related to “devil” in v2. See note L above.

10 for it is written,

‘He will commandBBB his angelsCCC concerning you,
    to protectDDD you,’

Notes on verse 10

BBB “command” = entellomai. Related to “were over” in v2. 15x in NT. From en (in, on, at, by, with) + tellomai (to accomplish); {related to telos (see note N above)}. This is to charge or command – focuses on the final objective. So, this is looking at the final outcome of the command – how things will end up.
CCC “angels” = aggelos. Related to “led” in v1 & “led…up” in v5. Probably from ago (see note G above) + agele (flock, herd, drove); {also from ago (see note G above)}. This is angel or messenger. Properly, it is one sent with news or to perform a specific task. This messenger can be human or an angel from heaven. More commonly, it is used for angels in the New Testament.
DDD “protect” = diaphulasso. 1x in NT. From dia (through, because of, across, thoroughly) + phulasso (to guard something so that it doesn’t escape – to watch over it vigilantly; being on guard in a literal or figurative sense); {related to phulaks (military guard, sentry, watcher)}. This is to thoroughly guard or defend.

11 and

‘On their handsEEE they will bear you up,FFF
    so that you will not dashGGG your footHHH against a stone.’”

Notes on verse 11

EEE “hands” = cheir. This is the hand in a literal sense. Figuratively, the hand is the means a person uses to accomplish things so it can also mean power, means, or instrument.
FFF “bear…up” = airo. Related to “loaf of bread” in v3 & {untranslated} in v5. See note W above.
GGG “dash” = proskopto. 8x in NT. From pros (at, towards, for) + kopto (to cut, strike, cut off; beating the chest to lament and so to mourn). This is to kick against, stumble, strike, beat on, surge against like water does, or take offense. It is to trip up in a literal or figurative sense.
HHH “foot” = pous. This is foot in a literal or figurative sense.

12 Jesus answered him, “It is said, ‘Do not put the Lord your God to the test.’”III 13 When the devil had finishedJJJ everyKKK test,LLL he departedMMM from him until an opportune time.NNN

Notes on verses 12-13

III “put…to the test” = ekpeirazo. Related to “tempted” in v2. 4x in NT. From ek (from, from out of) + peirazo (see note K above). This is to tempt, try, or test.
JJJ “finished” = sunteleo. Same as “were over” in v2. See note N above.
KKK “every” = pas. Same as {untranslated} in v4. See note BB above.
LLL “test” = peirasmos. Related to “tempted” in v2 & “put…to the test” in v12. From peirazo (see note K above). This is a test as in an experiment or assaying. It is also trial, temptation, and discipline. Further, it could be used to mean calamity, affliction, or adversity more generally.
MMM “departed” = aphistemi. Related to “placed” in v9. 14x in NT. From apo (from, away from) + histemi (see note XX above). This is to remove, repel, refrain, depart from, foment a revolt, repel.
NNN “opportune time” = kairos. This is season, opportunity, occasion. The word chronos is used for chronological time. Kairos is used for spiritually significant time – the right time or appointed time.

Image credit: “Christ in the WIlderness” by Ivan Kramskoi, 1872.

You May Also Like

Leave a Reply